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crabs, goats, scorpions, the balance, and the said concerning character, yea, further, in water-pot lose their meanness when hung every fact and circumstance,—in the running as signs in the zodiac, so I can see my own river and the rustling corn. Praise is looked, vices without heat in the distant persons of homage tendered, love flows from mute Solomon, Alcibiades, and Catiline.

nature, from the mountains and the lights It is the universal nature which gives of the firmament. worth to particular men and things. Human These hints, dropped as it were from life as containing this is mysterious and sleep and night, let us use in broad day. inviolable, and we hedge it round with The student is to read history actively and penalties and laws. All laws derive hence not passively ; to esteem his own life the their ultimate reason ; all express more text, and books the commentary. Thus less distinctly some command of this compelled, the Muse of history will utter supreme, illimitable essence. Property also oracles, as never to those who do not respect holds of the soul, covers great spiritual themselves. I have no expectation that any facts, and instinctively we at first hold to it man will read history aright, who thinks with swords and laws, and wide and com- that what was done in a remote age, by men plex combinations. The obscure conscious- whose names have resounded far, has any ness of this fact is the light of all our day, deeper sense than what he is doing to-day. the claim of claims ; the plea for educa- The world exists for the education of tion, for justice, for charity, the foundation each man. There is no age or state of of friendship and love, and of the heroism society or mode of action in history, to and grandeur which belong to acts of self- which there is not somewhat corresponding reliance. It is remarkable that involuntarily in his life. Everything tends in a wonderful we always read as superior beings. Uni- manner to abbreviate itself and yield its own versal history, the poets, the romancers, do virtue to him. He should see that he can not in their stateliest pictures,-in the live all history in his own person. He must sacerdotal, the imperial · palaces, in the sit solidly at home, and not suffer himself triumphs of will or of genius-anywhere to be bullied by kings or empires, but know lose our ear, anywhere make us feel that that lie is greater than all the geography we intrude, that this is for better men ; but and all the government of the world ; he rather is it true, that in their grandest must transfer the point of view from which strokes we feel most at home. All that history is commonly read, from Rome and Shakspeare says of the king, yonder slip of Athens and London to himself, and not a boy that reads in the corner feels to be deny his conviction that he is the court, true of himself. We sympathize in the and if England or Egypt have anything to great moments of history, in the great say to him, he will try the case ; if not, let discoveries, the great resistances, the great them forever be silent. He must attain prosperities of men ;-because there law and maintain that lofty sight where facts was enacted, the sea was searched, the land yield their secret sense, and poetry and was found, or the blow was struck for us, annals are alike. The instinct of the mind, as we ourselves in that place would have the purpose of nature, betrays itself in the done or applauded.

use we make of the signal narrations of We have the same interest in condition history. Time dissipates to shining ether and character. We honour the rich, because the solid angularity of facts. No anchor, they have externally the freedom, power, no cable, no fences, avail to keep a fact a and grace which we feel to be proper to fact. Babylon, Troy, Tyre, Palestine, and man, proper to us. So all that is said of early Rome have passed or are passing into the wise

man by Stoic, or Oriental or fiction. The Garden of Eden, the sun modern essayist, describes to each reader standing still in Gibeon, is poetry thencehis own idea, describes his unattained but forward to all nations. Who cares what attainable self. All literature writes the the fact was, when we have made a constelcharacter of the wise man. Books, monu- lation of it to hang in heaven an immortal ments, pictures, conversation, are portraits sign? London and Paris and New York in which he finds the lineaments he is form- must go the same way. "What is History,”. ing. The silent and the eloquent praise said Napoleon, “but a fable agreed upon?" him and accost him, and he is stimulated This life of ours is stuck round with Egypt, wherever he moves as by personal allusions. Greece, Gaul, England, War, Colonization, A true aspirant, therefore, never needs look Church, Court, and Commerce, as with so for allusions personal and laudatory in many flowers and wild ornaments grave and discourse. He hears the commendation, gay. I will not make more account of them. not of himself, but more sweet, of that I believe in Eternity. I can find Greece, character he seeks, in every word that is Asia, Italy, Spain, and the Islands,-the

