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that his son will be torn from him be appealed to, as a proof that the just at the period, when his talents ingenuity of the nation has sufferare beginning to be developed. ed no decay, does not alone assure To procure a subtitute has now us that its less severe sciences, its become heavily expensive. What philosophy and taste, flourish withthen remains for the wretched out diminution. father, but to submit to his fate ; Excepting then in physicks and give his son a military education, mathematicks, if you inquire what suffer him to become a soldier standard scientifick works have and be undone. To refinement, appeared within the last fifteen to morals, to literature, and to re- years, the answer must be, none, ligion, he then most infallibly be- -In metaphysicks this is not comes dead.

strange, since from some cause If however we proceed to ex- the French have never been very amine the actual state of literature successful in its cultivation. Some without speculating on the future, of the works of Condillac are of it must be confessed, that in natua value, but for his most important ral history, in the mathematicks, ideas he is indebted to Locke. particularly as they are connected The present metaphysicians conwith the art of war, and above all tent themselves with giving new in chemistry the character of the names to old ideas, reviving exnation perhaps never before stood ploded doctrines, writing flimsy equally high. Such a constella- books on materialism, from which tion of talents, as the mathematical they deduce a kind of Epicurean and physical class of the Institute atheism, making distinctions withexhibits, I suppose we might look out differences, and concluding for in vain in any other country of with some flourish aboởt the pro: Europe.-Without attempting to gress of science, reason, and illu. depreciate these sciences, for I am mination. The writers most in full of respect for them, it may vogue at present are Cabanis and however be observed, that although De Tracy. they call forth as inuch acuteness On the subject of philosophy, and even genius as any others, yet including morals, I suppose I must as they are advanced by immediate be prejudiced ; but certainly I find deduction from experiments, with- no traces of what I have been acout many foreign intermediate accustomed to in the English ideas, they are connected with school. They who call themfewer collateral subjects, and de- selves their votaries wander now mand therefore less previous and only in the gardens of Epicurus ; subsidiary acquisition, than the they retire not to the recess of other branches of knowledge. If Pythagoras, they sit not in the so, the great and merited renown Academy of Plato, in the Lyceum of Fourcroy, Berthollet, and Vau- of Aristotle, nor under the Portico quelin ; of La Grange, Legendre, of Zeno ; how then should they enand La Place ;* of Cuvier, Haiiy, ter the humble walks of the lowly and Lacépéde, howeverjustly it may and unassuming Nazerene ? No ;

if, so long ago as when Dr. Priest* I do not include La Lande, for, as

ley visited France, he was stared I heard it observed by one of the Insti at when he avowed his sincere betute, he has lived longer than his repu- lief of Christianity ; they would tation

now weigh it very seriously against

his other claims to distinction. In tiquity, or revive the sublime rapa late number of the Revue, when tures of its bards ? noticing a new edition of the works This poverty of classical knowlof Rollin, they gravely apologize edge is followed by its inevitable for giving the name of philosopher attendant, incorrect taste. In our to one, who was at the same time a inquiry into the causes of corrupt Christian and a Jansenist.But eloquence in any country, it is here enough at present of a subject, on that we always find our answer ; which I cannot write cheerfully. it is by this, for instance, that we

The cause of ancient literature at once account for the false rhethas received a severe blow from orick, for the tumid, unnatural, and the revolution. In many of the distorted kind of writing, which Pensions Greek is not taught at all, we every where see in America. and few learn more of Latin than It is commonly a shrewd symptom to enable them to point a dull pe- of the decline of taste, when nothriod, by some common-place quo- ing will do that is not terse, sentation. The deep and ample learn- tentious, antithetical, and pointed; ing of the Port-Royal and Sor: when every one is run away with a bonne is no longer known. It ex- passion for calembourgs, bon mots, pired with Vilioison. They at- and the various forms of le bel estempt to supply its place, by mul- frit. I would by no means deny tiplying translations, and these to that there are still fine writers in be sure fall

France; there certainly are many, 'thick as autumnal leaves

many well-read, classical scholars. That strew the vale of Vallambrosa.'

