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* are to the vices of the lower classes es-- at school (being offen violently heated less knowledge, than in pecially, there is less virtue as well a

thely chilled by bathing, &c.) from which countries of Europe. In many parts of with great difficulty I recovered, it has the United States there is also less re. been excellently adapted to that stadi. ligion, at least of a rational and useful - ous life which has fallen to my lot. kind. And where there is no sense of I have never been subject to head. religion, no fear of God, or respect to a achs, or any other complaints that are future state, there will be no good peculiarly unfavourable to study. I morals that can be depended upon." have never found myself less disposed, Laws may restrain the excesses of vice, or less qualified, for mental exertions but they cannot impart the principles of any kind at one time of the day more of virtue."

P.446. than another ; but all seasons have been

equal to me, early or late, before dinIf universal suffrage,' so much ner or after, &c. And so far have I relied on by these gentlemen, for been from suffering by my application securing all that a good man should to study, (which however has never wish for a country, will not secure been so close or intense as some have knowledge, nor virtue, nor religion, improving from the age of eighteen to

imagined) that I have found my health more effectually than the heredi- the present time"; and never have I tary governments of Europe, on found myself more free from any diswhat accounts is it entitled to pre-order than at present. ..I must, howference ? And what become of ever, except a short time preceding and republican visions ?

following my leaving Lord Shelburne,

when I laboured under a bilious com. When we consider the multi- plaint, in which I was troubled with plicity and variety of Dr. P.'s pur- gall stones, which sometimes gave me suits, and the number of his works, exquisite pain. But by confining mywe naturally inquire by what means self to a vegetable diet, I perfectly rehe accomplished so much. In

covered ; and I have now been so long

free from the disorder that I am under composition he generally content

no apprehension of its return. ed himself with being perspicuous, It has been a singular happiness to and spent no time upon the graces me, and a proof, I believe, of a radically of writing. Still many of his works good constitution, that I have always must have required great labour slept well, and have awaked with my

faculties perfectly vigorous, without and research.' His mind posses. any disposition to drowsiness. Also, sed great compass and versatility.' whenever I have been fatigued with To abilities indisputably superiour, any kind of exertion, I could at any he joined uncommon industry,"aca time sit down and sleep ; and whatev. tivity, dispatch, and method. The have almost always lost sight of it when

er cause of anxiety I may have had, I following selections from the me. I have got to bed ; and I have generalmoirs, will furnish interesting in-. ly falleni asleep as soon as I have been formation respecting the cast of warm.* his mind, his modes of study, and

I even think it an advantage to me, habits of life :

and am truly thankful for it, that my

health received the check that it did *I have particular reason to be thank- when I was young; since a muscular ful for a happy temperament of body habit from high health, and strong spir. and mind, both derived from my parents. My father, grandfather, and sev- * My father was an early riser. He eral branches of the family, were re.

never slept more than six hours. He markably healthy, and long lived; and said he did not remember having lost a though my constitution has been far whole night's sleep but once, though from robust, and was much injured by when awake he often had to suffer much a consumptive tendency, or rather ani from pain and sickness, as well as from ulcer in the lungs, the consequence of other circumstances of a very addictive improper conduet of myself when I was a nature:

and disgust; especially after the they were desirous he should live

scenes exhibited in France, scènes here in quiet and reputation. But 3 which made humanity shudder and when, at a time that France was

reason recoil, and compelled every heaping indignities and injuries upcivilized government to tremble on our country, and intriguing with for its existence, and every enlight- the people against the government, ened advocate of liberty to abhor he joined with her partizans in

revolution. He said he was peace- their festive celebrations; when he € able, whilst, at the same time, he retained among his intimates one 9 was laying a train, that, if it took of the defamers of our tried states

effect, would destroy and lay waste men, and preachers of 'sedition ; society. He was a severe sufferer when he appeared so weak or so

by the brutal fury of the mob at Bir- perverse, as to lend his name to the 1. mingham. But it would have been unfounded and profligate slanders

