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p. 33.

thor is known only to the con- of all, even concealed crimes. Obstifessor, might he refuse to give ev

nate and confirmed heresy is the only idence ?

exception ; an offence, however, that

cannot be even suspected, because he, The corso, or duty paid on en- who should be tainted with it, would tering and clearing at the seaports, set but little value on absolution. is an important branch of revenue : Blasphemies against the deity are but more money is needed, and

no more able to resist the power of this the exclusive privilege of pits for bull

, than a spot of oil upon linen can

resist soap.' cock-fights is rented on account of the king. The royal monopoly The grave relation of the auof tobacco is a recent impost, but thor appears severe satire. All more productive, than any other. ecclesiasticks, besides the bull for The profit of bulls is not indeed the living, should purchase the ascertained by our author ; and we bull de laitage, if they wish not may conclude, that it is diminish- to provoke the wrath of heaven by ing. The mists of superstition transgressing the laws of the are gradually dispersing, even in church respecting milk and eggs.' Spanish colonies, and we may soon

Next in the order of muinmery throughout the world behold comes the bull for the dead. reliques, beads,

· The bull for the dead is a species of Indulgences, dispenses, pardons, bulle,

ticket for admission into paradise. It The sport of winds.


enables to clear the devouring flame of But the history of human absur- purgatory, and conducts directly to the dity is improving, though ever so

abodes of the blessed. But one of disagreeable.

these bulls serves for only one soul.' "The kings of Spain, at all periods So that, says Depons, ' with piety favoured by the popes, obtained from

and money it would be easy to them, in the time of the crusades, extraordinary dispensations for those Span- empty purgatory.' But the most iards who devoted themselves to the ex. benignant of these impious mediaa termination of the infidels. The bulls torial impositions between heaven which contained these dispensations and earth, these forgeries of diwere rated and distributed by a Span

vine authority, is the great bull of ish commissary. Their proceeds were intended to contribute towards the char

composition. ges of the expedition. The folly of dri.

• The bull of composition is without ving people to heaven by force of arms doubt that whose effects are most underwent at length, the fate of all oth- sensible, the nearest and most remarker follies, reason has caused it to disap- able. It has the inconceivable virtue pear. The Bulls, however, have con. tinued to arrive from Rome, and con

of transmitting to the withholder of an

other's goods the absolute property in tinue to be sold in Spain. The bless

all he has been able to steal without ings they afford are considered too precious, and the revenue the ex

the connuzance of the law. For its chequer draws from them, too useful, which is, that the expectation of the

validity they require only one condition, to be renounced.'

p. 31. bull did not induce the theft. Modesty Four kinds of bulls are now in has done well to add, that of not knowuse, the virtues of which are fully goods belong : but, from the cases spe

ing the person to whom the stolen explained by Mr. Depons. The cified for its application, it appears that general bull for the living lasts this last condition is illusive ; for, in a

volume, on the virtue of bulls, printed

at Toledo, in 1758, by order of the com* Every person, who has this bull, may missary-general of the holy crusade, we be absolved, by any priest whatsoever, find that the ball of composition beVol. IV. No. 10.


p. 35.

two years.


friends those who hold property they ver has either iron or coal. The car. ought to return to the church, or em- penter never has wood, even for a table. ploy in works of piety, or which they They must have money to buy some. have not legally acquired by the prayers All have always the wants of a family

, of which it was the price. It aids which he who orders their work must those debtors who cannot discover their satisfy. Thus you begin by tying your. creditors, or when the conditions of the self to the workman you employ, and loan are oppressive ; it assists the heir making yourself dependent upon him. who retains the whole of an inheritance It is no longer possible to threaten his loaded with legacies, were it in favour sloth with applying to another, with of a hospital. If a demand has not been whom, besides, the very same inconve. made within a year, the bull of compu. nience would take place. The only resition decrees to its possessor a moiety source then, is that of pressing and so. of the debt; but he ought to pay the perintending the work, and, in spite of residue. It bestows the entire right all these attentions, there are always on those who do not know the owner indispositions, journeys, festivals, which of that which they have obtained un. exhaust the patience of the most phleg. justly. Thus a watch, a diamond, a matick. One is then, very badly, or purse full of gold, stolen in the midst most assuredly,very slowly served. 91. of a crowd, becomes the property of the pick-pocket who has filched it ; in The eleventh and last chapter fine, it quiets the remorse of con comprises a description of the lanscience of the merchant who has enrich. guishing province of Spanish Gu. ed himself by false yards, false mea: ana, and of the great river Orono sures, and false weights. The bull of composition assures to him the absolute ko. On this river the writer ex: property in whatever he obtains by pended many months of labour, modes that ought to have conducted and his information is copious. him to the gallows.'

p. 37. There is a natural canal from the Of these bulls no person can take Oronoko to the river Amazon, more than fifty in a year. A uni. though this fact_has been stoutly versal rule in the sale is, that

controverted. The province of he, who takes a bull of a price Guiana would, in any other hands

