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'eighty-six bones, which were mov- in order to perfect the seed, and cd by sirty-nine muscles : and the continue its kind. The roots are latter informs us, that, in the gills sufficient to supply nourishment to of the skate fiss), there exists onte a large tree during winter, when hundred and forty-four thousand divested of its leaves, and when the folds or subdivisions. This mani. vegetative life reposes in winter foid structure gives this respiratory quarters :* buts stimulated by the organ a surprising extent of sur- warmth of spring, the vegetable face. These subdivisions termin- ens awakes, and, when the process ating in innumerable points, re- of vernation has fairly begun, then semble fringe ; but, when ex- the tree has more to do than mere. amined by the microscope, appear lyio support its own existence ; like down; yet is every part crowd and therefore it spreads through ed with blood-vessels, being rami- the air its numberless leaves. which fications of the pulmonary artery are nearly equivalent to the stomand vein. The whole extent of ach and lungs of animals. the gills is covered with an exceed- That the sap ascends to the ingly fine membrane, in which the leaves is proved by the bleeding of microscope discovers a still finer vines early in the spring, before network of vessels. By such a the leaves are formed, there being structure the fish exposes a greater no leaves to receive it ; but, when surface of blood to the water, than these elaborating organs are formis exposed to the air, by the inter- ed, the vine ceases to bleed, benal membrane of the air-cells of cause the sap flows into them for the lungs of quadrupeds ; and that rectification it for, while a vegetafor the same purpose, namely, im- ble is growing, it is continually gobibing uncombined oxygen, which ing through a regular series of is the material or pabulum vitæ, changes, losing the properties of equally necessary to fish as to land one substance and assuming those animals. Now, if we compare the of another ; thus mucilage in a structure of the gills of fish with young plant becomes starch in the that of the leaf of aquatick plants, old; what in green fruit is acid, in we can discern a great similarity ; a ripe fruit is sugar, but the limits of this essay do not But the function of the leaf is allow us to run the parallel so far not perpetually uniform, as in the as we might.

lungs of the more perfect animals; As a tree cannot go in search of its operations differ in the day, and 'food, like an animal, it is forced to in the night. In the day the leaves draw its nourishment from within of plants exhale moisture and oxy. the narrow sphere of its exist- gen gas, and absorb carbonic acid ence; it therefore extends its roots gas ; but during the night they through the surrounding earth, by emit carbonic acid gas, and absorb which it draws in sustentation, as oxygen gas. In plainer terms, through so many syphons. These they exhale, in the light of the sun, imbibing vessels of the roots may salutary or vital air, but in the dark be compired to the lacteals in ani. they emit deleterious air : one of mals. This chyle, or sap, ascends to the leaves, and is there changed

* The hybernacula. into a more perfect Auid, answer

Rectification, in the language of ing to the blood of animals ; it is again by distillation, to make it yet

chemists, means drawing any thing over still further exalted in the flower, higher and finer.

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these operations is performed by the source of both; for he emits the varnished* side of the leaf, and two kinds of rays, one calorific, the the other from the rough or under other colourific; the first occasions side.

heat, the other colour, As air and heat are necessary to

With what different eyes does the life of a plant, so is light to its the philosopher and the uninformhealth. The want of light pre- ed husbandman view a tree, wavvents a plant's forming its proper ing in the full glory of its luxuriant juices, deprives it of its green co- foliage ! Ask the woodsman for lour, and prevents the impregna- what a tree was made-he will tell tion of its seed. It is the smooth you to bear nuts ; to be cut into side of the leaf which is acted up- boards; to burn, to keep him warm, on by light, and is that part, by and to cook his victuals. Ask the which a plant, in a great measure, naturalist, and he will tell you, that lives ; hence the leaves of many they are an important, nay indisdelicate plants shut up, so as to pensible link in the chain of hucover this smooth side on exposure man existence ; insomuch, that to noxious vapour, or darkness, or were the Parent and Legislator of to screen it from an extremely nature to cause every vegetable on fierce sunshine. In order to make earth to be at once annihilated, the a distinction between the sensation atmospherical air would directly of heat and the cause of it, the word become a putrid mass of every caloric has been adopted ; it is a thing that is noxious, and man, and body, and so is light. The sun is every other terrestrial animal of

similar construction, would soon * The varnish of the leaf is found to turn into a mortified lump of corbe bees-wax.