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genius and creative principle of each and place and state of the builder. of all eras in my own mind.

member the forest-dwellers, the first temples, We are always coming up with the the adherence to the first type, and the emphatic facts of history in our private decoration of it as the wealth of the nation experience, and verifying them here. All increased ; the value which is given to history becomes subjective ; in other words, wood by carving led to the carving over the there is properly no history, only biography. whole mountain of stone of a cathedral. Every mind must know the whole lesson When we have gone through this process, for itself,-must go over the whole ground. and added thereto the Catholic Church, its What it does not see, what it does not live, cross, its music, its processions, its Saints' it will not know. What the former age has days and image-worship, we have, as it epitomized into a formula or rule for mani- were, been the man that made the minister ; pular convenience, it will lose all the good we have seen how it could and must be. of verifying for itself, by means of the wall We have the sufficient reason. of that rule. Somewhere, some time, it will The difference between men is in their demand and find compensation for that loss principle of association. Some men classify by doing the work itself. Ferguson dis- objects by colour and size and other accicovered many things in astronomy which dents of appearance ; others by intrinsic had long been known. The better for him. likeness, or by the relation of cause and

History must be this or it is nothing. effect. The progress of the intellect is to Every law which the state enacts indicates the clearer vision of causes, which neglects a fact in human nature ; that is all. We surface differences. To the poet, to the must in ourselves see the necessary reason philosopher, to the saint, all things are of every fact,-see how it could and must be friendly and sacred, all events profitable, all So stand before every public and private days holy, all men divine. For the eye is work ; before an oration of Burke, before fastened on the life, and slights the circuma victory of Napoleon, before a martyrdom stance. Every chemical substance, every of Sir Thomas More, of Sidney, of Marma- plant, every animal in its growth, teaches the duke Robinson, before a French Reign of unity of cause, the variety of appearance. Terror, and a Salem hanging of witches, Upborne and surrounded as we are by before a fanatic Revival, and the Animal this all-creating nature, soft and fluid as a Magnetism in Paris, or in Providence. cloud or the air, why should we be such We assume that we under like influence hard pedants, and magnify a few forms? should be alike affected, and should achieve Why should we make account of time, or the like ; and we aim to master intellectu- of magnitude, or of figure? The soul ally the steps, and reach the same height knows them not, and genius, obeying its or the same degradation, that our fellow, law, knows how to play with them as a our proxy, has done.

young child plays with graybeards and in All inquiry into antiquity-all curiosity churches. Genius studies the causal thought, respecting the Pyramids, the excavated and far back, in the womb of things, sees cities, Stonehenge, the Ohio Circles, Mexico, the rays parting from one orb, that diverge Memphis-is the desire to do away this ere they fall by infinite diameters. Genius wild, savage, and preposterous There or watches the monad through all his masks as Then, and introduce in its place the Here he performs the metem psychosis of nature. and the Now. Belzoni digs and measures Genius detects through the fly, through the in the mummy-pits and pyramids of Thebes, caterpillar, through the grub, through the until he can see the end of the difference egg, the constant individual ; through between the monstrous work and himself. countless individuals, the fixed species ; When he has satisfied himself, in general through many species, the genus ; through and in detail, that it was made by such a all genera, the steadfast type ; through all person as hé, so armed and so motived, the kingdoms of organized life, the eternal and to ends to which he himself should unity. Nature is a mutable cloud, which is also have worked, the problem is solved ; always and never the same. She casts the his thought lives along the whole line of same thought into troops of forms, as a temples and sphinxes and catacombs, passes poet makes twenty fables with one moral. through them all with satisfaction, and they Through the bruteness and toughness of live again to the mind, or are now.