But it is not to be denied, that the

majority, and those too the most By the way, the very number of popular, have the faults at which these translations affords one of the I have hinted. They are full of best answers 10 the opinion of La exaggeration, and swell of ostenMotte, Perault, Voltaire, Condor. tation without riches, of artificial cet, &c. that they render useless passion, and pathos made by rule. the knowledge of the original lan. Those higher flights of composiguages. For if it be possible to tion, wbich a fine writer hazards transfuse the beauties of the ancients scldom, and which indeed owe their into modern languages, some one

effect to their rare occurrence, they translator must surely have by this scatter in every page. What can time succeeded ; but that this is be written in a more pitiful style not the case, the multitude of new than the proclamations to the arattempts is a sufficient confession. my, the occasional flourishes in the If, indeed, notwithstanding our bulletins, &c. although they are marble is of equal beauty, and our said in Paris to bear traces of an colours of equal brilliancy, it has imperial hand? They would disbeen found a hopeless task to at- grace Touissaint or Dessalines. tempt to copy the charms of the Of the present state of French Venus and Apollo, and the sub- poetry, I have little to say. Delimity of the Transfiguration and lille, now extremely old, who has Last Judgment, low can it be im- formed himself on the model of agined that in languages of far in the English poets, and who, in ferioúr flexibility, harmony, and truth, deserves his fame, must be grace, we should re-produce the considered as belonging to the last wonders of the eloquence of an. age. On the whole, I suspect that one is safe in saying, that, with sion was sequestrated. A poor the exception of Delille, there is bookseller ventured to republish no poet at present, who will out. Delille's poem, La Pitié, from the live his age.

original text, as it appeared in LonIt would not be wonderful, how. don; he was rewarded by the seizever, if the spirit of literary enter- ure of the work, and apartments prise were more completely extin- were assigned to himself in the guished than it actually is ; for temple. It would be easy to colnever has the world before seen a lect many similar anecdotes. despotism over the press so ex- These observations you will find tensive, systematick, and ef. hasty, and perhaps incorrect.fectual, as is now exercised in They were made during a short France. Even under the most residence of less than six months, savage of the Roman emperours, confined exclusively to Paris. It Juvenal could publish his satires, is not, perhaps however unjust, to though not perhaps with personal judge of the literature of the counimpunity ; but in France, the au- try, by what appears in the methor of any thing offensive is not tropolis. The influence of a capionly punished himself

, but his work tal is every where great ; but it is is rendered harmless by being more so in France than in any othcompletely suppressed before it er country of Europe. The darlsees the light. The Institute it- ing object of pride and boast with self, though it must be allowed to a Frenchman is • la belle,'" la mag-. be, in general, tolerably complais. nifique ville,' and we have seen ant and docile, sometimes falls this prejudice retain its force, under his majesty's displeasure. when almost all others, however They proposed several years since, ingrained and inveterate, were loosto publish a revised edition of the ened and swept away. We have Dictionary of the Academy. I seen Paris, during the revolution, saw, in their transactions, the me- quietly give law to the remotest moir, which was drawn up, and provinces of the empire, wield, at the names of the committee rais. the will of its mobs, their passions ed to execute this intention ; but and opinions, produce every where on inquiring for the work, I was an immediate imitation of its habtold, that though it had been com- its, however frantick and absurd, pleted, and actually passed through and obtain unresisting and implicit the press, not a copy of it had ever acquiescence in every new master, publickly appeared. It seems that which its whim might impose.they had thought it necessary to There is another reason why Paris record the new words, which had should be the centre of the literabeen coined in the revolution, to ture of the nation. It is not in gether with the new meanings France as in England, where, in which had been given to old words, every town of any importance, you and to subjoin to them the names find ample publick and private liof their authors. Under the word braries, and of course some literary usurfateur, they maliciously men- society. So far from this, espetioned a new sense given to it by cially since the destruction of the emperour, in a speech to the the convents, and provincial colsenate, and subjoined the authority leges, that a man of letters is com-of Bonaparte. For this and some pelled to resort to Paris, not only similar liberties, the whole impres. for patrons and associates in his

studies, but even for the means of facta, Picturæ, Statuariæ, Sculppursuing them. These means and turæ, Numismaticæ ; aliarum : facilities for cultivating literature, materies et opificia item physicæ, are, in truth, admirable and une- anatomicæ, medicinæ, mechanicæ, qualled. They are extremely well astronomicæ, historiæ naturalis, described in Wyttenbach's life of et nullius non disciplinæ. Sed non Ruhnken, and as it may amuse minus in promptu et obviæ veryou to see the manner in which santur voluptatum illecebrarumParis affected a scholar and a que variæ formæ, quibus ubique Dutchman,* I am going to trans- occurentibus et blandé accidenticribe the passage :

