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(1) The principles underlying Government in the United States: Para-

graphs 21, 22, 24, 31, 41, 52, 53, 54, 55, 74, 114, 117–124 inclusive,

129, 132.
(2) The duties and privileges of citizens: Paragraphs 17, 19, 20, 28, 30, 38,

75, 111, 124, 128.
(3) The simple facts of local, State, and National Government: Para-

graphs 25, 26, 32–37 inclusive.
(4) The details of the Constitution of the United States: Paragraphs 39,

40, 54.

(5) The history of the United States: Paragraphs 43–51 inclusive; 57–110

inclusive; 112, 125, 130–134 inclusive.

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Sixteenth President of the United States

(Refer to 1 49, 55, 75 and 89) The bronze statue in Lincoln Park, Chicago. This is the work of Augustus Saint-Gaudens, who, though born in Dublin of French and Irish parentage, was brought up in America and was distinctively an American sculptor





A Message to New Americans

I. Preparing for citizenship. In this book we shall study the organization of our government, and the work which it performs. We shall see that it is a representative government, that its welfare depends upon the interest which the citizens take in it. Do you not think, then, that every new American should be familiar with the history of our country, which abounds in glorious deeds and great achievements? Should you not also study our country's government and institutions, since you will one day help to carry on that government? Then, too, do you not wish to understand clearly the great ideals for which our Nation stands - the ideals which throw so much light upon our national development?

2. Self-reliance as a national characteristic. Foremost among the ideals which have characterized our national life is the spirit of self-reliance. The very first chapter of our national history records the story of a man who arose from among the toilers of his time, and whom eighteen years of disappointed hopes could not dismay - Christopher Columbus. This same spirit of self-reliance animated the little groups of colonists who preferred the unknown hardships of the new world to the certain tyranny of the old; who chose

1 Adapted from Preparing for Citizenship, by W. B. Guitteau. (Houghton Mifflin Company.)

to break old' ties, to brave the sea, to face the loneliness and perils of life in a strange land — a land of difficulties and dangers, but a land of liberty and opportunity.

If we follow these pioneers in our fancy, we see them clearing the unbroken wilderness, and dotting the clearings with homes and churches and schools. We understand, too, how inevitably the sturdy self-reliance of these early pioneers led to the revolt against the mother country. ... It was the issue of self-government and self-control that finally led the little group of colonies scattered along the Atlantic Coast to fight a war for independence.

Later chapters of our national history record the same story of sturdy self-reliance. When Great Britain struck at our commerce, we fought a second war for the freedom of the seas. When three powerful European monarchies united to crush the spirit of liberty in South America, our country announced the famous Monroe Doctrine, a declaration of Home Rule, that the American continents were henceforth to be ruled by the people of America. When Spain waged a cruel and useless conflict in Cuba, she was driven from the western hemisphere, and from the Philippines as well. Meantime our population has increased from three to over one hundred millions: instead of thirteen, forty-eight States are members of our Federal Union, and the feeble third-rate power of Jefferson's day has developed into one of the foremost nations of the world.

In order that our country may continue this proud record of self-reliance, each one of us has a special obligation. Every citizen in his individual life should live up to the same ideal of self-reliance. The citizen who relies on himself, who does honest work, never cheating or shirking, who is always ready to do a little more than is actually required of him, who thinks for himself, acts rightly because he loves right actions -- such a citizen is doing his part in helping to achieve our national ideal of self-reliance.

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