Obrázky stránek
[ocr errors]

Flit o'er the face of deluge as it shrinks, Though visionary, rise; and sometimes , Or the transparent rain-drops, falling few move

Distinct, and larger glisten. So the ark A moment's sadness, when I think of
Rests upon Aratat ; but nought around thee,
Its inmates can behold, save o'er th' My country, of thy greatness, and thy

Of boundless waters, the Sun's orient orb Among the nations ; and thy character,
Stretching the hull's long shadow, or (Though some few spots be on thy flow.
the Moon

ing robe) In silence, through the silver-cinctur'd Of loveliest beauty : I have never pass'd clouds,

Through thy green bamlets on a sld Sailing as she herself were lost, and left


Or heard thy sweet bells ring, or saw
But oh, sweet Hope,

the youths
Thou bidst a tear of holy extacy And smiling maidens of the villag`ry
Start to their eye-lids, when at night Gay in their Sunday tire, but I have said,
the Dove,

With passing tenderness, ' Live,bappy Weary returns, and lo ! an olive leaf

land, Wet in her bill : again she is put forth, Where the poor peasant feels, his all.d When the seventh morn shines on the though small, hoar abyss :

An independence and a pride, that fill Due ev’ning comes : her wings are His honest heart with joy-joy such as heard no more !

they The dawn awakes, not cold and dripp- Who crowd the mart of men mày never ing sad,

feel. But cheer'd with lovelier sunshine ; Such England is thy boast : When I far away [ked peaks

have heard The dark-red mountains slow their na- The roar of Ocean bursting round thy Upheave above the waste :


rocks, gleams :

Or seen a thousand thronging masts Fume the huge torrent on his desert aspire,

Far as the eye could reach, from every Till at the awful voice of Him WHO


Of every nation, streaming with their THE STORE, the ancient father and his

flags train

O'er the still mirrour of the conscious On the dry land descend.'


Yes, I have felt a proud emotion swell [The third book opens beautifully, in That I was British-born ; tbat I had lied

Mr. Bowles's peculiar manner.] A witness of thy glory, my most lovid
My heart has sigh'd in secret, when

And honour'd country ; and a silent
I thought

pray'r That the dark tide of time might one

Would rise to heav'n, that fame and day close,

peace, and love England, o'er thee, as long since it has

And liberty, would walk thyvales,& sing clos'd

Their holy hymns ; whilst thy brave On Ægypt and on Tyre: that ages hence,

arm repellid From the Pacifick's billowy loneliness,

Hostility, e'en as thy guardian rocks Whose track thy daring search reveald, Repel the dash of Ocean ; which now

calls some isle Might rise in green-haired beauty emi.

Me, ling'ring fondly on the river's side, nent,

On to my destined voyage ; by the And like a goddess, glittering from the Of Asia, and the wreck of cities old,

shores deep, Hereafter sway the sceptre of domain

Ere yet we burst into the wilder deep From pole to pole ; and such as now

With Gama : or the huge Atlantic thou art,

waste Perhaps New Holland be. For who

With bold Columbus stem ; or view

the bounds What the Omnipotent Eternal One,

Ot field ice, stretching, to the southern That made the world, hath purpos'd ?

pole, Thoughts like these,

With thee, benevolent, but hapless Cook!"

sides ;


shall say,


JULY, 1807.

Librum tuum legi & quam diligentissime potui annotavi, quæ commutanda, quæ

eximeida, arbitrarer. Nam ego dicere vero assuedi. Neque ulli patientius reprehenduntur, quam qui maxime laudari merentur. Plin.


to produce them.

The scarcity Reflections on the commerce of the such productions naturally

Mediterranean, deduced from ac- heightens their value, and induces tual experience during a resi. us to view with peculiar favour dence on both shores of the Medi- any work of such general usefulterranean sea ; containing a par- ness, as the title of that under conticular account of the traffick of sideration would seem to imply. ihe kingdons of Algiers, Tunis, The commerce of the MediterraSardinia, Naples, Sicily, the Mo- nean, in its common meaning and rea, o