matter, a subtle spirit bends all things to its A Gothic cathedral affirms that was own will, The adamant streams into soft done by us, and not done by us. Surely it but precise form before it, and whilst was by man, but we find it not in our man. look at it, its outline and texture are changed But we apply ourselves to the history of its again. Nothing is so fleeting as form ; yet production. We put ourselves into the never does it quite deny itself. In man we still trace the remains or hints of all that summit, and the furrows of the brow sugwe esteem badges of servitude in the lower gested the strata of the rock. There are races; yet in him they enhance his noble- men whose manners have the same essential ness and grace ; as lo, in Æschylus, trans- splendour as the simple and awful sculpture formed to a cow, offends the imagination ; on the friezes of the Parthenon, and the but how changed, when as Isis in Egypt remains of the earliest Greek art. And she meets Osiris-Jove, a beautiful woman, there are compositions of the same strain to with nothing of the metamorphosis left but be found in the books of all ages. What the lunar horns as the splendid ornament is Guido's Rospigliosi Aurora but a morning of her brows!

thought, as the horses in it are only a The identity of history is equally intrinsic, morning cloud ? If any one will but take the diversity equally obvious. There is at pains to observe the variety of actions to the surface infinite variety of things ; at the which he is equally inclined in certain moods centre there is simplicity of cause. How of mind, and those to which he is averse, many are the acts of one man in which we he will see how deep is the chain of affinity. recognize the same character! Observe the A painter told me that nobody could sources of our information in respect to the draw a tree without in some sort becoming Greek genius. We have the civil history a tree ; or draw a child by studying the of that people, as Herodotus, Thucydides, outlines of its form merely,--but, by Xenophon, and Plutarch have given it; a watching for a time his motions and plays, very sufficient account of what manner of the painter enters into his nature, and can persons they were, and what they did. We then draw him at will in every attitude. So have the same national mind expressed for Roos entered into the inmost nature of a us again in their literature, in epic and lyric sheep." I knew a draughtsman employed poems, drama, and philosophy; a very com- in a public survey, who found that he could plete form. Then we have it once more in not sketch the rocks until their geological their architecture, a beauty as of temperance structure was first explained to him. In a itself, limited to the straight line and the certain state of thought is the common square,-a builded geometry. Then we origin of very diverse works. It is the spirit have it once again in sculpture, the “tongue and not the fact that is identical. By a on the balance of expression,” a multitude deeper apprehension, and not primarily by of forms in the utmost freedom of action, a painful acquisition of many manual skills, and never transgressing the ideal serenity; the artist attains the power of awakening like votaries performing some religious other souls to a given activity. dance before the gods, and, though in con- It has been said, that “common souls vulsive pain or mortal combat, never daring pay with what they do ; nobler souls with to break the figure and decorum of their that which they are." And why? Because dance. Thus, of the genius of one re- a profound nature awakens in us by its markable people, we have a fourfold repre- actions and words, by its very looks and sentation : and to the senses what more manners, the same power and beauty that a unlike than an ode of Pindar, a marble cen- gallery of sculpture, or of pictures, addresses. taur, the peristyle of the Parthenon, and the Civil and natural history, the history of last actions of Phocion?

art and of literature, must be explained from Every one must have observed faces and individual history, or must remain words. forms which, without any resembling There is nothing but is related to us, feature, make a like impression on the nothing that does not interest us,-kingdom, beholder. A particular picture or copy of college, tree, horse, or iron shoe, the roots verses, if it do not awaken the same train of of all things are in man. Santa Croce and images, will yet superinduce the same senti- the dome of St. Peter's are lame copies ment as some wild mountain walk, although after a divine model. Strasburg Cathedral the resemblance is nowise obvious to the is a material counterpart of the soul of senses, but is occult and out of the reach of Erwin of Steinbach. The true poem is the the understanding. Nature is an endless poet's mind ; the true ship is the shipcombination and repetition of a very few builder. In the man, could we lay him laws. She hums the old well-known air open, we should see the reason for the last through innumerable variations.

flourish and tendril of his work; as every Nature is full of a sublime family likeness spine and tint in the sea-shell pre-exist in throughout her works ; and delights in the secreting organs of the fish. The whole startling us with resemblances in the most of heraldry and of chivalry is in courtesy. unexpected quarters. I have seen the head A man of fine manners shall pronounce of an old sachem of the forest, which at your name with all the ornament that titles once reminded the eye of a bald mountain of nobility could ever add.

