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However, everyone knows that Colonel Turner is a very distinguished soldier and knows of his distinguished service in World War No. 1, and his notable flying successes since then. He is the only three-time winner of the Thompson trophy, which was awarded at the national air races for the most difficult of the air races on the programs staged in past years at Cleveland. We all know of his very able advocacy of aviation and the fact that he is running one of the best schools in the United States, which is located in Indianapolis. I have had the pleasure of visiting that school and visiting with Colonel Turner.

Mr. WOLVERTON. I suggest that Mr. Hinshaw have the opportunity of revising and extending his remarks.

Mr. BULWINKLE. Yes; he will have that privilege.
Mr. HINSHAW. Thank you. I shall be glad to do so.
Mr. WOLVERTON. And include it in full.
(The information requested is as follows:)

COLONEL TURNER'S CAREER IN AVIATION

1917 to 1919: Enlisted in the United States Army in Ambulance Service imme

diately after declaration of war in 1917, was transferred to aviation and commissioned second lieutenant. Promoted first lieutenant 1918, 10 months overseas service including duty with Second Army Headquarters and Sixth Corps. Went into Germany with Third Army at Goblenz. Discharged as first lieutenant

1919. 1919 to 1927: Airplane barnstorming, flying-circus operations and flying schools. 1928: Owned and operated largest passenger plane in America-Sikorsky trans

port. Converted plane into bombing plane during filming of the motion picture

Hell's Angels, in Hollywood, Calif. 1929: First to successfully lower an airplane by parachute. Managed and

operated world's first highspeed air line from Los Angeles to Reno, Nev: Established records both ways across the continent carrying passengers in Lockheed Vega. Time: New York to Los Angeles, 20 hours, 20 minutes. Time: Los Angeles to New York, 18 hours, 30 minutes. Third place in nonstop Los Angeles

to Cleveland. National Air Races. 1930: Record : Vancouver, British Columbia, to Agua Caliente, Mexico. Time:

9 hours, 14 minutes. Broke transcontinental record from New York to Los

Angeles. Time: 18 hours, 27 minutes. 1932:

Established record from Mexico City to Los Angeles carrying passengers.

(Lily Damita and Joseph Schenck.) Time: 11 hours, 30 minutes. National Air Races: Won third place in three events: The Bendix, Thompson

Trophy, and Shell Speed Dash. Broke transcontinental record from New

York to Los Angeles. Time: 12 hours 35 minutes. 1933: Awarded Harmon Trophy by Ligue International des Aviateurs for being

America's premier aviator for 1932. National Air Races: First Bendix Race, set new transcontinental record from New York to Los Angeles. Time: 11 hours, 30 minutes. This record stood for 5 years. First Shell Speed Dash. First Thompson Trophy Race. (Technically disqualified.) Awarded Cliff Henderson Trophy. Merit award as America's No. 1 speed pilot. September 1933 : Set new transcontinental record from Los Angeles to New York. Time: 10 hours, 5 minutes. 1934: National Air Races: First Thompson Trophy Race. Second Shell Speed

Dash. New transcontinental record from Los Angeles to New York Time: 10 hours, 2 minutes. October 1934 entered great MacRobertson International Air Race from London to Melbourne, Australia. Commander of only American crew to finish and took second place in speed division. 1935: Second in Bendix Race. National Air Races. Caught fire and lost Thomp

son Trophy Race in the last lap. 1936: Did not compete because of accident prior to entrance in Bendix Race. 1937: Third place in Thompson Trophy Race. Broke American record for 100

kilometers at 293 miles per hour. 1938:

Second in Golden Gate Trophy Race, May 30, Oakland, Calif., and established

a new record over 843-mile course at a speed of 278.8 miles per hour.

1st place Thompson Trophy Race. Ludlum Trophy for establishing record.

