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pastor of the church and congregation By Andrew Kippis. 8vo. Boston, in Bedford. Published at the request Etheridge & Bliss. of the hearers. 8vo. pp. 24. Amherst, Vol. Y. Part I. of the New Cyclo. Joseph Cushing. 1807.

pædia, or Dictionary of Arts and Sci. A Discourse, delivered at Wilton, ences. By Abraham Rees. 4to. Phi. N. H. before the Musical Society of ladelphia, s. F. Bradford; L. Blake, said place, Jan. 22, 1807. By Humphrey agent in Boston. Subscriptions $3,50 Moore, pastor of the church in Milford, per half volnme, till the publication of 8vo. pp. 16. Amberst, Joseph Cushing the next number, when the price will

A Discourse, delivered at Hopkinton, be 94. before the Honourable Legislature of

Number IV. of the second Boston the state of New Hampshire, at the an- edition of Shakespeare's Plays. Con. pual election, June 4, 1807. By Nathan taining Midsummer Night's Dream, Bradstreet, A.M. pastor of the congre. Much Ado about Nothing, and Love's gational church in Chester. 8vo. pp. Labour Lost, with notes by Johnson, 24. Amberst, Joseph Cushing. and Stevens. 12mo. Boston, Munroe

& Francis.
NEW EDITIONS.
CIONS.

Second edition of a new system of

Dorpestick Cookery, formed upon prin. Elements of Therapeutics, or a Guide ciples of economy, and adapted to the to Health ; being cautions and direc

use of private families. By a Lady. tions in the treatment of diseases ; del

12mo. pp. 295. Boston, Andrews & signed chiefly for the use of students. Cummings, and Oliver C. Greenleaf. By the Rev. Joseph Townsend, M.A.

My Pocket Book, or Hints for a rector of Pewsy, author of the Physi: Ryghte Merrie and Conceitede' Tour, cian's Vade Mecum, and of a Journey in quarto, to be called The Stranger through Spain. Second American edi. in Ireland,' in 1805. By, a Knight Er. tion. Nullius in terba magistri. 8vo.

rant. New York, E. Sargeant.

Buchan's Domestick Medicine.pp. 612. Boston, Etheridge & Bliss, 12 Cornhill. D. Carlisle, printer.

Charleston, J. Hoff. The Ancient History of the Egyptians, Carthaginians, Assyrians, Baby

WORKS IN THE PRESS. Ionians, Medes and Persians, Macedonians, and Grecians. By Mr. Rollin, late The 2d vol. of Rollin's Ancient His! principal of the university of Paris, pro- tory--and 3d of Doddridge's Family fessor of eloquence in the royal college Expositor. 8vo. Boston, Etheridge and member of the royal academy of & Bliss. inscription and belles lettres. Trans- The 4th volume of Burke's Works lated from the French. In eight vols. Sva. Boston, John West, 76 Cornhill, Vol. I. The twelfth edition, il!ustrated and Oliver Cromwell Greenleaf, 3 with maps. 8vo. pp. 364. Boston, Courtsreet. Etheridge & Bliss, 12, Cornhill. 1807. The 1st and 2d volumes of Boswell's

St. Clair, or the heiress of Desmond. Life of Johnson. 8vo. Boston, An By S. Owenson. 12mo. Pp: 240. Phi- drews & Cummings, and L. Blake. ladelphia, Samuel F. Bradford. 1807. These will be published in about two

The Seasons in England ; descriptive or three weeks. poems. By the Rev. William Cooper Taylor, A.M. 16mo. pp. 92. Boston, WORKS ANNOUNCED. Joseph Greenleaf. Oliver & Munroe, printers.