The trivial experience of every day is The Gothic church plainly originated in a always verifying some old prediction to us, rude adaptation of the forest trees with all and converting into things the words and their boughs to a festal or solemn arcade, as signs which we had heard and seen without the bands about the cleft pillars still indicate heed. A lady, with whom I was riding in the green withes that tied them. No one the forest said to me, that the woods can walk in a road cut through pine woods, always seemed to her to wait, as if the genii without being struck with the architectural who inhabit them suspended their deeds appearance of the grove, especially in winter, until the wayfarer has passed onward : a when the barrenness of all other trees shows thought which poetry has celebrated in the the low arch of the Saxons. In the woods dance of the fairies, which breaks off on the in a winter afternoon one will see as readily approach of human feet. The man who the origin of the stained glass window, has seen the rising moon break out of the with which the Gothic cathedrals are clouds at midnight has been present like an adorned, in the colours of the western sky archangel at the creation of light and of the seen through the bare and crossing branches world. I remember one summer day, in of the forest. Nor can any lover of nature the fields, my companion pointed out to enter the old piles of Oxford and the me a broad cloud, which might extend a English cathedrals, without feeling that the quarter of a mile parallel to the horizon, forest overpowered the mind of the builder, quite accurately in the form of a cherub as and that his chisel, his saw, and plane still painted over churches,-a round block in reproduced its ferns, its spikes of flowers, the centre, which it was easy to animate its locust, elm, oak, pine, fir, and spruce. with eyes and mouth, supported on either The Gothic cathedral is a blossoming in side by wide-stretched symmetrical wings. stone subdued by the insatiable demand of What appears once in the atmosphere may harmony in man. The mountain of granite appear often, and it was undoubtedly the blooms into an eternal flower, with the archetype of that familiar ornament. I lightness and delicate finish, as well as the have seen in the sky a chain of summer aerial proportions and perspective, of vegelightning which at once showed to me that table beauty. the Greeks drew from nature when they In like manner, all public facts are to be painted the thunderbolt in the hand of Jove. individualized, all private facts are to be I have seen a snowdrift along the sides of generalized. Then at once History becomes the stone-wall which obviously gave the idea Huid and true, and Biography deep and of the common architectural scroll to abut sublime. As the Persian imitated in the a tower.

slender shafts and capitals of his architecture By surrounding ourselves with the original the stem and flower of the lotus and palm, circumstances, we invent anew the orders so the Persian court in its magnificent era and the ornaments of architecture, as we never gave over the nomadism of its barbasee how each people merely decorated its rous ribes, but travelled from Ecbatana, primitive abodes. 'The Doric temple pre- where the spring was spent, to Susa in serves the semblance of the wooden cabin summer, and to Babylon for the winter. in which the Dorian dwelt. The Chinese In the early history of Asia and Africa, pagoda is plainly a Tartar tent. The Nomadism and Agriculture are

the two Indian and Egyptian temples still betray antagonist facts. The geography of Asia the mounds and subterranean houses of and of Africa necessitated a nomadic life. their forefathers. “ The custom of making But the nomads were the terror of all those houses and tombs in the living rock, whom the soil, or the advantages of a says Heeren, in his researches on the market, had induced to build towns. AgriEthiopians, determined very naturally the culture, therefore, was a religious injunction, principal character of the Nubian Egyptian because of the perils of the state from noarchitecture to the colossal form which it madism. And in these late and civil countries assumed. In these caverns, already pre- of England and America, these propensities pared by nature, the eye was accustomed to still fight out the old battle in the nation dwell on huge shapes and masses, so that and in the individual. The nomads of when art came to the assistance of nature, Africa were constrained to wander by the it could not move on a small scale without attacks of the gadfly, which drives the cattle degrading itself. What would statues of mad, and so compels the tribe to emigrate the usual size, or neat porches and wings in the rainy season, and to drive off the have been, associated with those gigantic cattle to the higher sandy regions. The halls before which only Colossi could sit as nomads of Asia follow the pasturage from watchmen, or lean on the pillars of the month to month. In America and Europe, interior?"

