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1. The Hyphen (-) is used between syllables and between the parts of a compound word; as, No-ble, col-o-ny, and paper-mill, water-fall.

2. The Comma (,), the Semicolon (;), and the Colon () denote grammatical divisions.

NOTE. These marks do not indicate the comparative length of the pauses to be made where they occur.

3. The Period (.) is placed at the end of a sentence. It is also used after an abbreviation. As, God is love. Dr. Eben Goodwin.

4. The Interrogation point (?) denotes a question; as, Has he come? Who are you?

5. The Exclamation point (!) denotes strong feeling; as, Oh Absalom! my son! my son!

6. Quotation marks ("") denote the words of another; as, God said, "Let there be light."

7. The Apostrophe (') denotes that a letter or letters are left out; as, O'er, for over; 't is, for it is.

It also denotes the possessive case; as, John's hat.

8. The Curves () include what, if omitted, would not obscure the sense. The parenthesis, or words included by the curves, should be read in a low key, and with greater rapidity than the rest of the sentence.

9. Brackets [] include something intended to exemplify what goes before, or to supply some deficiency, or rectify some mistake.

10. A Dash (—) denotes a long or significant pause, or an abrupt change or transition in a sentence.

11. Marks of Ellipsis (***) indicate the omission of letters of a word, or words of a sentence; as, P****e J**n, for Prince John; the ******* was hung, for the traitor was hung.

Sometimes a long line, or a succession of dots is used instead of stars; as, J -s, for John Adams;

-n A

the D..e W....... . m, for the Duke William.


12. A Brace (}) is used to connect several lines or words together.

13. A Diæresis () is put over the latter of two vowels, to show that they belong to two distinct syllables; thus, coöperate.

14. A Section (S) is used to divide a discourse or chapter into parts.

15. An Index () points out something that requires particular attention.

16. A Paragraph (T) denotes a new subject. It is used in the common version of the Bible.

17. Certain marks (*, †, 4, 1, §,) and sometimes figures and letters are used to refer to some remark in the margin. 18. A Caret (^) is used in writing, to show that something is omitted; as,

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