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CHAPTER XIII THE Music OF SHAKSPERE's TIME—I .

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To show that music was very dear to the English of Shakspere's
time, and that the latter himself was particularly devoted to it

the popular love for music among the English much under-
estimated — development of the feeling in America - people in
all ranks of society in the sixteenth century either sang or
played upon some instrument — Henry VIII's personal taste for
music - Queen Elizabeth's musical achievements and Shak-
spere's allusion to them — “divisions” — evidence in The
Winter's Tale of musical knowledge among the lowest classes

universality of part-song intimated also in Twelfth Night -
base viols kept in the drawing-room for amusement of waiting
visitors — barber-shops had virginals in one corner nature of
the virginals — the cittern found in the same place— the latter
the most popular instrument of the time — important functions
of the barber — many musical similes in the poetry of the
period — Thomas Tusser's advice to choose tuneful servants —
distaste for music associated with dishonesty — music in the
education of young ladies — musical scenes from Taming of the
Shrew — several music-teachers to royalty who came to
timely ends — great number of ballads — Chaucer's testimony as
to English love of music — Langland's Plowman reproaches
the clergy for knowing no “mynstralcy”-interesting to
note that with all this love for music there has never been a great
English composer-

same conditions true of women — a hun-
dred and sixty-seven references to music in the plays, most of
which show Shakspere's passionate love for the art — instances
of his deep musical understanding in The Merchant of Venice
and Richard II— wonderful stories of the power of music in
ancient times — Saxo Grammaticus's tale of King Eric of Den-
mark and his harper - Rabbinical fable of Adam's soul — out-
line of next lecture.

un-

CHAPTER XIV

The Music Of SHAkspere's Time-II.

28

on

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story of Dr.

The music that Shakspere knew-"discant" — Pope Gregory
the Great and his antiphonarium, or collection of the Gregorian
chants — composers in Shakspere's time did not attempt to
originate new tunes, but treated old ones contrapuntally — great
age of many of the Gregorian chants — Bishop Ambrose of
Milan and his use of psalms and hymns as a means of consola-
tion — St. Augustine's pleasure in the Ambrosian chant
these hymns referred to by Pliny in the second century - the
world in possession of a stock of tunes as far back as the begin-
ning of our era, as shown by the Gospels — hymn sung by the
disciples on the evening of the Last Supper possibly used in the
churches to-day — some of our tunes probably much older than
the Christian era- - definition of discant from the old play of
Damon and Pythias Cuckoo Song the first English verse with
music attached discovered a monk's commonplace-
book in Harleian Library — slow progress of music in those
times -- analysis of Cuckoo Song as a typical song of Shakspere's
day this a “ canon in the unison with a burden” - many
varieties, such as motett, fugue, round, etc.—“prolation"
and division
extempore discant and

“ prick-
song" - origin of term “counterpoint” “plain song
“plain chant terms closely associated with this contrapuntal
music — rage for part-songs in sixteenth century
John Bull which illustrates this — religious objections to these
musical extravagances in the churches

the words a mere “pre-
tence for singing,” according to Dr. Burney—an old poem
upon the woes of a music pupil — impressment of children in
order to keep up the cathedral choirs Marbeck publishes
the Book of Common Praier Notes versification of Psalms by
Sternhold and Hopkins — Dr. Christopher Tye's versification
of the Acts — his retort to Queen Elizabeth — Clement Marot
and Theodore Beza versify the Psalms in French — Calvin has
the Psalms set to music - some forgotten composers who as-
sisted in this work — some of the psalm-tunes of secular origin

- Clown's remark in Winter's Tale about the Puritan who
“sings psalms to hornpipes" — mention of Green Sleeves
and the Hundredth Psalm in The Merry Wives of Windsor
the latter noble melody arranged by Claude Lejeune
other composers of sacred music - the most prominent forms
of secular music - derivations of the name and nature of the
madrigal - its great popularity — a typical madrigal by Thomas
Weelkes - first English ones written by William Bird — The
Triumphs of Oriana and its composers -- Sir Hugh Evans
and his comical use of Marlowe's Come live with me - the
catch and the round early forms of the Mother Goose
rimes in Shakspere's Taming of the Shrew Pammelia and
Deuteromelia nonsensical words to many of the catches
musical declamation different kinds of instrumental music-

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The treatment of domestic life to centre upon Shakspere himselt
- Stratford, the Warwickshire fields and lands, and Kenilworth
cover the whole of English life — Shakspere's models for his
characters all about him — special meaning of “gentlemen” in
those days — evidence in Midsummer Night's Dream that Shak-
spere had visited Kenilworth — striking events of the world's
history just previous to and during Shakspere's time — summary
of these notable events that make up the “outer life of the Re-
naissance," from the invention of printing in 1440 to the death
of Shakspere in 1616.

