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But who subsist and build magnif- merly did, and as it is now abunicent churches and monasteries dantly capable of doing, actually by alms, procured in forma pau- subsists by bread, drawn from the peris, produces a very ill effect capital ; and it is unquestionable, upon the common people, who do that the few wretched villagers not deem it dishonourable to sub- would perish, if this aid was withsist on charity, when some of the drawn. With this assistance it is orders, whom they venerate, obtain nevertheless true, that the inhabtheir support by such means. Por itants of the Campania often suffer, litical, because the lands in Italy and frequently perish of hunger. are seldom or never owned by the It is also certain, that Rome itself cultivators, but are held in mort- is crowded with beggars, whose main by the convents and other ec- misery need not be represented by clesiastical establishments. They complaints, their countenances are therefore never sold, and sel. speak too powerful a language. dom leased upon long leases or on Paris, London, Amsterdam, and favourable terms. The tenants in Bordeaux united, cannot exhibit the Ecclesiastical State, where so many objects of real distress, as there are tenants, (for in many meet you in every direction at parts there are none) unable to ac- Rome. It is the most distressing quire a title to the property they picture I ever beheld. You are cultivate, and by their superstition pursued at every corner by these rendered as dependent on the cler- wretched beings, and if you relieve gy, as the cerfs in Poland on their the necessities of one, you are inlords, are idle, indifferent about stantly thronged with twenty oththeir residence, and perpetually ers, who will receive no refusal. removing from place to place. Importunity would give you but a The lands by these means are con.
faint idea of their eagerness and stantly impoverished, and are re- entreaties, it amounts to compulduced to the miserable state, in sion. While the heart is thus which we now find them.
constantly agitated by the picture In addition to these, obvious of the most complete human miscauses, the Papal government, ery, it is at the same moment weak and inefficient from its very roused to indignation by seeing constitution, always administered dapper priests in stockings of by old, and generally feeble super- bright purple, with hats ornamentannuated men, aided by constitu- ed with the same rich colour, triptional advisers of the same charac. ping it lightly along from the shop ter, has never adopted and probably of the frisseur, unassailed by these never will adopt vigorous steps to poor wretches, who have solicited remedy these radical evils, and to them too often in vain, or who find give activity to commerce, without by experience that 'the language which agriculture must languish. of nature pleads more powerfully
Having made these remarks on with strangers, not hardened by the indolence and wretched culti- familiarity with such scenes of vation of the inhabitants of the horrour.' The rich and luxurious Ecclesiastical State, let me briefly cardinal too, wrapped in his double state a few facts, which elucidate folds of the richest purple, with and confirm these opinions. The princely magnificence, and followCampania, instead of supplying ed by a long train of liveried do. Rome with provisions, as it for mesticks; rolls along, unleeding
these objects of horrour. You perience teaches us, that there are find the poor, at this inclement other institutions, much more useseason, almost without clothes, ful than hospitals and alnıs-louses, and you are told, that death often those which prevent poverty, rathfrees them from this complicated er than those which alleviate it distress, produced by famine and after it is produced by a bad sysRakedness. You may judge what tem of policy. a man of any sensibility, accus- The necessaries and even the tomed to seeing the comfort and luxuries of life are not dear at ease, enjoyed by the lower classes Rome. This will not appear of the people in our country, must strange to you, who have been acfeel at such scenes. How can we customed to reflect profoundly on restrain our indignation at the these subjects. Labour is always blindness or indifference of a cheap in wretched countries. Luxgovernment, which, neglecting the uries, for the same reason, are al. wise measures of political econ- ways cheap, the demand being omy, upon which the prosperity of small; and those, who labour for states depends, suffers the richest the few, are numerous. In flour, and finest portion of the globe ishing countries, like Great Britain, not only to remain almost a desert, luxuries are extremely dear. The but to be the scene of the most common people in Italy subsist complicated misery?