, J: with an impartial ex- acceptation, bas for a long time amination into the manners and been prosecuted from the United customs of the inhabitants in their States ; but the coasting-trade, or commercial dealings, and a par- trade from port to port in that sea, ticular description of the manu

has only been occasionally pracfactures properly adapted for tised, and perhaps never has been each couniry. By John Jackson, sufficiently understood. The adEsq. F.S.A. author of the Journey vantages of profit, resulting to the overland from India, &c. New- few who have been engaged in it, York, printed and sold by I. have been rather concealed than Riley & Co. 12mo. pp.152. unfolded ; but they have evidently

been sufficient to induce the origiWorks upon commerce and the nal adventurers to continue the facilities of trade, while they essen- prosecution of the traffick. That tially piomote the best interests of investigation, which has for its obthis country, generally obtain no jects the fullest developement of other praise, than such as the au- the principles by which this trade thor can claim for his industry is conducted, the customs of the and truth. Those facts, which are various nations connected with it, most important in the prosecution and the productions of import and of traffick, are easily collected on export, best calculated for the atthe spot, and the conclusions to be tention of a mercantile communidrawn from them must depend, ty, ought to demand strict examfor their value, on mathematical ination. calculations of profit. Men of ge- This book was written by an. nius therefore have seldom been Englishman, addressed to the Leemployed in works upon trade, vant company, and is applicable in and men of business seldom have most of its principles, exclusively either leisure or literature enough to the English trade. It cannot,

therefore, very materially concern up, as forming no inconsiderable the American merchant. Yet part of the commerce of the Medfrom our extended commerce with iterranean. The probability is, the Mediterranean, it may be found that the author has much enlarged to contain many useful ideas, and the extent to which this commerce facts important to our interest. might be carried ; though there is In following our author, we shall little doubt, as he asserts, it has touch upon those points which we usually afforded a profit of 40 per consider most material to the ex. cent.; that, to the merchants engatension of our own trade, and leave ged in it, it has proved in the without comment those discus- highest degree advantageous. But sions, in which the English only because this trade affords a large are interested.

profit on a small capital, it does In his general reasoning our not follow, it will afford an equal author is by no means remarkable profit on a large capital ; and we for precision of expression, or think an accession of stock, so clearness of idea ; his style is of- great as our author contemplates ten debased by inaccuracy, and with such sanguine hopes of adhis meaning confused, inadequate, vantage, would prove detrimental, or useless. The vanity of the au- instead of beneficial. He says, thor is also very apparent from above one hundred guod sized various parts of his work. He ships, say above two hundred tons, seems to think, the nation will may be employed between the discover a mine of wealth, if they Baltic and Mediterranean,' two will but follow the course of his hundred ships of the same burthen directions ; he is enabled, he sup- may be employed in carrying corn poses, to rescue the character of only in the Mediterranean, and the merchant from universal jeal- there is sufficient employment for ousy and degradation by the efforts two hundred sail of ships of two of his pen, and to offer considera- hundred tons and upwards between tions to the British ministry on the Mediterranean and the British principles of policy, which, until empire, exclusive of those employ. he wrote, he imagines, had neve ed in the fish trade;' besides one er been understood. Mr. Jack- thousand small vessels' and with: son strenuously endeavours to out including the trade of the Black establish, as a principal point, sea.' These sweeping calculathe peculiar importance of the tions do not seem to be warranted coasting-trade of the Mediterran- by any arguments arising from bis ean. This, we think, he has mag- details, or from any employment nified much beyond its natural bear- he is able to assign to so many ings, when he asserts, that it would tons of shipping. In most of the be nearly as great, if pursued to countries, whose trade he treats its fullest extent, as the West-India upon, the commerce appears lim trade of Great-Britain. Such an ited, rather than extended ; their assertion does not consist with his markets are easily overstocked ; details ; in which he says merely, and their articles of export, not that two hundred bales, or even being of general consumption, aré a whole ship’s cargo of English comparatively of limited demand manufactures, would not overstock abroad. We should supposé the market of Tunis ; the imports therefore, that, so far from afford: of which, he had just before set ing employment to one hundred and eighty thousand tons of ship. compelled to discredit such posiping, which is the aggregate of his tive assertions, as either are not encalculations, it could not be capa- forced by particular arguments, or ble of employing a tenth part of carry every symptom of improbathat amount. Indeed we cannot bility upon the face of them. perceive what channel of trade But while we pass over his ideas would easily support the expense of a general nature, as nugatory of even that quantity of tonnage. and inconsistent, we are willing to All the voyages which this trade pay more respect to his minuteness can include may be completed in of detail, which appears to contain four months on an average, so information in its nature practical that each vessel will perform three and advantageous. The trade of voyages annually. Taking this the Barbary powers, according to circumstance into view, there our authour, has of late been much would arrive in the course of a encouraged, especially in Tunis ; year, in all the ports of the Medi- and the articles of corn, oil, soap, terranean where the coasting trade and wool, are those which princi. is carried on, fifty-four thousand pally employ the attention of the tons of shipping, even after deduct. Tunisians. Oil is an article, which ing from Mr. Jackson's estimate is most to be preferred at Susa, nine-tenths of the amount of his because it is of a better quality calculation. This quantity of there, than at any other port in shipping will appear more than Tunis, and a vessel can be more sufficient for all possible purposes readily loaded. The season for ma, of the trade, if it be observed, that king the oil is from November commerce is not generally exten- until January ; it is shipped by sive in Algiers, Tunis, the Morea, contract with the Kyas, who are or Sardinia-is attended with nu- honourable in their dealings. It merous obstructions throughout is sent to France either in jars or the Mediterranean—and in many casks, and some of it finds its way places with some degree of dan- to England under the name of ger. Most of the nations engaged Gallipoli. They can load a ship in the traffick are thieves and at Susa of three hundred tons bur. rogues, according to our author's then in a week. own account, consisting of Jews, The article of soap fluctuates in who are numerous in all the Bare price from eighteen to twenty-five bary states ; ' "the Greeks, who piastres per quintal. "Great quancompose a considerable part of the tities are shipped from Minorca, population of the northern shores Majorca, the coast of Spain, and of the Mediterranean ;' and the part of Italy.' Mr. Jackson supArmenians,' who enjoy the great- poses the hard Barbary soap would est part of Turkey in Asia, Arabia, answer well for the North AmerPersia, and the major part of the ican market. In enforcing the Caravan trade. These nations pay argument of benefit from an attenno respect to their engagements, tion to a trade in soap, he observes, will plunder you when they have that this article alone is one of an opportunity, and murder you the most profitable branches of