To give a ground-plan of the romance of Shakspere's youth for

which time is lacking the night visit of the Earl of Leicester's

man to John Shakspere, the glover — night work on the Earl's

gloves — young Shakspere starts out to deliver the parcel at

Long Ichington for the hunt - his lunch by the brookside

falls asleep over Wyatt's “And wilt thou leave me thus?”

Leicester's plans for the hunt - Queen Elizabeth rides off alone

and comes upon young Shakspere asleep --- she rallies Leicester

upon this new rival, and invites the boy to Kenilworth Robert

Laneham, the Queen's usher, and his letter to Master Hum-

phrey Martin on the pageant - probably the original of Don

Adriano de Armado in Love's Labour's Lost

this letter and its amusing portraiture of the writer

- the eat-

ables and drinkables consumed — detailed description of the

Queen's progress and reception—Gascoigne's account of the

Echo - Laneham's picture of the bear-baiting - the fireworks

- Arion, Triton, and the dolphin with music in his belly -

suggestions of Midsummer Night's Dream in all this - Shakspere

stops at the Warwick inn on his way home to see a play - the

passages from

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Last lecture dealt with several early founts of English humour

now to consider the more serious side of sixteenth-cen-
tury life — to look at the books, sermons, and tragedies common
at that time — the great debate about this time over plays and
play-going—severe acts of Parliament against strolling players

-Corporation of London expels players from the city
pected effect of this measure- the first English theatre building
a result - erection of “ The Theatre," "The Curtain," and
The Blackfriars” just outside the city limits — furious attack
of the clergy upon the stage — sermons against it by Wilcocks
and Stockwood William Prynne's Histriomastix and Rankin's
Mirrour of Monsters — Stephen Gosson and his Schoole of Abuse

- his own change of mind his inappropriate dedication to
Sidney — probability that young Shakspere read the Schoole of
Abuse - extracts from the book — its attack on poetry, music,
and the drama — his picture of theatre manners of the time -
his combative ending — a sample of Gosson's poetry — probable
effect of Gosson's tirade on young Will Shakspere — he goes to
London goes to Paul's Cross to hear the sermon Sunday morn-
ing—an apropos sermon of Hugh Latimer's, though he dates thirty
years earlier - Latimer's sermons before Edward VI — his
strength and sweetness of character-extracts from his sermons

text of his Good Friday sermon.

contemporary stage devices extract from Every Man in his
Humour representative plays of the time — Kyd's Spanish
Tragedy - Robert Greene and his abuse of Shakspere -- his
Groatsworth of Wit and its famous Aling at his rival — Chettle's
apology for his own part in this — Greene's influence on Shak-
spere — the first English comedy and tragedy - Nicholas Udall
and his Ralph Royster Doyster — its date — plot of the play and
extracts Anne Hathaway's escapade — possibly some such ad-
venture the original of the many female masqueraders in men's
clothes in Shakspere's plays — after a week Shakspere sees a
tragedy — Thomas Sackville, Lord Buckhurst — style and argu-
ment of his Gorboduc, the first English tragedy — the quaint
“ Domme Shew” that preceded it — extracts from the text.

PAGL

CHAPTER XIX THE DOCTORS OF SHAkspere's TIME

177

Cerimon pos-

The modern doctor and modern medicine really begin in these
spacious times of the great Elizabeth — importance of the phy-
sicians in any picture of modern society — connection between
music and physic in the sixteenth century Shakspere's por-
trayal of the ideal doctor, Cerimon, in Pericles
sibly drawn from Shakspere's son-in-law, Dr. John Hall — the
elder John Hall and his Historical Expostulation Against the
Beastly Abuses both of Chirurgery and Pbysyke in Oure Tyme
Dr. Hall's ideas of the true “ochirurgeon” —absurdities of his
Treatise on Anatomie — his account of several medical impostors:
Thomas Luffkin, “Mayster Wynkfelde," “one Nichols,"etc.

- Dr. Thomas Gale and his tale of the army surgeons — the
Doctor in Macbeth Macbeth's “throw physic to the dogs,”
and its parallel in Chaucer's Knight's Tale connection be-
tween doctor and apothecary — the Apothecary in Romeo and
Juliet - extracts from Heywood's The Four P's- the Poti-
cary in this interlude — his curious list of drugs - Shakspere's
strange silence regarding tobacco belief in its medicinal virtue
at this time- habit of smoking on the stage
trating this from Arber's Collections - Dr. Thomas Linacre,
founder of the College of Physicians — Italy the centre of med-
icine in 1480-esteem of foreign physicians in England -
lampoon on this in The Marriage of Wit and Wisdom — length
of medical course at this time — Harvey and his discovery of
the circulation of the blood — his dignity under the attacks of
his enemies — Dr. John Harvey and his touching death words.

- passages illus-

CHAPTER XX THE METRICAL Tests

I

203

Now to apply the theory of forms to the understanding of
Shakspere's character and verse — phenomena of tone-colour
reduce themselves to phenomena of rhythm— tone-colour, in fact,

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