Cliff Henderson Trophy on points of merit as America's No. 1 speed pilot for 1938. Established record for closed course of 293.119 miles per hour. New

world's record. This brought the record back to this country from France. 1939: Awarded Harmon Trophy for being America's premier aviator for 1938 by

the Ligue International des Aviateurs. First Thompson Trophy Race. National Air Races. Speed, 282.53 miles per hour. New world's record while qualifying for the Thompson Trophy Race, August 28, which was a new record for closed course. Speed, 299.003 miles per hour. Henderson Trophy Merit award for being America's No. 1 speed flyer. Presented with Goddess of Victory Trophy by the national commander of the American Legion during the national convention for being America's No. 1 and greatest speed flyer. Colonel Turner is the only man in the history of aviation who has won the Thompson Trophy for the third time, the Harmon Trophy twice, and the Henderson Trophy three times. Commissioned colonel on Governor's staff, Nevada National Guard, 1929; colonel, Governor's staff, California, 1930; colonel, Governor's staff, Mississippi National Guard, 1936; personal aide to late Governors Rolph and

Balzar, of California and Nevada, respectively. 1940–41: President, Roscoe Turner Aeronautical Corporation.

Secret societies, lodges, clubs, etc.: Member Quiet Birdmen, National Aeronautic Association; Executive Committee of Racing Pilots Chapter of the National Aeronautic Association; Professional Racing Pilots Association; American Legion, Aviator's Post, No. 743, New York ; Lake Shore Athletic Club of Chicago ; Johathan Club; Masonic Lodge 116, Corinth, Miss. ; Los Angeles Police Force, Sheriff's staff of Los Angeles, Calif.; captain, Aero Police, St. Joseph, Mo.; Ohio Highway Patrol; New York Detective Endowment Association; Columbia Club, Indianapolis, Ind.; Veteran Pilots; vice president, National Aviation Training

Association and president of its third region. Honorary member: Ligue International des Aviateurs; Texas Rangers; Lion's

Club, Anderson, S. C.; Flying Club, Columbus, Ohio; National Exchange Club, Meridian, Miss. ; Aviation Scouts of Canada; Kiwanis Club, Cleveland, Ohio. The first individual in aviation to own two 300-mile-an-hour airplanes at the same

time. The only person to be a contestant in the Thompson Trophy race eight times. Mr. BULWINKLE. All right, you may proceed, Colonel.

Colonel TURNER. All we wanted to say was that we are all in accord with sections 308 and 309, and we also want to express our gratitude and appreciation for the vision that this committee has taken throughout the whole period of aviation and the forward position it has taken, and we realize that you have quite a big problem to try to cover all of the aspects of it, and we are glad to come up and do our little bit in encouraging the stand that you have taken on it.

Of course, the thing that we are interested in at this particular moment is sections 308 and 309.

We have no suggestions for any changes in those sections. If we can outline recommendations that we think might help, we would like to have the privilege of submitting them in writing to your committee.

Mr. BULWINKLE. We will be delighted to have you extend your remarks, sir.

Mr. HARRIS. Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BULWINKLE. Mr. Harris.

Mr. HARRIS. I understand that Colonel Turner stated that he would be glad to make any suggestions that later on they found out would be helpful or deemed advisable. Is that right, Colonel ?

Colonel TURNER. Yes, sir. Mr. HARRIS. As I understood you, you are asking for the privilege now, at some later date making suggestions as to any changes that you might deem advisable.

Colonel TURNER. Yes, sir,

Mr. BULWINKLE. I know that the chairman would be glad to have you do that. Thank you, Colonel.

Mr. HINSHAW. Just one question, if I might. I presume that the association of which Colonel Turner is vice president would be more in favor of continuing civil pilot training through private schools than he would directly through the Civil Aeronautics Administration setting up schools?

Colonel TURNER. Well, I think it could be more efficiently handled as it has been in the past. I mean, through C. A. A. but finally ending up with training in private schools.

Mr. HINSHAW. Yes. As I understand the bill, the Administrator under the bill has the authority to set up schools to be operated by the Administrator and in addition to contracts with private flying schools for giving that same service or that same teaching?

Colonel TURNER. My understanding is that the Administrator will, as in the past, contract with the private schools. I mean, it is not our understanding that the Government will set up their own schools.

