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Carlyle, Lockhart, Ainsworth, Thackeray, Coleridge and Southey. An interesting point about Fraser's, as the list will show, is the juxtaposition of the new and old generations-Thackeray and Carlyle, for instance, with Coleridge and Southey. Maginn himself was a constant and energetic contributor. Fraser's did good service in stimulating literary production about the middle years of the century. In 1882 it changed its name to Longman's Magazine and its nature to a more "popular" standard.

Of the innumerable magazines since Fraser's we can mention only one or two. Chambers's Edinburgh Journal led the van of good weeklies in 1832. Charles Dickens made further improvements of a similar nature with his Household Words (1850) and All the Year Round (1859). Of monthlies, the Cornhill, founded 1860, had Thackeray for its first editor. The Cornhill was preceded a year by Macmillan's Magazine. Both cut down the magazine price about one half, and adopted the plan of signed articles and the use of well-known names. Matthew Arnold and the Kingsleys contributed to these periodicals. The Fortnightly Review (1865) remained a fortnightly for only one year; then joined the ranks of monthlies. It was founded upon the lines of the French Revue des Deux Mondes. The Contemporary Review (1866) and the Nineteenth Century (1877) are of a wide character, publishing contributions by men of note upon most questions

of the day. Famous in the more serious annals of weekly journalism is the Saturday Review (1855), which for many years retained the reputation of being "written by gentlemen for gentlemen," and occupied a leading place in criticism of literature and (to a lesser degree) politics. Unpolitical have been the Athenæum (1828) and the Academy (1869), weeklies both, and divided upon the question of signed articles-the latter for, the former against.

In America the making of periodicals began early, but it was long before any real success was achieved. Perhaps the first worthy example is found in the North American Review, established 1815. Other landmarks stand forth later on in the century. The Knickerbocker Magazine, published in New York between 1833 and 1860, commanded some of the best talent of the day and was very successful. The magazine, as distinguished from the review, found a high class exponent in Harper's New Monthly, which began its career in 1849. The Century Magazine (first called Scribner's) was established in 1870, and Scribner's Monthly in 1887. These three long represented the highest attainment of the illustrated magazine, and made a fine reputation for the combination of illustrative work with sound literary matter. In fact, as far as illustrations are concerned, it would be difficult indeed to find their superiors anywhere. The common danger with such maga

zines, however, is the constant risk of subordinating the author to the artist, of making the letter press exist only for the sake of the illustrations. This danger has been avoided in the Atlantic Monthly, founded 1857. It stands between the magazine and the review proper, and more than any American periodical has maintained a high standard of intellectual appeal. Its editors have been some of the most famous writers of the country, and its influence has always been on the side of culture. The general review has not reached in America the excellence of the English periodicals of this type. The Forum (1886) is the most dignified, but too political in tone. There are numerous "sectional " magazines, i. e. magazines which are devoted to the interests of certain parts of the country. Famous among these is The Overland Monthly (1861), of which Bret Harte was once chief editor, and which published much of his best work. The New England Magazine (1889) should also be mentioned in this connection. Nor should we forget the department of child-literature, ably served by St. Nicholas since 1873.

A remarkable feature in the growth of periodicals in America has been the coming of the good popular low-priced magazine. To the Cosmopolitan (1885) belongs the credit of inaugurating this movement in America; in England it had been anticipated by Fraser's in 1882, and by the Cornhill in 1883. Before 1892 the lowest price

for a magazine in America was twenty-five cents. In that year, however, the magazine called the Cosmopolitan cut down its price to fifteen cents; the result was an enormously increased demand. Then Munsey's Magazine (1886) improved upon the Cosmopolitan, publishing at ten cents, with equally good results. The consequence of such radical steps and their success is that there are but few really high-priced magazines in America. Another incidental result was the springing up of a great many five-cent magazines for the most part worthless and ephemeral, depending for their sale to a large extent upon sensational features.

A striking difference between the Press (in the broadest sense of the word) of England and America and that of Europe in general, is the acknowledgment throughout the English-speaking world of its absolute freedom. In all other countries this principle is not so fully recognized. Of course, the incidence of this point of view comes chiefly on the newspaper press. As regards scientific journals of all sorts, Germany leads the world; in no country has specialization been carried so far. But in her newspapers she falls behind England and America. An interesting example of the deadening influence of such government press supervision as obtains on the Continent is seen in the fact that the best German newspaper is printed and published in New York! It is called the New York Zeitung and

numbers among its contributors some of the most famous German authors.

Broadly speaking, the periodical which should combine literary excellence with typographical merit did not appear on the Continent until England and America had led the way. And nowhere on the Continent do we find the audacity and brilliancy of the Edinburgh Review, or Blackwood's. Following the plan of this book, we may first mention the periodicals of Germany. In the early part of the century periodicals were published at Leipzig, Heidelberg and Vienna. The Literaturzeitung (1813-16) and the Jahrbücher der Literatur (1818-48) were not unlike the Quarterly Review in their general features. They received government support. The political troubles of 1848-9 formed a line of cleavage in the periodical history of Germany; only three papers survived. In 1855 appeared the Hausblätter, published every two months, which became very successful. The Salon (1868) was modelled upon the English plan. Of later origin are the Literaturzeitung, founded at Jena in 1874; and the Deutsche Rundschau, of the same year, conducted upon the lines of the French Revue des Deux Mondes. The most prominent feature of German journalism is its specialization. Thus there are periodicals for almost every branch of knowledge: for Biography and Literature, Law, Political Economy, Medicine and Surgery, Natural Science, Philosophy, Oriental Literature, Architecture and Engineering, Theatres,

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