upon the meanest food, an apple, What ! and are the men, who a pear, and a roasted chesnut, and, thus govern this fertile country, on gala days, a fried fish! Bes and who are thus arrayed in scarlet hold the sum of Italian luxury !! and fine linen, those who boast Bread and meat are too extravaa that they are the only legitimate gant for the labouring poor. representatives of the lowly Jesus, It is said, that the old practice who endured persecution and pove of using the stiletto for private reerty with meekness and humility, venge is still prevalent among the and who commanded his disciples common classes of people. While especially to regard the poor? I was at Klilan, one man stabbed Yes : And these very magistrates, and murdered his brother-in-law, conscious of this duty, have placed and upon inquiry, I was told, that upon all their coins some good seven cases of that nature had tamasim, commemorative of the ken place in the course of that popr ; and yet ir no part of the month. Whether this is exagworld do the poor receive so few gerated or not, I will not undertake of these charitable coins. Is it to say ; but it is certain, that the that they think it necessary to ful- ancient, abominable privilege of fil the words of our Saviour, “ the sanctuary, or protection in the poor you have always with you" ? churches, palaces of cardinals, and But they appear to forget his of foreign ambassadors, still exdenunciation against the hard- ists ; so that a man must be very hearted, “I was naked, and ye stupid indeed, who cannot find an clothed me not,” &c. &c.
asylum even for murder. That this I ought in justice to say, that practice is as contrary to every the Roman clergy reply to these principle of sound policy, as to objections, that in no city are there justice, I think no man can deny. so many hospitals and publick. Every thing, which tends to facilprot isions for the poor. But ex itate impunity for crimes, must be
injurious to a state. What then I shall give you some further must be the condition of a country, sketches of the Italian character when these facilities are so multipli- and customs in a future letter. ed that every man may, if he choos
Adieu. os, escape capital punishment ?
For the Anthology.
MULTIPLICITY OF OUR LITERARY INSTITUTIONS.
AN attempt was made in a for. it may tend to its embellishment, mer paper to expose the evils, ari. or even to the improvement of the sing from our numerous literary human mind. It imposes upon a institutions; and to show the cause, large portion of the community which so greatly multiplied them. the belief, that the lowest mechanA more arduous task remains, to ick is a more useful citizen, than point out some plan, which may the most polished scholar ; and correct those evils, without deprive it would relieve youth from the ing any of the benefits,now enjoyed. drudgery of learning the dead lan
With the present disposition of guages, that their time may be our country, when exertions are more usefully employed in niathconstantly making to increase the ematical studies. While therenumbers of our colleges, it would fore we join in praise of reform, it be the extreme of folly to think of must be our duty to make publick diminishing that number. But prejudices subservient to the pubalthough we cannot stop the tor- lick good. rent, which is ready to overwhelm In conformity with these opin the whole country ; yet we may ions, we would banish classical litdirect its course, and cause it to erature from our minor universifertilise those fields, that it threat- ties ; but we would transfer the ened with desolation. Upon the funds from its support to the more same principle we shall seek, from ample maintenance of the present reform, a power to convert the nu- instructors, or to the foundation of merous institutions, which threaten new professorships, that, by lopto overwhelm the literary world, ping off the decaying branches, the into useful estabiishments for the tree might afford sufficient nourpromotion of science, and the wel. ishment to the remaining boughs. fare of the community. By this We would even with some allow, specious word, reform, democracy that students might be admitted, has undermined the most venera- without any previous qualification, ble fabricks of antiquity, and has, or for any specifick time, only in a moment, levelled with the barring them from any of the hondust the labour of ages. Modern ours of the college ; in order that philosophy, supported by it, makes every citizen, who was desirous of every thing subservient to the pre- the acquisition, might obtain intended uscful, and affects to des formation upon any sutject of pise whatever does not promote science. Honours and degrees The common arts of life, although might be liberally distributed to
those, who had conformed to the tions the country would assume a rules of the institution, and who new appearance ; the powers of could stand the test of a rigid ex- nature would no longer be feebly amination. We might thus form directed, and the energies of man scientifick artisans, a class of citi- would be exerted on beneficial obzens at present unknown in our jects. The same power would country ; for, although the inhab- support the noble oak or more itants of New-England have been useful corn, which produces the distinguished by their useful inven- noisome weed cumbrous tions in mechanicks, yet as the hemlock. inventors have seldom had the ad- Instead of founding new colleges vantages of education, they might, and academies, publick and private by the assistance of scientifick liberality should be directed to inknowledge, have been led to the stitutions, already established ; nor most important discoveries. We would vanity be less gratified by have no regularly educated engi- giving a name