the nomadism is of trade and curiosity ; a progress, certainly," from the gadfly of Asta- eyes to squint, and take furtive glances on boras to the Anglo and Italomania of Boston this side and on that, but they must turn Bay. Sacred cities, to which a periodical the whole head. The manners of that religious pilgrimage was enjoined, or strin- period are plain and fierce. The reverence gent laws and customs, tending to invigorate exhibited is for personal qualities, courage, the national bond, were the check on the address, self-command, justice, strength, old rovers ; and the cumulative values of swiftness, a loud voice, a broad chest. long residence are the restraints on the Luxury and elegance are not known. A itineracy of the present day. The antago- sparse population and want make every man nism of the two tendencies is not less active his own valet, cook, butcher, and soldier, in individuals, as the love of adventure or and the habit of supplying his own needs the love of repose happens to predominate. educates the body to wonderful performA man of rude health and flowing spirits ances. Such are the Agamemnon and has the faculty of rapid domestication, lives Diomed of Homer, and not far different is in his wagon, and roams through all lati- the picture Xenophon gives of himself and tudes as easily as a Calmuc. At sea, or in his compatriots in the Retreat of the Ten the forest, or in the snow, he sleeps as warm, | Thousand. “After the army had crossed dines with as good appetite, and associates the river Teleboas in Armenia, there fell as happily, as beside his own chimneys. Or much snow, and the troops lay miserably perhaps his facility is deeper seated, in the on the ground covered with it. But Xenoincreased range of his faculties of observa- phon arose naked, and, taking an axe, tion, which yield him points of interest began to split wood; whereupon others wherever fresh objects meet his eyes. The rose and did the like." Throughout his pastoral nations were needy and hungry to arny exists a boundless liberty of speech. desperation; and this intellectual nomadism, They quarrel for plunder, they wrangle with in its excess, bankrupts the mind, through the generals on each new order, and Xenothe dissipation of power on a miscellany of phonis as sharp-tonguedas any, and sharperobjects. The home-keeping wit, on the tongued than most, and so gives as good as other hand, is that continence or content he gets. Who does not see that this is a which finds all the elements of life in its own gang of great boys, with such a code of soil ; and which has its own perils of mono- honour and such lax discipline as great tony and deterioration, if not stimulated by boys have ? foreign infusions.

The costly charm of the ancient tragedy, Everything the individual sees without and indeed of all the old literature, is, that him corresponds to his states of mind, and the persons speak simply,-speak as persons everything is in turn intelligible to him, as who have great good sense without knowing his onward thinking leads him into the it, before yet the reflective habit has become truth to which that fact or series belongs. the predominant habit of the mind. Our

The primeval world, -the Fore-World, as admiration of the antique is not admiration the Germans say,-I can dive to it in my- of the old, but of the natural. The Greeks self as well as grope for it with researching are not reflective, but perfect in their senses fingers in catacombs, libraries, and the and in their health, with the finest physical broken reliefs and torsos of ruined villas. organization in the world. Adults acted

What is the foundation of that interest with the simplicity and grace of children. all men feel in Greek history, letters, art, They made vases, tragedies, and statues, and poetry, in all its periods, from the such as healthy senses should,—that is, in Heroic or Homeric age down to the domestic good taste. Such things have continued to life of the Athenians and Spartans, four or be made in all ages, and are now, wherfive centuries later? What but this, that every ever a healthy physique exists; but as a man passes personally through a Grecian class, from their superior organization, they period. The Grecian state is the era of the have surpassed all. They combine the bodily nature, the perfection of the senses, - energy of manhood with the engaging unof the spiritual nature unfolded in strict consciousness of childhood. The attraction unity with the body. In it existed those of these manners is that they belong to human forms which supplied the sculptor man, and are known to every man in virtue with his models of Hercules, Phoebus, and of his being once a child; besides that there Jove; not like the forms abounding in the are always individuals who retain these streets of modern cities, wherein the face is characteristics. A person of childlike genius a confused blur of features, but composed and inborn energy is still a Greek, and reof incorrupt, sharply defined, and symme- vives our love of the muse of Hellas. I trical features, whose eye-sockets are so admire the love of nature in the Philoctetes. formed that it would be impossible for such ) In reading those fine apostrophes to sleep,

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