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respect the rights of others; make a living at some useful work; support those dependent upon him; pay taxes; serve on the jury when called; vote intelligently at all town and city and State elections.

What does the community do for the citizen?

Local government in city or town protects and educates its citizens and gives them the means of recreation.

Protection. The city safeguards the health of its citizens by enacting food laws, sanitation laws, and “safety-first” measures. It also establishes hospitals and clinics.

It guards against fire through building laws, the warnings of the fire commissioner, and the maintenance of a fire department.

It protects its citizens against criminals through its police department. It also safeguards their rights through issuing regulations for street traffic, licenses for peddling, etc.

Education. The city educates its citizens by means of schools, elementary, high, evening, and continuation schools. It also establishes public libraries and museums.

Recreation. The city furnishes its citizens with means of health and recreation through parks, playgrounds, gymnasiums, bathing places, etc.

What is the chief executive of a city called?
What are the duties of a mayor?
Who is the mayor of this city?

Who may vote for mayor, or for commissioners, and for councilmen?

What are city ordinances, and who make them?
What is meant by the police court?
What are the duties of the police department of a city?
What is meant by the voting privilege in the United States?
What is registration?
What is a primary election?
What is a political party?
What is civil service?
Who only may take civil service examinations?
Who may attend public schools?
Who pays for the public schools?
Why should every citizen take part in civic affairs?

How may every citizen take part in the government of city or town or State or Nation?

Who is the governor of this State?
Who are the representatives of this State in Congress?

III. THE CITIZEN AND THE NATION

28. Watch-words.

Love your country and obey its laws. Porter.
The sum of individual character makes national character. · Mann.

The true defense of a nation lies in the moral qualities of its people. Mason.

We must treat each man on his worth and merits as a man. We must see that each is given a square deal, because he is entitled to no more and should receive no less. Roosevelt.

America, free, happy, and enlightened as she is, must rest the preservation of her rights and liberties upon the virtue, independence, justice, and sagacity of the people. If they fail, the Republic is gone. — Story.

May this immense temple of freedom (the United States) ever stand a lesson to oppressors, an example to the oppressed, a sanctuary for the rights of mankind! — Lafayette.

The American Republic was established by the united valor and wisdom of the lovers of liberty from all lands. Voorhees.

America means equality of opportunity for each individual, by his own effort, to work out his own happiness. Myers. The task of America is to preserve freedom for mankind.

Emerson.

29. Government in the United States.

Every country must have a government of some sort. Without a government there could be no laws, no preservation of order, and no protection of the individual in his rights.

In every land, life, liberty, and property must be protected by a regular form of government.

A republic is a country in which the people elect their own officers. The executive, legislative, and judicial powers are exercised by the representatives of the people elected by the people's votes. Under a republic the Government exists wholly for the benefit and protection of the people. The

United States, France, Switzerland, and the countries of South America are republics.

It is the duty of every citizen to vote and help select the men who represent him in our Government, for in this way it will be made sure that the rights of all the people are respected.

"It is the participation of numbers in the Government and not the name of republic as opposed to monarchy, that constitutes Liberty; it is, above all, the reign of laws; publicity in the administration as well as the tribunals; equality; the removal of all shackles on thought, on education and religion.” 1

“Every American is subject at the same time to both the State and National laws. If he lives in a city he is subject to a third set of laws commonly known as city ordinances. There is at times an apparent overlapping and even a conflict between these three systems of government. But at bottom there can be no serious confliet between them, and each has its part in promoting the life of the community and the individual. ...

“In a country where the Government is constantly referring its problems back to the citizens for decision by popular vote, it is especially important that every one make himself intelligent with regard to the character of the organization of the Government and also with regard to the issues which are being dealt with in the laws that are enacted. Especially is it important that every citizen understand that government and laws are only part of the community life. The broader principles of justice and order which lie back of the Government should be kept constantly in mind as the principles which must be more and more fully realized as governmental control expands and laws express more fully the best methods of dealing with community problems.” 2

1 Sismondi. 2 Lessons in Community and National Life, U.S. Bureau of Education.

30. A few of the services rendered by the National Government.

This list is suggestive, rather than complete. Its purpose is merely to point out some of the ways in which our Government serves our people day by day. 1. The weather reports and forecasts. These are of in

estimable value to farmers, sailors, and others.) 2. The postal service. (The mails, parcel post, — includ

ing rural free delivery, postal savings banks, and

postal money orders for use at home and abroad.) 3. The coinage of money. 4. The issue of "thrift stamps.” (A device to encourage

saving money.) 5. The issue of Liberty Bonds. (To encourage saving on

a larger scale.) 6. The granting of patents upon inventions, and of copy

rights upon books, works of art, etc. 7. The regulation of labor conditions. 8. The control of commerce between the States. 9. The civil service. (Under the rules of this service, any

citizen may take the educational and physical examinations preliminary to work in the employment of the

Government. Read | 24.) 10. The issue of passports to American citizens desiring to

travel abroad. 11. The protection of our citizens abroad through the sys

tem of consuls in foreign cities, and the higher diplomatic officers in all countries.

A Study of the Constitution

31. Our form of government.
What is the form of our government?

Our government is a republic, “a government of the people, by the people, and for the people.”

What are the chief differences between a republic and a monarchy ?

(1) In a republic the people elect their officers, including the president. In a monarchy, the man at the head of the government -- the king - holds his office by inherit

ance.

zens.

(2) In a republic the president does not control the making of laws. In a monarchy it is possible for the king to control the making of laws.

(3) In the United States, the right to vote may be given to all persons twenty-one years of age, and over, who have either been born within the country, or naturalized as citi

In a monarchy, the right to vote is usually given only to those who have certain educational or property qualifications.

(4) In the United States the representative law-making assemblies are elected by the people as a whole. In a monarchy the assemblies are controlled by certain classes of the population. In our times, however, monarchies are becoming more and more like republics, because the people are being given more and more power in the law-making assemblies. (Refer to 29.)

32. The National Government and the State Governments. 1

What is the Constitution of the United States ?

The Constitution of the United States is a written document that determines the organization of the Government, defines the authority and duties of each department of the Government, and guarantees to each citizen protection in the enjoyment of his individual rights. It is the supreme law of the land.

When and how was the Constitution adopted ?

The Constitution of the United States was drawn up by representatives of the original thirteen States, assembled in a Constitu

1 Paragraphs 32–37, inclusive, are in part based upon sections of The Citizenship Manual, published by the Detroit Board of Commerce.

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