to a professorship, Deers in the country. Our math than it now is to a college or acad. ematical instrument-makers are emy. It is not only necessary to men without science, and a large increase the funds of the present portion of our young men, who instructors, but to introduce many study pautical astronomy, obtain useful branches of science, which their information abroad. Our are now no where taught in our surveyors would be less often obli- country. Veterinary colleges are ged to guess at the width of a found both in England and France ; river, if they had studied trigonom- but in this country no knowledge etry ; nor would our mill-wrights is to be acquired in that art, except make so poor a use of the powers what is picked up from jockies, of nature, if they were familiar the lowest of the community, or with mechanicks. Could a few in- from our countrymen, who obtain telligent farmers, dispersed thro' their information from the position the country, be made acquainted of the stars in the almanack. But with the nature and properties of it would lead us beyond our limits different soils, with the principles to point out the different objects, of vegetation, and a knowledge of that should be taught at these inthe rudiments of mineralogy, they stitutions. Indeed should we exmight practically disseminate the clude polite literature and the fine improvements, already made in arts, almost every thing else, that agriculture, and greatly add to our can tend to the improvement of present knowledge by their own society, night be taught there experience. To afford proper in- with advantage. struction to these classes of citi- These institutions, as they would zens would be to give tools to the tend to disseminate the useful arts, industrious labourer ; to furnish would probably be approved by him, who had beaten his iron from the disciples of the modern fashthe crude ore, with the means of ionable philosophy ; and, notwithsmelting it,and of applying the pure standing that these men forget" ut metal to the purposes of life. We omne tulit punctum qui miscuit should furnish a compass to direct utile dulci ;” notwithstanding they the unskilled projector, wasting his sacrifice the knowledge of our efforts in the boundless ocean of moral relations to the knowledge experiment. With such institu- of squares and figures, the knowl
Vol. IV. No.4. Z
edge of the human mind to the vious to advancing to a higher knowledge of mechanick arts and class, or to the attainment of a detrades ; yet, as we not only allow gree, that the idle and dissolute the utility of their plans, but aid might be deterred by the fear of their advancement, they will not shame from entering those sacred surely deny the claims of literature walls. With such regulations, upon publick patronage. May we and with a liberal spirit, that would not therefore hope for the union of select for instructors men of talall parties in perfecting a single ents, of whatever college or couninstitution for polite literature and try, we might hope for a vigorous the higher branches of science ? and flourishing university. The To effect this grand object a rad- impurities, once removed from the ical reform would be necessary. fountain head, the stream would The oflicers must be made inde- afford pure and delicious nourishpendent of pecuniary concerns ; ment. and the highest inducements must Our academies with a little rebe held forth to men of talents to form might prepare youth for eibecome instructors. The schol- ther of these institutions ; and the ars must be made gentlemen, and county treasury, without being treated as such, that they may much impoverished, might afford consider those placed over them an increase of pay to the instrucas friends, who have an interest in tors. A law would be required to their welfare, and not treat them regulate the pay of the masters with the indignity and contenipt, of common town-schools, in ordue only to petty suspicious ty- der to prevent ignorant school rants. An increased fixed salary, committees from engaging, as inor an additional stipend from those, sructors, fellows still more ignowho receive the benefit of instruc- rant than themselves, because they tion, which last, as it would serve will serve cheap: We may be alas a stimulus to exertion, might lowed to express a wish for the be preferable, might afford a libe- polite arts, although we have no ral compensation to the present hope for them. So little encourinstructors ; but, for the founda- agement is given to them at prestion of new professorships, an ap- ent, that few can be expected to peal must be made to publick and devote their time and talents to the private liberality. If a number of acquisition of what, when obtainpoor lads of talents, selected from ed, will neither yield profit nor the different academies, were to be procure honours. Those few, educated gratis, it would obviate whose taste and inclination are able all objection to the increase of ex- to overcome these discouragepense. To render the duty of in- ments, forsake our rude regions struction less irksome, the students to enjoy the invigorating patronage should not be admitted, till they of more polished climes. But if are of an age to lay aside pueril- we cannot expect the establishment ities, and 10 duly appreciate the of schools of painting or of sculpadvantages afforded them. High- ture, we might at least imitate a er qualifications should be requir sister State ; and, by collecting ed for admittance, that their time models of those exquisite performmight not be wasted, as it now is, ances, which have excited the wonin obtaining, what ought to have der and admiration of ages, create been learnt at school. A strict ex- a taste in the publick for the fine, amination should be passed, pre arts,