or revenge, We think the American trade,' it is taken the authour has been led to his chiefly to the southern states, and conclusions rather from his wishes, then sent over all the West-India than his calculations; and we are islands.' This is not absolutely an Vol. IV. No. 7.


for safety

erroneous assertion.. Soap indeed towns there is less brutality of is not very frequently imported manners, but there exists an alfrom the Mediterrancan to this most equal degree of ignorance. fiart of the country as formerly, Sardinia exports grain, salt, goat. but the southern states still con- skins, brandy, and barilla, and emtinue to import. The quantity of ploys much capital in the tunnyAmerican manufactured soap, how fishery. Calari, in Mr. Jackson's ever, has lessened the price as well opinion, is one of the best places as the demand of that from abroad, in the Mediterranean to load with and the cost of foreign soap has, salt. It costs 6 sixpence the Englatterly, increased ; so that Mr. tish hundred, free on board,' and Jackson's propositions must be ta- t any number of ships may always ken with allowances.

be sure of getting cargoes.' Wool is shipped in abundance Under the head of Sicily our from Barbary to France, and is authour gives some important diconsidered a most beneficial branch rections respecting the purchase of the French commerce. The of barilla and brimstone, and on French however, it must be ob- the economy of loading a ship served, have been lately in the for a foreign voyage.' His princihabit of raising their own wool, ple is, the higher the centre of which has contributed not a little gravity is raised, the easier the to diminish this trade.

ship will be in all her motions at From Barbary our authour con-' sea,' which we suppose is sufducts us to Sardinia, an island ficiently apparent to all our navi. of which, although the name is gators. He also enumerates many very familiar, very little is known. articles of advantageous traffick; He enlarges on the advantages of but the trade of Sicily and Naples a commerce that might be carried is so well understood by American on there ; but we cannot discover merchants, that it would be needany traits of character in the in- less to follow him particularly. habitants, which would be likely The exports of barilla, and vegetato favour it. He confesses the ble oil for manufactories, to the people to be in a most degraded French, Spanish, Portuguese, and state of society. The men dress other northern ports, as well as in goat-skins with the hair out England ; and of sulphur, with wards, one skin before and the which Sicily supplies England and other behind, having neither a great part of the rest of the breeches, shoes, nor stockings. world, make the principal part of They wear a woollei or skin cap the trade of this island. upon the head, and never shave the The English trade of the Mores beard nor comb the hair.' • The and Archipilago is under the diwomen dress in a gown, which rection of the Levant Company, reaches to the ancles and like the and precludes all prospect of indimen have neither shoes nor stock. vidual success. This trade, to ings, and they wear a woollen gether with that of the Black Sea, cap.' The Sardinians are mere deserves the attention of the Amer. savages, who prey upon travellers ; ican merchant. They export vast but, tirough thieves and murderers quantities of cotton, fustick, beef by profession, they are attached to and other salted provisions,olive oil, their king and country. In 'the and valonia. These articles are

i tot la dott.

« PředchozíPokračovat »