, inferiour to that which his fortune be an invaluable colony ; but its or rank order him to procure, en- best parts are possessed by the ferojoys none of the advantages.' cious Caribs, and the lands in the Chap. 10 is wholly occupied with vicinity of the capital

, which is at a description of the cities, which the enormous distance of ninety fills 150 pages, and may be valua- leagues from the ocean, are wholly ble to the geographer. The cata

uncultivated. logue of merchants at Carraccas,

For the first century and a half Porto Cavello, Cumana, and Bar- after the discovery of America celona may be worth perusal by nothing but mines were the object those, who have commercial inters of Spanish cupidity. To avenge course with those cities. Among themselves of their inhuman masthe ridiculous stories of miracles ters, the Indians invented the ficand holy virgins the writer fre- tion of that city, renowned in roquently intermixes a side blow at mance, El Dorado. the national religion. The private economy of the inhabitants is no to

· The first conquerors who undertook less defective, than that of their ish crown, the prorince of Venezuela

, government.

received from the different Indian Da* In this state of poverty, no kind of cred, positive and unanimous informa.

tions they pillaged, violated and massaTy demand an advance The smith ne. South, a region would be found on the

banks of a great lake, inhabited by In- which the rays of the sun give to talc, dians, of a peculiar nature, known un- the effect of which is still more strik der the name of Omegas, living under ing, and tends far more to the illusion laws deliberately made by themselves, of the spectator, who casts his eye principally in a large city, the buildings over a great extent covered with this of which were covered with silver. fallacious stone ? It is probably, not to That the heads of the government and say, infallibly, the source of all the religion wore, when discharging the stories that have been related.' p. 288. duties of their offices, habits of massy gold ; that all their instruments, all

Without the profound speculatheir utensils, all their furniture, were tion of the politician, or the perseof gold, or at least of silver.' p. 275. vering inquiry of the man of sciNumberless expeditions were un

ence, the author has in these voldertaken in search of this new land umes collected much information of Ophir. The delusion was pro

of value on the topicks of geograpagated in England by the marvel- phy, trade, agriculture, natural culous falsehoods of that heroick im- riosities, climate, religion, natural postor, Sir Walter Raleigh, and and moral diversities of the inhabhistory has not scorned to record itants. He passes no subject withthe result. The continuance of out imparting to it some new traits, the fiction is almost without paral- though these are sometimes of litlel. The fancy of Milton, which tle consequence in the picture. As amalgamated every thing it touch- he affords us more fact than argued, has made Adam, under the di- ment, we learn to trust him with rection of Michael, from the top

confidence. The natural jealousy of the highest hill of paradise, to indeed between the French and behold in the spirit,

Spaniards is occasionally perceived,

for though the nations are divided, Rich Mexico, the seat of Montezume, the people are influenced by anAnd Cusco in Peru, the richer seat Of Atabalipa, and yet unspoil'd

cient prejudices, and separated by Guiana, whose great city Geryon's sons discordant modern habits; but the Call El Dorado. Book 11. v. 407. statesman, the moral philosopher, But that it should continue more praise on the veracity of Depons.

and the merchant will bestow much than a century longer, and again become the object of an expedition in 1780, almost disgraces even Spanish credulity. Will ignorance

ART. 60. and wonder be satisfied with the opinion of a late traveller of verac

The British Treaty. 8vo. 1807. ity and intelligence ?

A PAMPHLET, with the above • Baron Humboldt, on his re-entry in title, has lately made its appearance 1800, from the Rio Negro into the Or. without the name of either author onoko, wished to penetrate as far as or publisher. For ourselves we lake Parima ; but he was hindered, as I are not displeased with this cirhave already said, by the Guaycas, whose height does not exceed four feet two or cumstance, as the respect which four inches. It was from them that he

one unavoidably feels for the charlearnt that the lake of Parima, or Dora- acter and feelings of an author, aldo, is of small extent and little depth, ways produces some degree of reand that its banks, as also some islets straint npon the person, who unsituated in the lake are of talc. May dertakes to review

any publication. not the error handed down, of the great riches of this country, be owing Professing then a total ignorance to the brillianey of gold and of silver, of the author of this work, we

shall make a few strictures upon To the publick

however we sub- . the opinions and arguments advan- mit the justice of these censures, ced in it with a frankness, which, when we exhibit, as we shall do from the style and manner of this very briefly, some of our objections writer, we are sure he must ap- to this writer. prove.

