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for the people: made by the people: and answerable to the people.” It was not “the creature of State Legislatures”; it was "the independent offspring of popular will.” (Read the biography by S. W. McCall.)
88. Henry Clay. Born in Virginia, 1777. Died 1852. Various compromise measures devised by Clay helped for some years to postpone the conflict over slavery between the North and the South, which finally proved inevitable. Clay's most prominent characteristic was his love for the whole country. “He repeatedly declares in his letters that on crossing the ocean to serve in a foreign land every tie of party was forgotten, and he knew himself only as an American." Bancroft.
89. Abraham Lincoln. Born in Kentucky, 1809. Died 1865. The sixteenth President of the United States, 18611865 (period of the Civil War). (Refer to 1 49, 55, and 74.) After his election as President and just before the breaking out of the Civil War, Lincoln made a speech in which were these words: “In all trying positions in which I shall be placed, and doubtless I shall be placed in many such, my reliance will be placed upon you, the people of the United States; and I wish you to remember, now and forever, that it is your business, and not mine; that if the union of these states and the liberties shall be lost, it is but little to any one man of fifty-two years of age, but a great deal to the thirty millions of people who inhabit these United States, and to their posterity in all coming time. It is your business to rise up and preserve the Union and liberty for yourselves and not for me. I appeal to you again to constantly bear in mind that not with politicians, not with Presidents, not with office-seekers, but with you, is the question: Shall the Union and shall the liberties of this country be preserved to the latest generations?” Later he said — and the guiding spirit of his life appears in these words: “With malice toward none, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in.” (Read the biography by C. W. Moores, and the essays by Carl Schurz and Ralph Waldo Emerson.)
Soldiers and sailors.
90. Ulysses Simpson Grant. Born in Ohio, 1822. Died 1885. Eighteenth President of the United States, 1868-1876. He was the commanding general on the Union sidė (the North) in the Civil War. (Refer to 1 49.) His war career made him President. (Read the biography by W. Allen.)
91. David Glasgow Farragut. Born in Tennessee, 1801. Died 1870. He was the son of a Spaniard who emigrated to America in 1776 and fought with the colonists against the English in the War of the Revolution. He became a commander of Union naval forces in the Civil War and in reward for very brilliant services was made admiral of the navy in 1866. Here is a stirring message from Farragut:“As to being prepared for defeat, I certainly am not. Any man who is prepared for defeat would be half defeated before he commenced. I hope for success, shall do all in my power to secure it, and trust to God for the rest."
92. Robert Edward Lee. Born in Virginia, 1807. Died 1870. Son of an American general in the War of the Revolution. He became the leader of the Confederate (Southern) armies in the Civil War. (Refer to 1 49 and 65.) After the war, Lee became President of Washington College in Virginia. This college was named for George Washington, who had given it a sum of money.
After General Lee's death, the name was changed to Washington and Lee University, in recognition of Lee's services to the reunited country and to the cause of education in the South after the Civil War. (Refer to [ 49.) “Duty,” said Lee, “is the sublimest word in our language. Do your duty in all things. You cannot do more.
You should never wish to do less.” (Read the biography by J. G. and M. Hamilton.)
93. Daniel Boone. Born in Pennsylvania, 1735. Died 1820. A famous pioneer who through his explorations in Kentucky and Missouri (beginning in 1769) first made this region known to settlers from Virginia and other neighboring colonies. (Read the chapter upon Boone in Tappan's American Hero Stories.) His career was typical of the early days of our country.
94. Robert Fulton. Born in Pennsylvania, 1765. Died 1815. In 1797 Fulton experimented in France with a submarine torpedo boat. In America, in 1807, he produced the first successful steamboat, the Clermont. “To direct the genius and resources of our country to useful improvements, said Fulton, “to the sciences, the arts, education, the amendment of the public mind and morals, in such pursuits lie real honor and the nation's glory.”
95. Eli Whitney. Born in Massachusetts, 1765. Died 1825. In 1792 Whitney invented the cotton-gin, a machine to separate the seed from the cotton in the cotton boll. In twelve years, his invention made it possible to increase the amount of cotton exported from less than 200,000 pounds to more than 40,000,000 pounds. “What Peter the Great did to make Russia dominant, Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton-gin has more than equalled in its relation to the
power and the progress of the United States.” — Macaulay.
96. Samuel F. B. Morse. Born in Massachusetts, 1791. Died 1872. In 1837 Morse invented the electric telegraph and attempted without success to secure patents from England, France, and Russia. In 1844, the Congress of the United States voted him an appropriation, and the first telegraph line, between Baltimore and Washington, was put into successful operation. In 1858, representatives of Aus
tria, Belgium, France, Holland, Russia, Sweden, Turkey, and other countries united in conferring honors upon the inventor.
97. Elias Howe. Born in Massachusetts, 1819. Died 1867. About 1843 Howe commenced working out his ideas for a practical sewing machine. He overcame the obstacles of poverty, of failure to secure the backing of capitalists and of having his ideas stolen; but eventually he made a fortune from his invention, and received a gold medal and the cross of the Legion of Honor at the Paris Exposition of 1867.
Philanthropists and reformers.
98. Peter Cooper. Born in New York, 1791. Died 1883. He founded “Cooper Union,” an institution in New York City for the industrial education of working people. “Money and efforts expended for the general good,” said Cooper,
are a better paying investment than any possible expenditure for personal gratification." (Read the biography by R. W. Raymond.)
99. George Peabody. Born in Massachusetts, 1795. Died 1869. In America, Peabody established libraries and museums, and endowed schools and colleges. He aided particularly the cause of education in the South. “Looking forward beyond my stay on earth,” said he, “I see our country becoming richer and more powerful. But to make her prosperity more than superficial, her moral and intellectual development should keep pace with her material growth.” In England, he contributed large sums of money to the better housing of the poor.
100. Frances E. Willard. Born in New York, 1839. Died 1898. A temperance reformer, and an editor and author. The Woman's Christian Temperance Union is a monument to her activities. She was one of the organizers of the Prohibition Party. As a result of her efforts and the efforts of her associates and successors, public sentiment was so aroused as eventually to lead to the prohibition of intoxicating liquor in the entire country, through the 18th Amendment to the Constitution, ratified January 16, 1919. (Refer to page 70.)
101. Horace Mann. Born in Massachusetts, 1796. Died 1859. A leader in matters pertaining to education and charities. Notable among his writings are the Lectures upon Education, which have also been published in France. Mann said: “The common school is the greatest discovery ever made by man. It is supereminent in its universality. and in the timeliness of the aid it proffers. ...The common school can train up children on the elements of all good knowledge, and of virtue.”
(All of these authors are represented in the Riverside Literature Series, published by Houghton Mifflin Company.)
102. Washington Irving. Born in New York, 1783. Died 1859. An essayist upon English, Spanish, and American themes. (Read Rip Van Winkle.) He became minister to Spain, and was later attached to the legation in London. Other literary men who in later years represented the United States in various countries of Europe were Hawthorne and Lowell. (Read the biography by H. W. Boynton.)
103. James Fenimore Cooper. Born in New Jersey, 1789. Died 1851. An early American novelist. His historical romances reflect the spirit of the young American nation. (Read The Spy, The Prairie, The Last of the Mohicans, and The Pilot.) Cooper's work has been compared to Sir Walter Scott's.
104. William Cullen Bryant. Born in Massachusetts, 1794. Died 1878. For more than fifty years, Bryant was the most