right, if he had seen himself cone of the Washington and Adams demned of a gross disregard of cau- administration, he indeed lost much tion, however pure were his inten- of the regard of the federalists. tions, in this exiribition of the tem- Although we have no idea that the per of an inflamed populace. The alien law was made with any parexcesses,whch occasioned him such ticular reference to him, as he supterrour and mischief, and were near poses, or that Mr. Adams had any costing bim his life, were the same intention of sending him out of the in kind as those which his friends country, we admit that his conduct celebrated with triumph, and the produced the alienation and regret same as his principles and opin- of many, who had before held him ions, operating as they might have in much consideration. done on the popular passions, In these memoirs much pains would have spirited the multitude are taken to show, that Dr. P. had to commit against the friends of reason to be satisfied with his rethe court and the establishment. ception in this country, and was

It is ascribed to a change of poli- not disappointed in his expectaticks in this country, a change tions of the state of things here. which the son calls disgraceful to When he first arrived, he paid America, that Dr. P.'s political lavish encomiums upon our concharacter sunk in the esteem of stitutions, and upon the people ; the federal party.

This is said and he continued in this strain for without foundation. The enlight- several years. A letter written in ened men of this party never res- October, 1796, gives a very flatter, pected Dr. P. for the part he tooks ing account of the Americans. relating to the French revolution, Yet, in a Maxim of political Arithor for his countenance of the spirit metick, published in Feb. 1798, of innovation and change in Eng, we find a different tone. The folland. They had no confidence in lowing passage deserves to be quote his theories about popular rights ed : and civil polity; and they knew

"A stranger naturally expects to find from the first, that he did not un a greater simplicity of manners, and derstand the nature of our govern. more virtue, in this new country, as it is

But a ments. But they honoured him called, than in the old ones. for his virtues as a man, and his vince him, that, considering how easily

nearer acquaintance with it, will con92 merits as a philosopher; and whilst subsistence is procured here, and con.

he forbore to interfere in politicks . sequently how few incitements there

s are to the vices of the lower classes es- at school (being offen violently heated

pecially, there is less virtue as well as with exercise, and as often imprudentless knowledge, than in most of thely chilled by bathing, &c.) from which countries of Europe. In many parts of with great difficulty I recovered, it has the United States there is also less re. been excellently adapted to that studiligion, at least of a rationd and useful . ous life which has fallen to my lot. kind. And where there is no sense of I have never been subject to head. religion, no fear of God, or respect to a achs, or any other complaints that are future state, there will be no good peculiarly unfavourable to stuly. I morals that can be depended upon." have never found myself less disposed, Laws may restrain the excesses of vice, or less qualified, for mental exertions but they cannot impart the principles of any kind at one time of the day more of virtue.

P.446. than another ; but all seasons have been

equal to me, early or late, before dinIf universal suffrage,' so much

ner or after, &c. And so far have I relied on by these gentlemen, for been from suffering by my application securing all that a good man should to study, (which however. has never

been so close or intense as some have wish for a country, will not secure knowledge, nor virtue, nor religion, improving from the age of eighteen to

imagined) that I have found my health more effectually than the heredi- the present time ; and never have I tary governments of Europe, on found myself more free from any diswhat accounts is it entitled to pre- order than at present. ..I must, how. ference ? And what become of ever, except a short time preceding and

following my leaving Lord Shelburne, republican visions ?

when I laboured under a bilious comWhen we consider the multi- plaint, in which I was troubled with plicity and variety of Dr. P.'s pur- gall stones, which sometimes gave me suits, and the number of his works, exquisite pain. But by confining mywe naturally inquire by what means self to a vegetable diet, I perfectly.re. he accomplished so much.