We would make one introducThe pamphlet contains the lead- tory remark, to which all intelliing features, or rather a synopsis gent men, who sincerely desire to of the treaty, lately concluded by promote the true interests and digour ministers at the court of G. nity of our country, will assent. Britain, and which Mr. Jefferson, If undue and illiberal prejudices for certain reasons not yet divulg- against Great-Britain have been ed, has been pleased to send back one of the evils, which have resultto the same ministers, to be new ed from the policy, at the same modified or rejected. - This synop- time that they are the disgrace of sis is followed by some elaborate the party, who are now in power, remarks of the author, tending to it cannot be wise, nor prudent, por convince the publick, that the trea. patriotick, to throw any obstacles ty compromitted, in many essen- in the way of the removal of these tial points, the interests of the U. prejudices. Mr. Jefferson, it is nited States ; thus approving, as believed, and his political friends, far as these observations descrve would not feel sorry to find an aweight, the conduct of Mr. Jeffer. pology for rejecting all accommoson in rejecting the treaty. dation with Great Britain, especi

In examining this pamphlet, we ally if they could be supported in disclaim all intention of criticising it by the friends of the former adthe style and manner of the work. ministrations. Now, although this It bears the stamp of a master, idea ought not to induce us to wish and we confess ourselves extreme- the acceptance of a treaty, by which ly diffident in opposing our opin- any of the great and permanent in ions to those of a man, who evi- terests of our country should be dently possesses so muoh genius sacrificed, yet it ought to influence and information. A keen, but us so far as to withdraw any capchaste and delicate satire ; a tho- tious objections to minor points. rough knowledge of human na- The pleasure 'of lessening the ture ; an intimate acquaintance fame of a negociator ought not to with the past diplomatick inter- seduce us from the great interests course of the United States, ob- and welfare of our country, and we servable in every part of the work, hope, that on a review the writer entitle the writer to great respect. of this pamphlet will be disposed

But while it has almost all the to regret some of his remarks, beauties, it appears to us to labour which betray too strong a disposi. under many of the defects, to which tion to find fault with a political works of genius are too frequently opponent or rival. subject.

The first article of the new treaTruth is sometimes sacrificed to ty, which the author of this pamwit or satire ; a disposition to hy- phet censures, is the third, by percriticism is not unfrequently in- which the free navigation of the dulged, and propositions abstract- Mississippi is granted to Great edly true, are occasionally misap- Britain. The observations on this plied, or urged farther than correct subject discover great readiness of reasoning would warrant.

mind, and a thorough acquaint


ance with our former diplomatick the insertion of the British trade relations ; but the author has fur- to the Mississippi. It is a greater nished one answer himself, and we boon to that part of our territory think there is another, which is than to Great-Britain. On the satisfactory. In the first place, he whole, she could claim it from the admits that the same provision ex- treaty of peace, from the treaty of ists among the articles of Mr.Jay's 1794, from the reciprocity of its treaty, which was perpetual, and nature, and from the grant to us therefore the British commission- of the trade to her India territoers had a full right to insist upon ries. We could not refuse it to its remaining. It was no new stip- her, while we left it open to all the ulation, and had it not been inclu- rest of the world ; and, surely, we ded in the new treaty would still are not disposed to shut the Mishave been in force. No war, or sissippi to all nations, who slall other circumstances have occurred refuse to give us a compensation to annul that treaty, and therefore by admission to their colonies. its permanent articles, not com- If it be said, that we before enprised in the new one, unless ex- joyed the trade to the island of pressly repealed by it, would still Great-Britain and the East Indies, retain their force.

it may be replied, that so did But, secondly, why should we not Great-Britain the trade to the Mis. have granted to Great Britain the sissippi. Could we lawfully have right to enter all our ports in the excluded her against Mr. Jay's Mississippi, as well as the Atlan- treaty, notwithstanding our tick? She grants to us the free purchase from Spain ? If not, we right of entry in all the ports of have conceded nothing, nor could England, Scotland, and Ireland ; any honest negociators have refusand is not this a full equivalent fored to admit this article into a new our grant to her ? The Mississip- treaty. The negociator,who should pi is now a part of our territory as talk of strict compensation, when much as the Atlantick ports. On treating with Great Britain, would the other hand, she could not grant not be entitled to the reputation of us the free use of Hudson's bay an adroit statesman. If such a and the St. Lawrence, without vio- principle were adopted as the balating her charters, and her colon- sis, we should be excluded totally ial system.

from her East-India possessions. But when we talk of compensa- We do deny the rule, laid down tions, pray what do we give Great by this writer in the unqualified Britain in exchange for a stipula- manner,in which he has done it, and ted right of trade to her East-India in the application which he makes possessions ? Will any man un- of it, “That our grant extended dertake to say, that we give any only to things, which we possessthing in exchange for this? Her ed, and can by no fair construction motive for granting this is un- embrace what we might afterdoubtedly the interest of those ter- wards acquire.' ritories, and the influence of the We say, that this rule is against India Company, who desire an ad- common sense, publick and municivantage by our trade. The same pal law. If a nation, having no motives, besides the perfect recip- legal claim to the fisheries of Newrocity of the stipulation, possibly foundland, should, by express induced our ministers to permit terms, cede to another nation the

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