ruption. The leaves of all sorts of † It is remarkable, that the leaves cannot prosper without light,

yet seeds vegetables are in fact so many

laboratories for purifying the air germinate best in the dark. * LIGHT is an elastick fluid, that is re. we breathe. flected from certain bodies which it During winter, when the surface cannot penetrate : it is also possessed of the earth is bound up with frost, of chemical affinities, by which it enters into combination with other substances; with snow, little or no putrefaction

encrusted with ice, and covered sometimes occasioning their decomposition, and sometimes it is extricated takes place ; then the vegetable from its combinations. It gives to kingdom appears as if dead ; the vegetables their colour, and contributes trees, divested of leaves, seem like to their smell, taste, and balsamick principle. It enables the leaves of the sun begins to diffuse its warmth

so many dead sticks ; but when vegetables to emit streams of oxygen gas, or pure vital air.

over the earth, promoting that Oxygen, or the acidifying principle, general tendency to corruption, to is found only in its combinations. The which all dead bodies are liable, oxygen gas is the result of the combina- then the trees soon exhibit a wontion of oxygen with caloric. It exists in atmospherick air, in the proportion derful scenery, and the leafless of 27 to 100, and is heavier than the air branches,by displaying, all at once, of the atmosphere. It is absolutely ne- their foliage, increase their surfaces cessary to respiration, hence termed

many thousand times. The leaves VITAL AIR. During the action of

are so arranged on the branches, breathing it enters our blood by the vessels of the lungs, giving to it a ver

as to expose their varnished surmillion colour, and an augmentation of face to the direct influence of the its vital powers.

şun ; and, if forced out of that po

sition, they will turn themselves ; ache, on going into a green-house for leaves are more greedy for the of flowers, that had been shut up light of the sun, than for the in- closely during the night. While fluence of its heat.

a growing vegetable is capable of It is from the under, or rough this two-fold operation, it absorbs side of the leaf that the azotic or whatever putrescent particles it unwholesome air is emitted, while finds in the surrounding earth and the oxygen, or pure vital air ema- air. A sprig of mint, put into a nates from the upper or smooth jar of air, rendered foul by animal surface ; but not before the sun putrescency, will revive, and grow has shone some time upon it. This surprisingly; and will moreover distillation of pure vital air by the correct that air, so that an animal leaf diminishes towards the close shall be able to breathe in it. of day, and ceases altogether after Here is the proper place to resunset, when unwholesome air is mark, that the ocean, when agitat. emitted by the rough side of the ed by winds, yieids oxygenous leaf ; and the next day, soon after gas; and that azotic, mephetic, or the rising of the sun, the smooth noxious air is corrected by being or upper side recommences its strongly shaken with water. Hence function. Hence we learn, that it we learn that the two grand coris unhealthy to tarry in the deep rectors of the air we breathe, are, shade of trees during the night. first, the agitated ocean, and secondSurgamus,' says the shepherd in ly, living vegetables, while operated Virgil, “solet esse gravis cantanti, upon by the rays of the sun, bus umbra.'-Let us rise ; for the If we reflect upon what has been evening shade is unhealthy to sing- said, it will appear, that plants have ers; and, he adds, even the juniper their private virtues, and their pubis now noxious. Ill-scented and lick ones. Beside the peculiar even poisonous plants equally af- medicinal and nutritive qualities, ford salubrious air in sunshine. It which some possess, the great is remarkable, however, that, while family of plants, or what is called leaves perform this salutary pro- the vegetable kingdom, conspire cess, flowers render the surround- to form one grand apparatus for ing air noxious, even in the day purifying the atmosphere, and rentime. Gathered fruit has, at all dering it fit for respiration ; and tines, a deleterious quality. A these may be called their publick peach, in a few hours, rendered a virtues. In this view no vegetable body of air, six times its own bulk, grows in vain, whether in the inso entirely poisonous, that an ani. teriour of this vast continent, or in mal could not breathe, nor a candle the wilds of Africa ; for the leaves burn in it. A rose kept in a glass, of all, whether ill-scented, acrid, or so much infected the air, as to poisonous, elaborate the air they render it unfit for respiration.t contain, and pour down a shower Persons have been found dead in of depurated oxygenous or vital their beds, whose lodging rooms air, which, diffusing itself through have been crowded with Howers : the common mass of the atmos. others have been suddenly affected with dizziness, nausea, and head- S Ingen-houz placed twenty-four

French beans in a quart jar, which ren

dered the air, in one night, so poison* See Ingen-houz passim.

ous, that a chicken, put into it, died in + See Priestley on air.

about twenty seconds.

phere, renders it more fit for ani. To give us only good; and if the night mal life. In this salutiferous pro

Have gather'd aught of evilcess the fragrant rose and the vio- Disperse it, as now light dispels the

dark. let, the deadly night-shade, and the

MILTON. Adam's Morning still more deadly laurel,* co-ope

Hymn. rate. The animal and vegetable kingdoms operate on each other.

