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THE SEVENTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
A statesman of rare integrity, and a general of invincible skill and courage, was born at Waxhaw, Lancaster County, South Carolina, in 1767, and while yet a mere lad, did something toward achieving the independence of his country. It is said that he commenced his military career at the age of fourteen years, and was soon after taken prisoner, together with an elder brother. During his captivity, he was ordered by a British officer to perform some menial service, which he promptly refused, and for this refusal was verely wounded with the sword which the Englishman disgraced." He was educated for the bar, and commenced practice at Nashville, Tennessee, but relinquished his legal pursuits to "gain a name in arms." In the early part of the war of 1812, Congress, having voted to accept fifty thousand volunteers, General Jackson appealed to the militia of Tennessee, when twenty-five hundred enrolled their names, and presented themselves to Congress, with General Jackson at their head. They were accepted, and ordered to Natchez, to watch the operations of the British in lower Mississippi. Not long after, he received orders from headquarters to disband his men and send them to their homes. To obey, he foresaw, would be an act of great injustice to his command, and reflect disgrace on the country, and he resolved to disobey. He accordingly broke up his camp, and returned to Nashville, bringing all his sick with him, whose wants on the way he relieved with his private means, and there disbanded his troops in the midst of their homes.
He was soon called to the field once, more, and his commission marked out his course of duty on the field of Indian warfare. Here for years he labored, and fought, and diplomatized, with the most consummate wisdom and undaunted courage. It was about this time that the treaty of the Hickory Gound" occurred, which gave him the familiar sobriquet of "Old Hickory."
The crowning glory of his whole military career was the battle of New Orleans; which will ever occupy one of the brightest pages in American history.
At the close of the war he returned to his home in Nashville; but in 1818 was again called on by his country to render his military services in the expulsion of the Seminoles. His conduct during this campaign has been both bitterly condemned and highly applauded. An attempt in the House of Representatives to inflict a censure on the old hero for the irregularities of this campaign, after a long and bitter debate, was defeated by a large majority.
In 1828, and again in 1832, General Jackson was elected to fill the Presidential chair; thus occupying that elevated position for eight successive years. He then retired to his hospitable mansion ("the Hermitage"), near Nashville, "loaded with wealth and honors bravely won," where he continued to realize all the enjoyments that are inseparable from a well-spent life, until death translated him to those higher rewards, which "earth can neither give nor take away." He died June 8, 1845, and his last hours were soothed by a trustful reliance on the Savior of the world for salvation.
No. of Meators
from each State.
Election for the Eleventh Term, commencing March 4, 1829, and terminating March 3, 1833.
\PRESID'T. VICE PRESID’T
Andrew Jackson took the oath of office, as President, and entered upon his duties March 4, 1829.
John C. Calhoun took the oath of office, as Vice President, and presided in the Senate March 4, 1829.
A series of unfortunate political and social occurrences soon led to a rupture of that cordiality which had formerly existed between these two distinguished individuals, the consequences of which were peculiarly disastrous to the political aspirations of Mr. Calhoun, who was never afterwards regarded with much favor beyond the immediate limits of his own State.
NOTE.-It was during this administration that the doctrine of State's rights was so strongly urged by Calhoun, and to this period may be dated the origin of the great rebellion of 1801.
Election for the Twelfth Term, commencing March 4, 1833, and terminating March 3, 1837.
Andrew Jackson, re-elected President, took the oath of office, and continued his duties, March 4, 1833.
Martin Van Buren, having been elected Vice President, took the oath of office, and attended in the Senate, March 4, 1833.
Early in June, 1833, the President left Washington on a tour through the Northern States, and was everywhere received with an enthusiasm that evinced the cordial approval of his administration by the people. One of his first measures, on returning to the seat of government, was the removal of the public moneys from the United States Bank, for which act he encountered the most virulent hostility of a small majority of the Senate, who passed resolutions censuring his course. But this injustice has not been perpetuated; for on the 16th of January, 1837, these partisan resolutions were expunged from the records by order of a handsome majority.
MARTIN VAN BUREN,
THE EIGHTH PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES,
Was born in the flourishing town of Kinderhook, New York, September 5, 1782, and early received the best education that could then be obtained in the schools in his immediate vicinity. Having sufficiently prepared himself for the study of law, he entered the office of Francis Sylvester, in his native town, where he remained about six years. But law did not engross his whole time: he found leisure occasionally to peer into the mysteries of political economy, and finally arrived at the conclusion that his chances for fame and fortune were at least equal in the arena of politics to any thing he might accomplish by a strict adherence to legal pursuits. Fully impressed with this idea, he early set about cultivating what little popularity could be gained in his limited sphere, and so won upon the confidence of his neighbors and friends as to be appointed, while yet in his teens, a delegate to a convention in his native county, in which important political measures were to be acted upon.
In 1808, he was appointed Surrogate of Columbia County, the first public office he ever held; and in 1812 and 1816 he was elected to the State Senate, in which body he became a distinguished leader of the Madison party, and one of its most eloquent supporters.
In 1821, he was elected to the United States Senate, in which he held his seat for nearly eight years, and became remarkable not only for his close attention to business, but also for his devotion to the great principles of the Democratic party.
In 1828, he was elected Governor of his native State, and entered upon the duties of that office, on the first of January, 1829; but he filled the gubernatorial chair for only a few weeks. In March following, when General Jackson was elevated to the Presidency, he tendered Mr. Van Buren the post of Secretary of State, which was accepted. At the expiration of two years he resigned his seat in the Cabinet, and was immediately appointed minister to England; but when his nomination was submitted