William Pelham proposes to publish Vol. II. of The Family Expositor, or by subscription, a new edition of a popa paraphrase and version of the New- ular English novel, for the purpose of Testament ; with critical notes, aud a introducing a NEW SYSTEM OF NOpractical improvement of each section TATION; by which the variable sounds containing the history of our Lord Jet of the vowels and consonants in the sus Christ, as recorded by the four English alphabet may be accurately disevangelists ; disposed in the order of tinguished. The irregularity of sound an harmony. By Philip Doddridge, D. to which many of our alphabetical chaD. From the 8th London edition. To racters are subject, has been frequently which is prefixed, a life of the author, noticed and complained of; more es

pecially by foreigners engaged in learn- las, Prince of Abyssinia, by Dr. Jobeing the language. In some instances son, whose name alone is sufficient to a single character is, employed to ex- establish the merit of all the legitimate press a variety of sounds ; while two productions of his pen. The marks or more characters are in other instan- denoting sounds will be on the left band ces combined, to convey one simple page; the right brand page will contain sound. "Such indeed is the state of the same matter, word for word, the our written language,' Mr. Sheridan marks of sound being omitted, and the rery justly observes, that the darkest accent distinguished. hieroglyphicks,or most difficult cyphers, A specimen of the work may be seer, which the art of man has hitherto in by applying to the publisher, at No. 59. rented, were not better calculated to Cornhill. Boston, July 15, 188. conceal the sentiments of those who Messrs. Belcher & Armstrong, used them from all who had not the this town, have announced their interkey, than the state of our spelling is, to tion of printing the Poetical Works & conceal the true pronunciation of our Robert Treat Paine, jun. words from all except a few. well edu- Proposals have been issued at Nexcked natives. With such impediments Orleans, for publishing by subscripta, in tile way of the learner, it is less won- in four 8vo. vols, price $20, a Diges of Tierful that many should fail, than that the Laws of Castile and the Spanish any should succeed in acquiring a tho. Indies ; with a general view of the rough knowledge of English pronunci. principles of the Roman Code, on wilich ation and orthography. 'To promote those laws are founded. By James the attainment of this object the work Workman, Esq. counsellor at law, tate in contemplation is proposed on the fol- judge of the county of Orleans, and of lowing principles. 1. By means of a the court of probates of the territory of variety of inarks placed over the same Orleans. vowel or diphthong in diferent situa. Thomas Ewell, M.D. author of Plain tions, to ascertain its sound in each va- Discourses on Chemistry, and surgeon riation. 2. By marks attached to to the U. S. marine and sesman's hos. such consonants as have not an invaria. pitals of Washington city, has issued ble sound, to point out their respective proposals for publisbing a new work, variations. 3. Each vowel-mark to entitled, Letters to a Young Farmer, denote one invariable sound. 4. The containing an account of the substitutes marks applied to the consonants to be for medicines found in the U. States. varied sufficiently for the purpose of Mr. Samuel Bragg, jun. of Dover, discrimination, and still subject to gen. Newhampshire, proposes publishing, fral rules. 5. No, alteration to be from a late London edition, a work eitmade in the figure of any vowel, and titled “ An Essay on the Spirit and Invery slight additions to such of the con- fluence of the Reformation, by Luther," sonants as are variable in sound, so as the work which obtained the prize on to retain the general appearance of each this question, proposed by the National letter. 6. È very word to be correctly Institute of France, What has been spelled ; there being no necessity for the influence of the reformation by Lufalse spelling to convey an idea of pro- ther, on the political situation of the nunciation. The learner will by this different states of Europe, and on the means acquire the pronunciation, and a

progress of knowledge » B: C. Vil: knowledge of orthography at the same lers. Translated from the last Paris time. The distinct sound denoted by each will be printed in one ortavo volume of

edition, by B. Lambert. This work mark being impressed on the memory, about 400 pages, price $2. the learner can never be perplexed on finding the same vowel or dipththong

OUR readers in our next 111remployed to express different sounds ber will receive fileasure and de: as in common printing ; because, what

light byc visit from ever the vowel or tipthong may be, the

Botanisi," sound denoted by the mark above it, remains invariable. The work selected from the mass of English publications

ERRATUM. - In the last No. in the poem by

the Hon. Benjamin Pratt, instead of for the purpose of bringing into view the scheme of notation above described,

As varying Zephyr pufis the trembling blaze, is the well-known novel entitled Rasse.