POSTSCRIPTUM. Putrid animal effluvia, noxious to

The Botanist is aware, that, man, is food for plants, while plants in the foregoing essay, he has transmit a salutary air to man. sketched a wider landskip, than he The winds convey vitiated air from has been able completely to fill up. us, for our relief; and may return A cultivated eye will, at once, dissalubrious gales, for our refresh- cover some parts that require rement; ' and if these salutary gales touching : this has been owing to rise to storms and hurricanes, let the want of certain requisite maus still trace and revere the ways terials. How differently situated of a beneficent BEING, who, no and circumstanced are our elder fortuitously, but with design, not brethren in Europe, who easily obin wrath, but in mercy, thus shakes tain any book they need ? while the waters and the air together, to we, insulated from the source of bury in the deep those putrid and needed information, spend more pestilential effluvia, which the ve- time in the vain search after a getables upon the face of the earth book, than would suffice to comhad been insufficient to con- pose the essay in question. If a sume.'t

literary ( matter-of-fact-man’ in These traits of wisdom, visible Massachusetts be like unto Robinin the economy of those depart. son Crusoe in his desert island, we ments of nature, which have come should make as much allowance, under our scrutiny, clearly instruct when comparing his productions us how kindly PROVIDENCE re- with those written in the capitals strains,impels,and directs all things of Europe, as when we compare to a beneficent end :

the vessel, made by this renowned His praise, ye winds, that from four docks of France or England. There

voyager, with those built in the quarters blow, Breathe soft or loud ; and wave your

is a lamentable lack of books on tops, ye pines,

Natural History in the University With every plant, in sign of worship library. Will the FAUTORES of

the contemplated ATHENÆUM enO universal Lord ! be bounteous still

courage the heart and strengthen

the hands of the Botanist, by sup* The lauro cerasus yields abundance plying this mortifying deficiency? of the oxygen gas. Ingenhouz.

With the same helps we can work † Pringle's discourse before the Royal Society of London, on giving the prize as well as the Europeans. medal to Dr. Priestley.

wave.

PRESENT STATE OF THE ART OF PAINTING IN FRANCE.

By T. C. Brunn NEERGAERDT, Member of the French Institute.*

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH.

PROFESSOR FIORILLO published of Simonidi, that he took Jacob at Gottingen, some time ago, the Courtois for his model, and that he third volume of his History of the studied Wouvermans : all this Art of Painting, which contains does him honour ; but I cannot that branch of the subject relating coincide in the opinion of this to France.

author when he says, that he The author says in his preface, (Casanova) was nothing else, in that " at first he only thought of the true sense of the word, than a speaking of the old French school, plagiarist, who sometimes took one and that it was too soon to describe groupe and sometimes another the modern one.' I am not of his from the works of Bourguignon, opinion ; I think that the modern and placed it in his own pictures.' school has already produced, and in battle pieces, several things is daily producing, artists of suf- may resemble each other, without ficient merit to entitle them to be our being entitled to say that one publichly noticed. I am also of painter has stolen from another. opinion that M. Fiorillo would have People fight and are killed, in gendone well to have waited until he eral, in the same manner. Casa-. had procured some more exact in- nova was a man of genius, and I formation, or visited France in per- think the accusation of our author son.

is ill founded. He has said very I have not written the following little upon the talents and works observations in the spirit of a of this artist; who has, however, critick ; it is the love of the arts acquired a just reputation in and of truth, which has alone dic- France. He has forgot his brothtated them ; and I only furnish M. er, who was director of the gallery Fiorillo with the present additional at Dresden ; and he has also information, that he may be ena- omitted to mention several of his bled, in a second edition, to render scholars who are known in France. his work more useful, by making Francesco Casanova, in his latterit more exact and more complete. years, did some small paintings of

The period, which embraces the animals, of an agreeable compo-, artists of the modern school, will sition and of a light touch, for include all such, of any repute, as which he was well paid. have died since 1750, I shall be- In delivering the eulogy which gin with Francesco Casanova,whom is due to the talents of M. Vernet, I knew on my first visit to Vienna. he only quotes his design of HypFiorillo says that he was a pupil polyta, and that of the leader of

the car, who returns with his comFrom a memoir entitled “Correc- panions. He informs us that Dartions et Additions pour un Ouvrage de M. cis is engraving it. We can tell Fiorillo sur l'Art de Dessin en France depuis son Retablissement jusqu'à nos

him, however, that Darcis never Fours.” Read at the French National lived to finish this engraving. Institute, May 11, 1806.

Charles Vernet laboured a

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