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not been a thug, like Prussia. It was characteristic of Germans that when Count Brockdorff-Rantzau replied, he remained seated, but the Austrian spokesman, Dr. Renner, stood as Clémenceau had done. It was a small thing, but a sure indication of the difference between the Prussian and the Austrian.12

The new Austria was smaller than her Czecho-Slovak and JugoSlav neighbors, and could offer no menace to them, still less to Italy, if left to do it alone. French opposition to any union of Austria with Germany-provided for in the treaty-probably had controlled the conference in making that provision. Care was taken that German Austria should have no army which could appear as a useful reinforcement to her neighbor in case of a new war. A clause in the German treaty obligated Germany to respect the independence of Austria as “inalienable, except by consent of the League of Nations." In this provision the way was left open for an ultimate reunion of Austria with the rest of the German States, if the Germans ever give any indications of having become trustworthy. The Austrian Empire proper had at the beginning of the war

area of nearly 116,000 square miles, with a population of nearly 30,000,000. What now remained as Austria had an area of 32,000 square miles, with a population of not much more than seven millions. Of Austria's lost kingdoms, crownlands and provinces, Bohemia, Moravia and a portion of Silesia had become component parts of the Czech republic; Galicia and the greater part of Silesia had become Polish; nearly one-half of the Tyrol and all of Istria had been added to Italy; portions of Carinthia and Styria, with all of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Carniola, had gone to the Jugo-Slav kingdom; Bukowina to Roumania, and Dalmatia had been lost to Italy or Jugo-Slavia, or to both. The new Austria emerged as a State with an area slightly less than that of Portugal and much less than that of New York State, and with a population larger than Portugal's only by a million and a half. Not even the fate which awaited Hungary, through a reduction by about one-half her area and population, was as tragic as the judgment which had come on that ancient empire of Central Europe.

Left entirely to herself, the new Austria could hardly have survived. Even an area of 30,000-odd square miles overstated the resources of a country which was more than half mountain-land. A population of seven millions could not furnish the economic background for a city like Vienna with a population of more than two millions. Necessity therefore pointed in the near future to the restoration of economic bonds with some of the States with which Austria had formerly lived in political union. The terri19 The Outlook and The Literary Digest (New York).

tories lost to Poland and Jugo-Slavia would be too closely assimilated to their new allegiance to make such an economic reunion feasible, but there still remained the new Czech State and reduced Hungary, both of whom still had need of Austria. Out of the ruins of the Hapsburg monarchy, therefore, the world might see emerge an economic group consisting of Austria, Czecho-Slovakia and Hungary, with an aggregate population of thirty millions. Beyond that was the further possibility of a Danubian Confederation comprising in addition Jugo-Slavia and Roumania, with an aggregate population surpassing that of the extinct Hapsburg monarchy. Upon such a confederation, at least in an economic sense, Entente opinion seemed inclined at the time to look with favor, as a means, for one thing, of weaning Austria away from à reunion with Germany toward which she might otherwise be compelled, but was forbidden to move by the terms of the treaty.13

Chancellor Karl Renner, head of the Austrian peace delegation, affixt his signature to the treaty on September 10th. His cheerful acceptance of it, after having frankly denounced it as impossible of acceptance, and the dignified good nature which he displayed throughout the ordeal, when he alone faced the Peace Conference and signed the document, excited the admiration of all the Allied delegates. A feeling of friendliness among Austria's former enemies was inspired by Dr. Renner's sportsmanlike conduct, and it augured well for Austria and was generally commented upon as giving assurance that Vienna, with its two millions of people, and four millions in the remaining parts of old Austria, which comprised the new Austrian Republic, might reasonably expect some amelioration of the treaty terms in the near future, if Austria should make an honest effort to live up to them. After the ceremony of signing was over, Dr. Renner, in the course of an interview, said:

“ Austria can not hate. It always respects the man with whom it has to fight. We are the conquered. Yet, misfortune has given us liberty; freed us from the yoke of a dynasty whence for three generations no man of worth has sprung; freed us from bonds with nations which were never in understanding with us, nor with themselves."

The Council of Ten of the Peace Conference received the Turkish Peace Mission in the Clock Hall of the Quai d'Orsay on June 17. 1919. The Turkish delegates, headed by Damad Ferid Pasha, wore conventional morning clothes and fezes. The meeting, which was secret, lasted an hour. M. Clémenceau reminded the Turkish delegates that the audience had been granted at their request so that 13 The Evening Post (New York).

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they might state their case. He added that upon receipt of the Grand Vizier's memorandum the Council would make a reply. The enemy status of the mission was emphasized by its entering and departing through different doors from those used by the members of the Council. The conference was held only for the purpose of learning Turkey's position. The Grand Vizier pleaded that the Turkish people were not to blame for the war. He urged that the empire be permitted to remain intact in both Europe and Asia, and promised to submit a memorandum to the Council on Friday. He said his country had been committed through secret agreements with the former German Emperor, against the wishes of the Turkish people, by the Committee of Union and Progress. He added that a German admiral actually declared Turkey in a state of war. He exonerated the Sultan from all responsibility for the war and urged that he be permitted to remain in Constantinople, saying that Asia Minor had been reduced to a desert by the war.

For the third time group of delegates, representing a people spotlessly innocent, appeared before the Peace Conference to maintain that wicked and unscrupulous persons had pushed them into the war when they were looking the other way. After the Germans and Austrians had come the Turks. Neither the Sultan nor his people had had anything to do with going to war; it was all due to a secret agreement between the Kaiser and the Committee of Union and Progress, supported by the naval guns of Admiral von Souchon. So the present Grand Vizier submitted an extraordinary appeal for mercy. It would be only fair to allow the Turkish Empire to remain intact-above all, to let the Sultan keep Constantinople, since “Asia Minor had been reduced to a desert by the war.” It was true that the Russians had got into one corner of Asia Minor, and a few French and British troops had camped for a few weeks on the Asiatic side of the Dardanelles, but otherwise, no troops had been in Asia Minor, except Germans and Turks. The Turkish delegates did not explain who reduced Armenia to a desert; who massacred thousands of Greeks and deported hundreds of thousands more; nor, as yet, had they offered any plausible reason why the Turks did not awake to the enormity of the conspiracy between their leaders and the Germans until Allenby had annihilated their armies, and Germany was plainly falling to ruin. That Turkey's entry into the war was due to a conspiracy between Enver and his group and the Germans was true enough, but the conscience of the Turk did not seem to have been affronted by the plot. Instead it gave him a chance to indulge in his national sport of killing Christians. In reply to the Turkish petition, Premier Clémenceau, in a note to the Sultan's chief representative, said:

[graphic]

AUSTRIAN PEACE DELEGATES LEAVING THE

ST. GERMAIN CHÂTEAU The head of the delegation, Chancellor Karl Renner, is walking in the center,

with two other delegates, each wearing a silk hat

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