As varying Alister puffs, &c.

rcad

THE

MONTHLY ANTHOLOGY,

FOR

AUGUST, 1807.

For the Anthology.
BOTANIST, No. 13.

pursue.

THE LEAF.

So from the root
Springs lighter the green ftalk, from thence the LEAVES
More airy.

Milton. NATURAL HISTORY is the most all their materials. An inferiour pleasing study that can occupy the nation depends on a superiour for rational and tasteful mind; the all these instruments. pleasure it affords differs from all Agriculture, that art, by which others, insomuch, that it brings no alone we can live in plenty, withsatiety; for here gratification and out dependence on other nations, appetite are perpetually interchang. is the great art, which we Ameriing : yet the botanist never has, cans ought above all other arts to nor ever will recommend it, mere

But agriculture will ever ly to amuse the imagination, or remain" a vague and uncertain gratify the fancy. Utility, publick study, unless we acquire a knowlutility is the motive, which impel- edge of the vegetable economy, led him to hold up mineralogy and and obtain a happy insight into the agriculture to the love of the rising physiology of plants. Under the generation. This country, abound head of agriculture we wish to ining in minerals, is yet dependent clude the culture of forest trecs, on foreign nations for riches, that especially the oak, which is among lay under our feet. However trees what iron* is among the metwounding to our pride, we should als, the strength and glory of a remember, that no people can be nation. The olive is the product truly said to have obtained absolute of those countries, where ihe hucivilization, who do not work their man race is debilitated by that own metals. It is true, that every warmth needful to its growth : inthing for the support of life is con- stead of this languid foreigner, let tinued, with unceasing circulation, let us place in the arms of the from the upper stratum of the

United States a branch of the oak earth ; it is nevertheless as true,

with its acorns. † Providence, that from the bowels of it a nation draws nearly all her means of de

* Very hard, and not very heavy. fence ; labour her tools ; com

+ The Romans called the oak ROBUR,

and used it metaphorically for great merce her riches; agriculture her strength of body and mind, or courage chicł support ; and the fine arts to endure to the end ; hence oor werd

Vol. IV. No. 8. 30

whose works are marked by mani. and, by searching into the bud, we fold conveniences, flowing from have seen the rudiments of the one single contrivance, gives the leaves ; and when we penetrated acorn, and by it communicates still deeper, we discovered, that the power and glory to a nation ; pro- tud, like the seed, contained the vided that nation has wisdom to epitome of the future plant ; but appreciate, and virtue to co-oper- during winter it wants the power ate with its bountiful intention. of unfolding its parts. Both seeds Let the branch of the oak then, and buds contain the primordia with its acorns, bind the brow of plantarum : buds therefore differ America: let it encircle the Amer- from seeds only, as the living fætus ican eagle, or rather let the em- differs from the egg of an animal ; blem of the western empire be a so that buds are seeds in a more CONDORF reposing on a mighty advanced stage of vegetation. We branch of tbis pride and glory of have already remarked, that some our forests.

buds contain flowers, some leaves, Leaving general observations, let and some both ; and that an acus turn our particular attention to curate discrimination of them was the physiology of the LEAF.

of importance in the process of By foliation English botanists budding. To watch the vernation mean the complication or folded of the embryo bud, the gradual state of leaves, while concealed unfolding of the feetal leaves and within the bud ; but this term ex- infantile flower, is a pleasing spe. presses not that procedure of na- culation ; for the leaves are comture, by which the leaves are re- pletely formed, and fairly rolled newed and developed every spring, up for evolution, many months beso accurately, as does the Latin fore they begin to expand : the word • vernatio.'

study of the anatomical structure In a former number we have of the full expanded leaf and its shewn, that the bud springs from functions, is equally delightful.the medulla or pith of the plant; We shall pass silently over the

nomenclature of leaves,* which is rolust. Robur nodosum was the club of apt to discourage young botanists Hercules

, the emblem of heroick vir: unused to geometrical writers in

An oak with its acorus was held in high veneration by the renowned

the Latin tongue, and shall pursue Romans. Pliny says, Glandiferi maxi. the more pleasant task of exhibitgeneris omnes, quibus honos apul Ro: ing, as far as we are able, the strucmanos perpetuus. Where he speaks of ture and the functions of the leaf. chaplets, he says, that civick coronet