Mr. HINSHAW. Precisely.
Mr. WOLVERTON. Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BULWINKLE. Mr. Wolverton.

Mr. WOLVERTON. Colonel, in presenting your suggestions to the committee, it will be helpful if you will include in your throughts your ideas with respect to the future. Great attention is now being given to planning to meet problems that will arise after the war.

It will be very helpful, indeed, if you would present your views as to what this committee or any committee, of the House could do in the way of legislation that will insure a proper planning for the future as well as for the present.

I take it from the other witnesses who have testified, and the testimony that has been given by the other witnesses who have attended here, that at the present time the legislation is adequate for any needs, but looking into the future, there may be some new legislation that will be found helpful. If you have thoughts along that line, I hope that you will not hesitate to express them in the fullest possible terms, as to what your thoughts are and as to what can be done by this or any other committee of the Congress in planning for that post-war period.

Colonel TURNER. Thank you, sir. And, I will say again, that we are very fortunate:to have a committee that takes as broad a view of this aviation picture as you do, and that you are willing to give us an opportunity to express our opinions and views on this subject, because it is a terrific job.

Mr. BULWINKLE. Are there any further questions? Thank you very much, Colonel.

Colonel TURNER. Thank you.

STATEMENT OF HARRY R. STRINGER, VICE PRESIDENT, ALL

AMERICAN AVIATION

Mr. BULWINKLE. Mr. Stringer, would you like the privilege of extending your remarks in the record ?

Mr. STRINGER. I would, Mr. Chairman.
Mr. BULWINKLE. Just give your name and address, please.

Mr. STRINGER. Harry R. Stringer, vice president, All-American Aviation.

Mr. Chairman, we had desired to appear before this committee in reference to the declaration of policy in the bill which might affect the development of air feeder lines in this country. Our company operates the air mail pick-up service. We serve 115 cities and towns in 6 States.

I do not think it will be denied that our lines are feeder lines and this service represents the first real intensive effort that has been made to develop feeder lines in this country.

This air mail pick-up service was authorized by Congress as an experiment, the bill having the approval of this committee. It was conducted as an experiment for a year by the Post Office Department, at the end of which time it was recommended that we be taken under the jurisdiction of the Civil Aeronautics Board. A jurisdictional dispute arose at that time and it took another act of Congress to give us our present status as an air carrier.

Our purpose is merely to lay before this committee what has been accomplished in the 4 years this service has been in existence.

We want to show you how we have developed the mail, which is our principal source of revenue, and practically our only source of revenue, and give you other details and circumstances on the development of the service and I think that can be handled just as well if we are permitted to extend our remarks in the record as we could by making a statement here. Mr. BULWINKLE. All right, thank you. Mr. HOLMES. Mr. Chairman. Mr. BULWINKLE. Mr. Holmes.

Mr. HOLMES. I just want to ask one question. Has your operation proved profitable?

Mr. STRINGER. Yes, sir. Mr. HOLMES. Thank you. Mr. STRINGER. You mean from the company's standpoint, Mr. Holmes.

Mr. HOLMES. That is what I had in mind.

Mr. STRINGER. No. I thought you were directing your question to the volume of air mail.

Mr. HOLMES. I meant financially profitable to the company.

Mr. STRINGER. No; it has not been. From the standpoint of the Post Office Department I think that our figures show that we are returning to the Post Office Department more in revenue that we get in mail compensation.

Mr. HOLMES. Do you pick up any other freight?
Mr. STRINGER. We pick up air express.
Mr. HOLMES. Air express?
Mr. STRINGER. Yes, sir.
Mr. BULWINKLE. Thank you.
Mr. STRINGER. Thank you.

ADDITIONAL STATEMENT OF HARRY R. STRINGER

A discouraging and short-sighted feature of the post-war planning is that most of it is predicated on bigger and faster aircraft which is the policy that has been pursued in building of the domestic airline system. In the light of the lessons and developments of the past few years, it appears that this policy needs revision if the peacetime expansion in air transportation is going to mean much in terms of additional equipment and new routes.

