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among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration.

XVII. The Direct Election of Senators 1. The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures.

2. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies: Provided, that the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct.

3. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

XVIII. The Prohibition of Intoxicating Liquors! 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the transportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof, for beverage purposes, is hereby prohibited.

2. The Congress and several States have the concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

41. The American's Creed.

I BELIEVE in the United States of America as a government of the people, by the people, for the people, whose just powers are derived from the consent of the governed; a democracy in a republic, a sovereign nation of many sovereign States, a perfect Union, one and inseparable, established upon those principles of freedom, equality, justice, and humanity for which American patriots sacrificed their lives and fortunes.

1 This amendment will become effective January 16, 1920.

I therefore believe it is my duty to my country to love it, to support its constitution, to obey its laws, to respect its flag, and to defend it against all enemies.

William Tyler Page

42. Examination questions upon the National Government.1

What are some of the citizen's duties in national affairs? Every American should know what the Nation does for the citizen.

He should know what services the citizen is expected to render to the Nation.

He should serve the Nation in these ways: obey the laws of the United States and the State and local laws based upon them; vote intelligently at the election of the President, and of senators and representatives in Congress; take an interest in all the affairs of the United States Government; be prepared to fight in the Army or the Navy in time of war if called upon; know the customs and ideals of his country.

What is the Constitution of the United States?
Who made the Constitution of the United States?

How may the Constitution of the United States be amended (or changed)?

What is the capital city of the United States?
Where does Congress meet?
How is a United States senator elected?
How many United States senators are there?
Who
approves

the treaties made by the President?
How many representatives in Congress are there from this State?
How are United States representatives elected?
What is the chief executive of the United States called?

Who is the President of the United States? When was he elected?

Name some of the previous Presidents.
Who chooses the President of the United States? How often?

What qualifications does the United States Constitution say the President must have?

What are some of the powers of the President?
Can a naturalized citizen be President of the United States?

1 Teachers should read the explanation and suggestions regarding examination questions on page 27.

IV. AMERICAN HISTORY

America and the United States

Chapters in History

The reading of history is one of the best means of developing love of our country. The story of the struggles and sacrifices of American patriots from the earliest days to the present time will give every one a deeper pride in American institutions and a keener desire to do his share in perpetuating them.

We will tell the story in the briefest possible way, and will suggest that the following chapters be supplemented by reading in the books listed in | 131.

We will divide the history of America and the United States into the following sections:

How America was discovered. How America was colonized.

How the English won America. How the United States won Independence. — How the Republic of the 'United States was founded. — How the Nation grew. - How the Union was preserved. — How commerce and industries increased. — How the United States became a world power.

43. How America was discovered.

Who discovered America ?

Christopher Columbus, an Italian sailor in the employ of the King and Queen of Spain. He set out on a voyage in 1492 with the plan of reaching India and other wealthy countries of the Far East with which Spain was anxious to trade. His discovery of America was really an accident. When he reached one of the islands lying off the coast, Columbus thought he had reached India. This explains why he called the men he found living on this island by the name “Indians.” (Refer to | 62.)

The mainland of North America was reached in 1497 by John Cabot, another Italian sailor, who was in the service of England.

How did America get its name?

Amerigo Vespucci, still another Italian sailor, made a voyage to the “New World” in 1497-98. An account of this voyage by mistake stated that Amerigo was the discoverer of the new continent and gave it the name America.

44. How America was colonized.

What European countries have owned parts of what is now the United States ?

(1) Spain, (2) England, (3) France, (4) Holland, (5) Sweden, (6) Russia.

Upon what have they based their claims?

(1) Spain, through the discovery by Columbus and later explorers, gained control of South America, Mexico, Florida, and the land along the Gulf of Mexico. The first permanent white settlement made in the United States was founded by Spaniards at St. Augustine, Florida.

(2) England claimed the Atlantic seacoast of America by reason of its discovery by John Cabot. The first English settlement was at Jamestown, Virginia, in 1607. Another was made at Plymouth, Massachusetts, where the Pilgrims landed in 1620. (Read the Mayflower Compact, [ 52.) Later, English colonies were established at other points along the Atlantic Coast.

(3) French explorers discovered the St. Lawrence River, and traveled over the southern part of what is now Canada, and the valley of the Mississippi River. All this area they claimed for France. There were a few settlements made also on the Atlantic seacoast of what is now the United States.

(4) Holland's colonies were located along the Hudson

River. An English sea captain, Henry Hudson, while in the service of Holland, discovered the river which now bears his name.

This was the basis of the Dutch claim to territory in what is now New York State.

(5) Sweden established a colony in what is now the State of Delaware, but it was soon taken by the Dutch.

(6) Russia formerly owned the territory of Alaska, which the United States purchased in 1867. (Refer to [127.)

45. How the English won America.

A series of wars in which these European countries Spain, England, France, Holland, and Sweden - all became engaged, resulted in fighting between the colonies in America. In the end, England had won all the territory east of the Mississippi River, and the whole of Canada, while Spain held most of the territory west of the Mississippi, and Mexico. The other countries had been driven out of America. This was in 1763. (Russia had not yet entered Alaska.)

46. How the United States won Independence.

What was the War of the Revolution ? And why was it fought?

The American War of Independence or War of the Revolution – was fought between the thirteen united colonies and their mother country, England. It lasted from 1775 to 1783. The King of England had surrounded himself with corrupt and incompetent ministers, and his government not only of the colonies but of England itself was very unjust. The main principles for which the Americans fought were these: (1) That taxation without representation was wrong. (2) That trial by jury should not be suspended. (3) That selfgovernment was needed for the development of the industry and commerce of the colonies.

The colonies issued their Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776. (Refer to TT 53 and 60.) The war which fol

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