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newspaper, where he wrote some realistic studies of Parisian life. His force and originality soon won him a place in the public regard. His first novel was Contes à Ninon (1863). In 1867 he entered the field which he has since covered so thoroughly—the outspoken delineation of the seamy side of Parisian life. To gain the more adequate knowledge of his work, he was accustomed to put on a workman's blouse and visit in person the scenes of which he wrote. One outcome of this intimate knowledge of his was the famous “ Rougon-Macquart" series-a series of novels dealing with the fortunes of a Parisian family. His literary work led, in 1888, to his appointment to the Legion of Honor. Three years later he was made president of the French Society of Men of Letters. His aspirations towards the Academy have not yet been gratified-owing chiefly to the conservative views of its forty members. M. Zola made his first visit to England in 1893. During the last years of the century his writings have shown no decline of originality and power in the field that he has chosen. Nor has his popularity decreased, his recent works commanding a very large sale both in his own and other lands.

Whatever may be the opinion of M. Zola's work as regards its morality, there can be no doubt of its strength and its pitiless fidelity. His power of handling masses is very great and his effects are all of heroic proportion. His novels nearly all have a

central theme of some great social problem. L'A8sommoir deals with drink; L'Argent with money; The Downfall (1892) with the war of 1870; Lourdes (1894) with the Roman Catholic pilgrimages to the Pyrenean shrine of that name; Rome (1897) treats vividly of the Papal Court. Before writing the last-named book Zola paid a visit to Rome. His work is of wonderful versatility, and of a realistic quality which often is repulsive to English taste. There is little doubt, however, that he is sincere enough in his own theory of art. He has founded a school of strong realist writing. Whether the school will survive can only be decided by the test of time. Certain it is, however, that his numerous writings are very widely read and possess power as well as style. The great difference of critical opinion with regard to his proper place as an author precludes any definite utterance upon this point.

The work of M. ALPHONSE DAUDET is along lines similar to that of Zola. M. Daudet was born in the same year as his greater fellow. When only eighteen he published a volume of poetry--Les Amour. euses. He soon fell into journalistic work. In 1869 and 1868, respectively, appeared Lettres de mon Moulin and The Little Thing. The former was a collection of short tales ; the latter a pathetic little story founded upon his own childhood. The two were full of promise. Well known is his amusing Tartarin de Tarascon, which pictures the peculiarities of the Provençal character. M. Daudet laid himself open to the charge of imitation in such novels as Jack (1873) and Fromont Jeune et Risler Ainé (1874), where a strong resemblance may be traced to Dickens and Thackeray. Some of his later work takes the form of thinly-disguised satires of well-known persons, L'Immortel (1888) is directed against the members of the Academy. M. Daudet was laid aside by ill-health from his literary work for some years before his death in 1897.

GUY DE MAUPASSANT was a nephew of Flaubert. He was born, 1850, and died in 1893. He was most carefully trained by his uncle. His first work was a book of poetry called Des Vers (1880). Maupassant is best known by his brilliant short story work. His style is vigorous and incisive. During the de cade from 1880 to 1890 he wrote continually, issuing nearly twenty volumes of fiction stamped with his peculiar seal. Principal among his works may be mentioned A Life (1883), Pierre et Jean and BelAmi (1888), and Notre Cæur (1890). Towards 1891 his mind became unbalanced from overwork and the use of drugs. His life ended sadly, for he died in a private asylum. France suffered a great loss in his death.

“PIERRE LOTI,” sailor, author and academician, was born in the same year as De Maupassant. His real name is Julien Viaud. He entered the navy in 1867. His duties took him all over the world, and his imagination quickly responded to the stimulus thus received. His novels, mostly inspired by

the various places of his sojourn,“ have the dreamy, sensuous beauty of the lotus-flower, for which his comrades named him." On his admission to the Academy in 1892, he justified his election over M. Zola by a strong protest against realism. Some of his novels are ultra-sentimental. Among them may be mentioned Le Mariage de Loti, Madame Chrysanthême, The Island Fisherman.

Primarily a critic, the novelist rôle of M. PAUL BOURGET did not develop very early. His first novel, L'Irreparable, appeared in 1894, when its writer was thirty-two years old. After this came a series of “problem” novels, such as Cruelle Énigme (1885), A Crime of Love (1886), Cosmopolis (1892). Follows M. ANATOLE France, a novelist of rare and pleasing gifts. Eight years older than M. Bourget, he began life as a critical writer. In 1881 his novel, Sylvestre Bonnard's Crime, was crowned by the French Academy, to which he was elected in 1896. Bourget had received the same honor in the preceding year. Other of M. France's novels are Our Children (1886), The Red Lily (1893). GEORGES OHNET, dramatist and novelist, at one time enjoyed immense popularity. His Iron Master is still well known. He was born in 1848.

We have already touched on all the leading exponents of the drama in the nineteenth century. The men of 1830 led in this, as iu poetry and the novel. But the drama of the latter half-century is

also of no little importance. In England it bas been at a very low ebb all through the century; in Germany and France it has held an important position throughout. EUGÈNE SCRIBE (1791-1861) wrote contemporaneously with Hugo and Dumas, though by no means with the same force or popularity. His most important work was perhaps The Glass of Water (1840).

ÉMILE Augier (1820-1889) was said to belong to the school of “good sense,” because he opposed the over extravagance of the romanticists. Nor did he use the literary methods of the “ Naturalists." He possessed much influence during his life, which was from 1820 to 1889. Beginning as a lawyer, he produced a successful play, La Cigue, in 1844, and thencefor. ward devoted himself to literature. In some ways he resembled Balzac. Thus, several of his plays hinge on essentially “realistic” ideas. Les Effrontés touches industrial movements.

More important than any of the preceding dramatists is ALEXANDRE DUMAs the younger, or Dumas fils, as he is generally called. He was brought up in a literary atmosphere and early began to write sketches and short plays. He lived with his father for much of his life, and as father and son were equally prodigal in their use of worldly goods, many amusing complications were brought about. The son himself has touched this situation in two books, The Natural Son (1858), and The Prodigal Father (1859). Dumas commenced by writing novels. His

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