The trend in air-line development toward bigger and faster airplanes has been dictated by sound economy. This is not disputed. By reason of their increased capacity these aircraft can render more efficient service and they cost relatively less to operate. At the same time this course has restricted rather than promoted the growth of the air-line system because the modern air liner as it has developed in size and speed has steadily lost its flexibility. It cannot be operated efficiently on routes requiring frequent stops because landings neutralize its speed. A recent study has disclosed that on a transcontinental flight making four intermediate stops 525 miles apart an air liner maintained a scheduled speed of 157 miles an hour or nearly 88 percent of its cruising speed. On a flight of 570 miles making four intermediate stops 114 miles apart, the scheduled speed of the same air liner dropped to 108 miles an hour.

Normal growth of the air-line system also has been adversely affected in another way by faster and bigger aircraft. Many cities have not had airports large enough to accommodate them. The expense of providing adequate field facilities discouraged many other communities that were seeking air service. The result is that the growth in the air-line system has been mostly vertical. In other words, growth has been attained through flying additional schedules over the same routes rather than through expanding route mileage. For example, the air-line system in 1936 measured 30,399 route-miles. In 1941 it measured 40,910 route-miles, an increase of 35 percent. By co the revenue-miles flown by the air lines in the same period increased from 58,528,101 miles to 121,824,854 miles or 108 percent. To do this flying the air lines operated 272 aircraft in 1936; in 1911 they operated 364, an increase of only 92. From the standpoint of aircraft employed, figures on air-line operations last year when they were made public will present a more striking contrast. This is quite generally known. It is no military secret, for instance, that early in 1942 a large percentage of the industry's aircraft were mobilized for war purposes, commercial service was curtailed and the air-line system skeletonized possibly for the duration. Meanwhile, air-express traffic has increased from 11,165,812 pounds to approximately 22,000,000 pounds, air-mail volume has jumped nearly 50 percent and per-mile passenger traffic has increased, all of which the air lines have handled efficiently with less than half the number of planes they operated in 1941. The record is a splendid tribute to air-line management, but when it is analyzed in reference to post-war plans, it is a further indication that even though air traffic multiplies manyfold the air-line system will not require any tremendous number of additional planes to handle domestic expansion if it is confined, as it has largely been in the past, to its own ambit, especially since even bigger and faster equipment will be available at that time.

A more graphic illustration of how conditions and influences produced by bigger and faster flying equipment have stunted the growth of domestic air transportation is reflected by the map of the present trunk-line system. It covers only 250 cities and at a liberal estimate serves only about one-third of the population. In 1941 service to 40 or more of these cities had been suspended mainly because their airports were inadequate. In 1934 the air-line system covered 178 cities. Certainly, the expansion that occurred in this direction in 7 years' time cannot be called impressive. The bigger and faster transport ships now on the way will obviously aggravate rather than relieve this situation. Strictly cargo operations will impose still another restraint. The vitiating effect of stops on scheduled speed in present air-line operations already has been described. It will be felt more seriously in air freight operations because cargo cannot be handled with the same celerity as passengers. This will make fewer stops necessary on comparable air cargo routes if the service is to preserve its advantage speed over ground transportation, and that, of course, imperative.

These circumstances make it plain that in order to make the benefits of air transportation available to all of the country instead of just to a handful of cities and a third of the population, post-war plans for the expansion of the airline system must make definite provisions for the establishment of

haul or feeder lines. Before the advent of the air pick-up system little or nothing in a constructive way had been done either by the Government or the air-transport industry on a feeder problem. Such was the prevailing attitude at that time that it literally took not one but two acts of Congress to get recognition of the air pick-up idea. It was called impractical. Many said air pick-up lines would never haul enough mail to justify their expense to the Government. The service has now been in operation nearly 4 years. It provides direct air-mail and airexpress service to 115 cities and towns in six States. These communities get the same air-mail service as the trunk-line cities. Their mail is not delayed

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