bus, qui non convertatur aliquanNullus, aiebat, in toto terrarum do, is aut ferreus sit, aut perfectus orbe locus, item ut Lutetia, cum e Stoica schola, sapiens.'-Vita abundat omni omnium artium doc- D. Ruhnkenii. Auct. Wyttenbach, trinarumque materiâ & supellec- pag. 370. tile, tum adfluit omni omnis gen- His visit was made to Paris beeris voluptatum deliciarumque in- fore the revolution, but his remarks strumento. Ne dicam de ingen- at present' have lost none of their tibus ædificiorum operibus, basil- truth. The pleasures, which he icis, templis aliis, eorumque et seems to have found it so difficult magnitudine et magnificentia ; to resist, have certainly not diconfluit in eam urbem quidquid et minished in number or attraction. arte effici, et ingenio excogitari, Indeed the Parisians seem to have potest, cum ad deleniendos oculos, returned to more than their antum ad oblectandos aures, tum ad cient dissipation. They have reliquos sensus titillandos et ac learned no wisdom from the hormulcendos.

Igitur et doctrinæ rours through which they have studiosus habet, quo descendat, pla- passed. The volcano has explodcando genio honestum diverticu- ed, and spent its fury ; and while lum ; et voluptarius habet, quo se its lava is scarcely cool, they have a Sirenibus ad Musas attollat op- already again built upon it, and the portunum receptaculum. Omnes soil is more fruitful than ever in ad Musas aditus unicuique patent folly and crime. Like the Ro. et aperti sunt, si quidem publico & mans under the emperours, as descommuni usui dicata sunt Musea; cribed by Juvenal, they have ceasubi, cùm libri omnis generis expro- ed 10 be interested in publick afmuntur, tum spectanda exponun- fairs, and demand only panem et tur artium liberalium opera manu- circenses, bread and dissipation.

Their most serious occupation is * He was born in Germany, but be. to discuss the merits of a player, came so much attached to Holland, that he refused an offer to return home,

or to decide on the attitudes of a because, says his biographer, Batava

dancer.But I grow weary of the tertæ suavitatibus captus.

subject Adieu.

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For the Anthology.

Populus me sibilat ; at mihi plaudo
Ipse domi, simul ac nummos contemplor in arca.

HORACE. Sat. 1. The desire of gain is so strong afford opportunities for generosity and general, that mankind, in their to display itself; it is then that the anxiety to attain the end, are very usurer stretches forth his grasping apt to be indifferent about the hand, and with unrelenting cruelty means : hence the necessity of augments his exactions in proporlaws to secure the possession of tion as increasing distresses are calproperty from fraud and violence, culated to excite compassion in the and which, from the severity of humane and just. In other countries their nature and the rigour with the common prey of the usurer is which they are executed, are gen- the thoughtless heir, and dissipaerally sufficient to answer the pur. ted man of fashion ; but here his pose for which they were institu• victims are the industrious tradested. But though men in civil so. man, and well-meaning adventurer ciety may feel tolerably secure in commerce, who, when once enagainst forgery and theft, yet there tangled, seldom escapes till he is are many who become the prey of reduced to beggary ; while his opthe unfeeling and unprincipled, pressor exultingly counts the thouand are deprived of what is justly sands he has gotten by means more their own by means, against which base and criminal, than those for legislative wisdom cannot ade- which many wretches suffer on a quately provide..

gallows ; is enabled by his riches Usury, the mean vice of low and to direct the monied and civil essordid minds ; expressly forbidden tablishments of his country, ac. by the Deity, and prohibited by quires an extensive influence over human institutions ; insidious in his fellow-citizens, is admitted into its means, and pernicious in its the best society, nay, is even courtconsequences ; is, by the cunning ed with that respectful attention, of its perpetrators, not only able to which is due alone to venerable elude legal restrictions and escape wisdom, unsullied integrity, and punishment, but to find that ex- disinterested virtue. treme degree of toleration, which In a country, young and popuought only to be allowed to the in- lous like this, when the events of firmities of nature, to difference of the european world have opened opinion, and errours of judgment. so many avenues to mercantile Against the highwayman, the pursuits to an enterprising people, housebreaker, and the pickpocket, it may frequently happen, that the every one will readily assist to regular trade of the time may jusrender his neighbour secure, or tify a man in giving considerably join to pursue the offender and more than the common interest bring him to justice ; but when for money ; and what a fair trade misfortune presses, or temporary will justify one in giving, will jusexi zencies occur, which miglit call tify another in receiving, because forth the offices of friendship, and he could make the same profits as

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