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himself knew anything of the matter. As soon as Sir Roger was acquainted with it, finding that his servant's indiscretion proceeded wholly from affection and

good-will, he only told him that he had made him too 5 high a compliment; and when the fellow seemed to

think that could hardly be, added, with a more decisive look, that it was too great an honor for any man under a duke; but told him at the same time that it

might be altered with a very few touches, and that he 10 himself would be at the charge of it. Accordingly

they got a painter, by the Knight's directions, to add a pair of whiskers to the face, and by a little aggravation of the features to change it into the Saracen's

Head.° I should not have known this story had not 15 the inn-keeper, upon Sir Roger's alighting, told him

in my hearing, that his honor's head was brought back last night with the alterations that he had ordered to be made in it. Upon this, my friend, with his usual

cheerfulness, related the particulars above mentioned, 20 and ordered the head to be brought into the room. I

could not forbear discovering greater expressions of mirth than ordinary upon the appearance of this mon: strous face, under which, notwithstanding it was made

to frown and stare in a most extraordinary manner, 1 25 could still discover a distant resemblance of my old

friend. Sir Roger, upon seeing me laugh, desired me
to tell him truly if I thought it possible for people to
know him in that disguise. I at first kept my usual
silence; but upon the Knight's conjuring me to tell
him whether it was not still more like himself than a 5
Saracen, I composed my countenance in the best man-
ner I could, and replied that much might be said on
both sides.

These several adventures, with the Knight's behavior in them, gave me as pleasant a day as ever I 10 met with in any of my travels. XX. SIR ROGER AND PARTY SPIRITS 2.0 T22

Wathingtons My worthy friend Sir Roger, when we are talking of the malice of parties, very frequently tells us an accident that happened to him when he was a schoolboy, which was at a time when the feuds ran high be- 15 tween the Roundheads and Cavaliers. This worthy Knight, being then but a stripling, had occasion to inquire which was the way to St. Anne's Lane, upon which the person whom he spoke to, instead of answering his question, called him a young Popish cur, and 20 asked him who had made Anne a saint! The boy, being in some confusion, inquired of the next he met, which was the way to Anne's Lane; but was called a

it areal und

prick-eared cur for his pains, and instead of being shown the way, was told that she had been a saint before he was born, and would be one after he was

hanged. “Upon this,” says Sir Roger, “I did not 5 think fit to repeat the former question, but going into

every lane of the neighborhood, asked what they called the name of that lane." By which ingenious artifice he found out the place he inquired after, without giv

ing offence to any party. Sir Roger generally closes 10 this narrative with reflections on the mischief that

parties do in the country; how they spoil good neighborhood, and make honest gentlemen hate one another; besides that they manifestly tend to the prejudice of

the land-tax, and the destruction of the game. 55 There cannot a greater judgment befall a country

than such a dreadful spirit of division as rends a government into two distinct people, and makes them greater strangers and more averse to one another, than

if they were actually two different nations. The effects 20 of such a division are pernicious to the last degree, not

only with regard to those advantages which they give the common enemy, but to those private evils which they produce in the heart of almost every particularo

person. This influence is very fatal both to men's 25 morals and their understandings; it sinks the virtue of a nation, and not only so, but destroys even common


A furious party spirit, when it rages in its full violence, exerts itself in civil war and bloodshed; and when it is under its greatest restraints naturally hreaks out in falsehood, detraction, calumny, and a partial administration of justice. In a word, it fills a nation with spleen and rancor, and extinguishes all the seeds of good-nature, compassion, and humanity.

Plutarcho says, very finely, “that a man should not 10 allow himself to hate even his enemies, because," says he, “ if you indulge this passion in some occasions, it will rise of itself in others; if you hate your enemies, you will contract such a vicious habit of mind, as by degrees will break out upon those who are your friends, 15 or those who are indifferent to you.” I might here observe how admirably this precept of morality (which derives the malignity of hatred from the passion itself, and not from its object) answers to that great ruleo which was dictated to the world about an hundred 20 years before this philosopher wrote; but instead of that, I shall only take notice, with a real grief of heart, that the minds of many good men among us appear soured with party-principles, and alienated from one another in such a manner, as seems to me alto 25 gether inconsistent with the dictates either of reason or religion. Zeal for a public cause is apt to breed passions in the hearts of virtuous persons, to which the regard of their own private interest would never have betrayed them.

If this party spirit has so ill an effect on our morals, it has likewise a very great one upon our judgments. We often hear a poor insipid paper or pamphlet cried

up, and sometimes a noble piece depreciated, by those 10 who are of a different principle from the author. One

who is actuated by this spirit is almost under an incapacity of discerning either real blemishes or beauties. A man of merit in a different principle is like an object

seen in two different mediums, that appears crooked 15 or broken, however straight and entire it may be in itself. For this reason there is scarce a person of

any figure in England who does not go by two contrary characters, as opposite to one another as light and

darkness. Knowledge and learning suffer in a par20 ticular manner from this strange prejudice, which at

present prevails amongst all ranks and degrees in the British nation. As men formerly became eminent in learned societies by their parts and acquisitions, they

now distinguish themselves by the warmth and vio25 lence with which they espouse their respective parties

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