When we are told, that “a leaf has most dignity which is made of a branch of oak, provided it at the same

is a part of a plant, extended into time bears acorns.

length and breadth, in such a man| The Condor is peculiar to America; and is the largest bird that flies ;

* There is not only the Folium bifbeing eighteen feet from tip to tip of dum, trifidum, quadrifidum, quinquefidum, its wing. “ The Condor possesses, in a

and bipartum, tripartum, quadri partum, higher degree than the eagle, all the and quinquepartum ; but there is the fa. qualities that render it formidable, not lium compositum, decompositum, and only to the feathered kind, but to supradecompositum ; and the folium am. beasts." Goldsmith.

plexicaule, and semiamplexicaule, and Acosta, Garcilasso, Desmarchais,and an hundred others, having reference to Condamine, have described this pre. the shape of the leaf merely. Good eminent bird ; the last says, that he is sense has hardly fair play when thus beculiarly created by the Spaniards. oppressed with hard words.

tue.

ner, as to have one side distin- that if you slit a leaf with scissors, guishable from the other,'* the you cut through as many different naturalist receives but little infor- parts of the plant, as if you cut mation ; and we obtain but little through the trunk of a tree. The more, when we are told, that they whole leaf is covered with a porare the organs of motion ;'t but, tion of the epidermis, or that scarfwhen we say, that the leaves are skin, which covers the stem and the lungs of a plant, we convey an stalk of the plant. Between this idea more consonant to truth and thin membrane and the cortical nature : for we find that a leaf will net-work, are placed the absorbent die, if its upper or varnished sur- vessels, together with wliat we preface is anointed with any glutinous sume to be the absorbent-glands. matter ; or when placed in an ex- Dr. Darwin assures us, that there hausted receiver. If we should is an artery and a vein in a leaf ; say, that the leaf combines the of- and that the artery carries the sap fice of lacteals and lungs, we shall to the extreme surface of the upcome still nearer truth. While per side of the leaf, and there exour stomachs digest solid food, our poses it, under a thin moist memlungs digest air ; so that what is brane, to the action of the atmosperformed by two organs in ani- pherick air ; then the veins collect mais, is performed by one in plants; and return this circulating fluid to let us then examine this organ and the foot-stalk, just as the artery its functions.

and vein operate in our lungs. It The LEAF is attached to the is hardly fair to compare the leaves branch of the plant by a short foot- of a plant with the respiratory orstalk. From these foot-stalks a gans of the more perfect animals; number of fibres issue, which, but rather to the breathing appar. ramifying in every direction, com- atus of insects, or, what is perhaps municate with each other in every more to our purpose, to the gills part of the leaf, and thereby form of fish. a curious network. The interme- When the structure of any or. diate substance is greenish ;t and ganised body is too subtle to come may be eaten by insects, or destroy- within the scrutiny of the human ed by putrefaction, while the fi- senses, we must have recourse to obrous part remains entire, consti- analogy, and from the truths we tuting the skeleton of the leaf. discover, and the observations we There are, however, two layers of make, we must judge of the operfibres in every leaf, forming two ations in similar bodies ; for we can distinct skeletons; the one belong- form our opinion of that, we know ing to the upper part of the leaf, not, only by placing it in comparithe other appertaining to the low. son with something similar to that er. It is very difficult to demon- we know. The structure of cerstrate the anatomy of a leaf ; but tain large-leaved plants, that grow we have reason to conclude, that in water, are remarkably conspicu. the seven essential parts of a plant, ous; and the gills of fish resemble, enumerated in the fourth number, in structure and office, the leaves are extended, rooled out, and ex. of these aquatick plants. Duvetenuated throughout the leaf ; so ney and Monro have scrutinized

the gills of fish; the former found, • Miller.

+Linnæus. that those of the carp contained Landskips, painted by the best masters, are not green.

four thousand three hundred and

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