covered ; and I have now been so long In

free from the disorder that I am under composition he generally content

no apprehension of its return. ed himself with being perspicuous, It has been a singular happiness to and spent no time upon the graces me, and a proof, I believe, of a radically of writing. Still many of his works good constitution, that I have always must have required great labour slept well, and have awaked with my

faculties perfectly vigorous, without and research. His mind posses

any disposition to drowsiness. Also, sed great compass and versatility.' whenever I have been fatigued with To abilities indisputably superiour; any kind of exertion, I could at any he joined uncommon industry,'ac

time sit down and sleep ; and whatevtivity, dispatch, and method. The have almost always lost sight of it when

er cause of anxiety I may have had, I following selections from the me

I have got to bed ; and I have generalmoirs, will furnish interesting in- ly fallen asleep as soon as I have been formation respecting the cast of warm.* his mind, his modes of study, and

I even think it an advantage to me, habits of life :

and am truly thankful for it, that my

health received the check that it did 'I have particular reason to be thank- when I was young ; since a muscular ful for a happy temperament of body habit from high health, and strong spir. and mind, both derived from my par. ents. My father, grandfather, and sev- * My father was an early riser. He eral branches of the family, were re. never slept more than six hours. He markably healthy, and long lived; and, said he did not remember having lost a though my constitution has been far whole night's sleep but once, though from robust, and was much injured by when awake he often had to suffer much a consumptive tendency, or rather an from pain and sickness, as well as from ulcer in the lungs, the consequence of other circumstances of a very adictive improper conduct of myself when I was a nature

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its, are not, I think, in general accom. the former, which I viewed with a de. panied with that sensibility of mind, gree of terrour. which is both favourable to piety, and Apprized of this defect, I never fail to speculative pursuits.*

to note down as soon as possible every "To a fundamentally good constitu• thing that I wish not to forget. The tion of body, and the being who gave it same failing has led me to devise, and me, I owe an even cheerfulness of tem. have recourse to, a variety of mechan. per, which has had but few interrup- ical expedients, to secure and arrange tions.

pp. 101-2-3. my thoughts, which have been of the

greatest use to me in the composition Yet, notwithstanding these ad- of large and complex works; and what vantages, he seems to have labour- has excited the wonder of some of ney ed under some peculiar defects : readers, would only have made them

smile if they had seen me at work. But 1. As I have not failed to attend to the by simple and mechanical methods one phenomena of my own mind, as well as man shall do that in a month, which to those of other parts of nature, I have shall cost another, of equal ability, not been insensible of some great de. whole years to execute. This methodfects, as well as some advantages, at- ical arrangement of a large work is tending its constitution ; having from greatly facilitated by mechanical meth. an early period been subject to a most ods, and nothing contributes more to humbling failure of recollection, so that the perspicuity of a large work, than a I have sometimes lost all ideas of both good arrangement of its parts.' persons and things, that I have been

pp. 105-6-7, conversant with. I have so completely forgotten what I have myself publish

“Though I have often composed much ed, that in reading my own writing's,

in a nttle time, it by no means follows what I find in them often appears per

that I could have done much in a given fectly new to me, and I have more than

time. For whenever I have done much once made experiments, the resuls of business in a short time, it has always which had been published by me.

been with the idea of having time more * I shall particularly mention one fact

than sufficient to do it in ; su that I of this kind, as it alarmed me much at

have always felt myself at ease, and I the time, as a symptom of all my men.

could have done nothing, as many can, tal powers totally failing me, until s if I had been hurried. was relieved by the recollection of Knowing the necessity of this state things of a similar nature having hap- of my mind to the dispatch of business, pened to me before. When I was com.

