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happen in the world will come too late for our accommodation ; and those who have no hope before them, and to whom their present state is painful and irksome, must of necessity turn their thoughts back to try what retrospect will afford. It ought, therefore, to be the care of those who wish to pass the last hours with comfort, to lay up such a treasure of pleasing ideas, as shall support the expences of that time, which is to depend wholly upon the fund already acquired.

-Petite hinc, juvenesque senesque
Finem animo certum, miserisque viatica canis.1
Seek here, ye young, the anchor of your mind ;
Here, suffring age, a bless'd provision find.

-ELPHINSTON. In youth, however unhappy, we solace ourselves with the hope of better fortune, and however vicious, appease our consciences with intentions of repentance ; but the time comes at last, in which life has no more to promise, in which happiness can be drawn only from recollection, and virtue will be all that we can recollect with pleasure.

1 Persius, Satires, v. 64. In the later editions of Johnson's works canis has been altered to curis.

No. 47. TUESDAY, AUGUST 28, 1750.

Quanquam his solatiis acquiescam, debilitor et frangor

eadem illa humanitate quæ me, ut hoc ipsum permitterem, induxit. Non ideo tamen velim durior fieri : nec ignoro alios hujusmodi casus nihil amplius vocare quam damnum ; eoque sibi magnos homines et sapientes videri. Qui an magni sapientesque sint, nescio ; homines non sunt. Hominis est enim affici dolore, sentire : resistere tamen, et solatia admittere; non solatiis non egere.

Plin.1 These proceedings have afforded me some comfort in my

distress ; notwithstanding which, I am still dispirited and unhinged by the same motives of humanity that induced me to grant such indulgences. However, I by no means wish to become less susceptible of tenderness. I know these kind of misfortunes would be estimated by other persons only as common losses, and from such sensations they would conceive themselves great and wise men. I shall not determine either their greatness or their wisdom ; but I am certain they have no humanity. It is the part of a man to be affected with grief ; to feel sorrow, at the same time that he is to resist it, and to admit of comfort.-EARL OF ORRERY.2

F the passions which the mind of man is agitated, it may be observed, that they naturally hasten towards their

own extinction, by inciting and quickening the attainment of their objects. Thus fear urges our flight, and desire animates our progress; and if there are some which perhaps may be indulged till they outgrow the good appropriated to their satisfaction, as it is frequently observed of avarice and ambition, yet their immediate tendency is to some means of happiness really existing, and generally within the prospect. The miser always imagines that there is a certain sum that will fill his heart to the brim, and every ambitious man, like king Pyrrhus, has an acquisition in his thoughts that is to terminate his labours, after which he shall pass the rest of his life in ease or gaiety, in repose or devotion.

1 Pliny, Epistles, viii. 16.

2 It was the fifth Earl of Orrery who translated Pliny's Letters. Johnson described him as a man who " spent his life in catching at an object (literary eminence) which he had not power to grasp."-Boswell's Johnson, ii. 129.

Sorrow is perhaps the only affection of the breast that can be excepted from this general remark, and it therefore deserves the particular attention of those who have assumed the arduous province of preserving the balance of the mental constitution. The other passions are diseases indeed, but they necessarily direct us to their proper cure. A man at once feels the pain and knows the medicine, to which he is carried with greater haste as the evil which requires it is more excruciating, and cures himself by unerring instinct, as the wounded stags of Crete are related by Ælian to have recourse to vulnerary herbs. But for sorrow there is no remedy provided by nature ; it is often occasioned by acci. dents irreparable, and dwells upon objects that have lost or changed their existence ; it requires what it cannot hope, that the laws of the universe should be repealed ; that the dead should return, or the past should be recalled.

Sorrow is not that regret for negligence or error which may animate us to a future care or activity, or that repentance of crimes for which, however irrevocable, our Creator has promised to accept it as an atonement; the pain which arises from these causes has very salutary effects, and is every hour extenuating itself by the reparation of those miscarriages that produce it. Sorrow is properly that state of the mind in which our desires are fixed upon the past, without looking forward to the future, an incessant wish that something were otherwise than it has been, a tormenting and harassing want of some enjoyment or possession which we have lost, and which no endeavours can possibly regain. Into such anguish many have sunk upon some sudden diminution of their fortune, an unexpected blast of their reputation, or the loss of children or of friends. They have suffered all sensibility of pleasure to be destroyed by a single blow, have given up for ever the hopes of substituting any other object in the room of that which they lament, resigned their lives to gloom and despondency, and worn themselves out in unavailing misery.

Yet so much is this passion the natural consequence of tenderness and endearment, that, however painful and however useless, it is justly reproachful not to feel it on some occasions ;1 and so widely and constantly has it always prevailed,

1 Boswell and Johnson had a discussion, at Ashbourne, on the subject of grief, it ended thus : “BOSWELL. 'But, Sir, we do not approve of a man who very soon forgets the loss of a wife or a friend. JOHNSON. 'Sir, we disapprove of him, not because he soon forgets his grief, for the sooner it is forthat the laws of some nations, and the customs of others, have limited a time for the external appearances of grief caused by the dissolution of close alliances, and the breach of domestic union.

It seems determined by the general suffrage of mankind, that sorrow is to a certain point laudable, as the offspring of love, or at least pardonable, as the effect of weakness; but that it ought not to be suffered to increase by indulgence, but must give way, after a stated time, to social duties, and the common avocations of life. It is at first unavoidable, and therefore must be allowed, whether with or without our choice ; it may afterwards be admitted as a decent and affectionate testimony of kindness and esteem ; something will be extorted by nature, and something may be given to the world. But all beyond the bursts of passion, or the forms of solemnity, is not only useless, but culpable ; for we have no right to sacrifice, to the vain longings of affection, that time which Providence allows us for the task of our station.1

Yet it too often happens that sorrow, thus lawfully entering, gains such a firm possession of the mind, that it is not afterwards to be ejected ; the mournful ideas, first violently impressed and afterwards willingly received, so much engross the

gotten the better, but because we suppose that if he forgets his wife or his friend soon, he has not had much affection for them.'"-Boswell's Johnson, iii. 137.

i Johnson often taught this lesson. “All unnecessary grief is unwise." —Boswell's Johnson, iii. 136 ; “Grief is a species of idleness," ib. Note 2 ; Grief has its time," ib. iv. 121.

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