I have never put ott' any thing to the pnsing the Dissertations which are pre

last moment; and instead of doing that fixed to my Harmony of the Gospels, I

on the morrow which ought to be done had to ascertain sometining which had to-day, I have often blamed myself for been the subject of much discussion re. doing to-day what had better bave been lating to the Jewish passover, (I have

put off until to-morrow; precipitancy now forgotten what it was) and for that being more my fault than procrastinapurpose had to consult, and compare

tion. several writers. This I accordingly It has been a great advantage to me, did, and digested the result in the com. that I have never been under the nepass of a few paragraphs, which I wrote cessity of retiring from company in or. in short hand. But having mislaid the der to compose any thing. Being fond paper, and my attention having been of domestick life, I got a habit of wridrawn off to other things, in the space ting on any subject by the parlour fire, of a fortnight I did the same thing over with my wife and children about me, again ; and should never have discov. and occasionally talking to them, with ered that I had done it twice, if, after out experiencing any inconvenience the second paper was transcribed for from such interruptions. Nothing but the press, I had not accidentally found reading, or speaking without interrup

tion, has been any obstruction to me. * Though not a muscular man, he For I could not help attending (as some went through great exertion at various can) when others spoke in my hearing. times of bis life with activity. He These are useful habits, which studi. walked very firmly, and expeditiously . ous persons in general might adquire,

p. 109.

if they would ; and many persons evening in company with some of the greatly distress themselves, and others, students in their chambers. by the idea, that they can do nothing It was by the regularity and variety except in perfect solitude or silence' of his studies, more than by intense.

ness of application that he performed . It was while my father was at the so much more than even studious men academy that he commenced a practice generally do. At the time he was enwhich he continued until within three gaged about the most important works, or four days of his death, of kecping a and when he was not busily employed diary, in which he put down the occur. in making experiments, he always had rences of the day; what he was em- leisure for company, of which he was ployed about; where he had been, and fond. He never appeared hurried, or particularly an exact account of what behind hand. He however never car. he had been reading, mentioning the ried his complaisance so far as to negnames of the authors, and the number lect the daily task he had imposed upon of pages he read, which was generally himself ; but as he was uniformly an a fixed number, previously determined early riser, and dispatched his more seupon in his own mind. He likewise rious pursuits in the morning, it rarely noted down any hints suggested by happened but that he could accomplislı what he read in the course of the day. the labours assigned for the day, withIt was his custom at the beginning of out having occasion to withdraw from each year to arrange the plan of study visitors at home, or society abroad, or that he meant to pursue that year, and giving reason to suppose that the comto review the general situation of his pany of others was a restraint upon his affairs, and at the end of the year he pursuits. took an account of the progress he had This babit of regularity extended itself made, how far he had executed the to every thing that he read, and every plan he had laid down, and whether his thing he did that was susceptible of it. situation exceeded or fell short of the' He never read a book without deterai expectations he had formed.'

p. 176. mining in his own mind when he would * But what principally enabled him finish it. Had he a work to transcribe, to do so much was regularity, for it does he would fix a time for its completion. not appear that at any period of his life This habit increased upon him as lie he spent more than six or eight hours grew in years, and his diary was kept per day in business that required much upon the plan I have before described, mental exertion. I find in the same till within a few days of his death.' diary, which I have quoted from above,

p. 186--188. that he laid down the following daily arrangement of time for a minister's The Appendices, which treat of studies : Studying the Scriptures 1 hour.

the writings of Dr. P. arc next to Practical writers half an hour. Philoso.. phy and History 2 hours. Classicks half

be considered. an hour. Composition 1 hour-in all 5 hours. He adds below, “All which may be conveniently dispatched before dinner,

ART. 37. which leaves the afternoon for visiting A Sermon delivered before the Gove" and company, and the evening for exceeding in any article if there be occa- ernour, the honourable Council, sion. Six hours not too much, nor and both branches of the Legisa seven."

lature of the commonwealth of It appears by his diary that he follow..

· Massachusetts, on the day of gened this plan at that period of his life. He generally walked out in the after.

eral election, May 27, 1807. By noon or spent it in company. At that

William Bentley, A. M. minister time there was a society or club that of the second church in Salem, assembled twice a week, at which the Boston, Adams & Rhoades. members debated questions, or took it in turn to deliver orations, or read cssays of their own composition. When

OBSCURITY is said, by the critnot attending these meetings, he most

icks to be one source of the subgenerally appears to have spent the lime. It is unlucky for the rep.

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