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terrupted succession from any or- panion for the Altar,' which, though der of men whatever. That the designed, it is said, exclusively for friends of episcopacy should, for a episcopalians, contained some premoment,imagine themselves serv- tensions, which were construed by ing the interests of their sect by the presbyterian clergy into a wasany exclusive pretensions to a ton provocation and insult to other clerical character, is indeed aston- denominations. The author of ishing ; for it is well understood, some occasional papers in the Althat the highest dignitary of the bany Centinel took up, in Conse. American church proposed, before quence, the subject of church gor. the revolution, to dispense with ernment, passing the severest stricthe regular succession of bishops, tures on Mr. Hobart's episcopal in order to preserve the existence Companions. This instantly of the church ; and the principal roused an army of clerical antagoprelate in New-England was con- nists. Dr. Linn, the author secrated only by the extra-regular these papers, which he styled Misand non-juring bishops of Scot- cellanies,' had to contend succesland. Episcopacy,if it should ever sively with the prowess become the prevailing form of Hobart, Thomas Yeardley Hos, church government in the United Esq. Rev. Frederick Beasley, and, States, can only be esteemed the if we do not mistake, of bishop most eligible of the various con- White himself; and after much stitutions of the christian ministry. expense of time, charity, learning Never can it be considered as es- and industry in the writers, and of sential to the existence or author patience in their readers, the dis. ity of a church; nor as a form, pute seems to have terminated in without which ecclesiastical ordi- ill-will on one side, and fatigue an nunces and acts are sacrilegious the other. Mr. Hobart, that he and nugatory.
might erect a trophy to the honour The last time this subject em- of the cause in which he had enployed the pens and passions of gaged, collected all the essays on the American clergy, was, we be the subject of episcopacy, which lieve, in the controversy between originally appeared in the Albany the Doctors Chauncy and Chan- Centinel, and published them last dler. The View of Episcopacy,' year in an octavo volume, with adby the former, is one of our few tional notes and remarks. He cor indigenous theological works, which sidered this publication peculiarly erudition enriches, and which pos- proper, because there had been terity will not easily suffer to be some time announced a periodical forgotten. Since that time the work, called the Christian's Magsubject has been wisely suffered to azine, to be conducted, as he says, sleep in the quietness of mutual "by the united talents of the recharity or mutual indifference. In spectable body of anti-episcopal the year 1805, however, there were clergy in the city of New-York.' some appearances of an inclination To what new controversies this to revive the controversy in New. dreadful note of preparation was York. Two works were publish- preliminary we have not inquired. ed by Mr. Hobart, an episcopal The work, which we are now clergyman in that city, one enti- called to examine, appears to have tled A Companion for the festi- originated in the laudable desire of vols and fasts,' the other A Com- furnishing the Presbyterians of
New-York with a species of vade examined. It is remarkable, that mecum against the pretensions of the most able advocates for episcothe Episcopalians. It is written pacy have at different times given with sufficient moderation, remark- up every argument from scripture. able purity, and much unostenta. The authority of Dodwell in this tious learning. We shall content controversy is nearly oracular ; ourselves with enumerating the and he honestly confesses, that subjects of the nine letters, which Bishops, as a superiour order to Dr. Miller has here addressed to Presbyters, are not to be found in the « united Presbyterian churches the New Testament. of the city of New York. The The fourth letter is employed in first, though introductory, gives no examining the testimony of the account of the previous skirmishes, Fathers of the two first centuries. which we have related, but simply On this subject, the work of Chaunstates the claims of three different cy, which we mentioned above, classes of Episcopalians, and the might, if it had been the plan of presumptions against them. The the author to acknowledge all his second letter gives an abstract of authorities, have been quoted ınstar the evidence from scripture of the omnium. It is a complete collecoriginal parity of the clergy. The tion from the genuine writings of four following positions are main- these fathers, of all the passages, tained, viz.
which can be supposed to relate to • That Christ gave but one commis
the subject of ecclesiastical estabsion for the office of the Gospel minis
lishment. It is only to be regrettry, and that this office, of course, isted, that the want of Greek types
did not allow Dr. Chauncy to print 'That the words Bishop, and Elder, the originals at the bottom of the or Presbyter, are uniformly used in the
page. New Testament as convertible titles for the same office.
The strength of the episcopal “That the same character and powers
cause in this early age rests upon which are ascribed, in the sacred wri. the smaller epistles of Ignatius. tings, to Bishops, are also ascribed to Till it can be clearly shewn what Presbyters; thus plainly establishing the portions of these are authentick the identity of order, as well as of name. anti-episcopalians may fairly refuse And finally, “That the Christian Church was or.
their authority. In truth, they do ganized by the apostles after the model not deserve the immense learning of the Jewish Sinagogue, which was un- which has been wasted to prove questionably Presbyterian in its form*.' them genuine, and to prove them
interpolated. In the third letter the arguments, In the fifth letter is examined the drawn from scripture in favour of testimony of some of the later Fadiocesan episcopacy,are stated and thers.
The word Presbyterian, though it is • In citing the Fathers, it was neces. commonly used tó designate those sary to draw a distinct line between Churches, which are governed by Pres. those who are to be admitted as credibyteries and Synods, as the Churches of ble witnesses, and those whose testimoGeneva, Huiland, Scotland, and those of ny is to be suspected. I have accorthis denomination in the U.States ; yet dingly drawn this line at the close of all those churches in the leading sense the second century. About this time, of the word Presbyterian, in which Pres- as will be afterwards shown, among byters ordain, and are regarded as hold. many other corruptions, that of clerical ing the highest ecclesiastical office. impavity appeared in the church; and Vol. IV. No, 11. 4E
even the Papacy, as we have before strongly does the aspect of every other seen, had begun to urge its anti-chris. religious communion testify, that Pres. tian claims. From the commencement byterian church government is the only of the third century, therefore, every convenient and adequate form ; inasmuch witness on the subject of Episcopacy is as none of them can proceed a step to be received with caution.' P.168. without adopting, in practice, her radi.
cal principles !
P.208. Note There are however, two passages in Jerome, one in his commentary,
The next chapter contains the on Titus, and the other in his epis- testimony of the Reformers and tle to Evagrius, which are so un. other witnesses for the truth, in equivocal, that all the ingenuity of favour of the doctrine of ministethe mitre has never yet been able rial parity. It is here maintained, to evade or to invalidate them. Gib- that the church of England bon felt their importance; and he stands alone in the whole Proteshas referred to them in note 109
tant world, in making diocesan of his famous fifteenth chapter. Bishops an order of clergy, supe. They indeed deserve the serious riour to Presbyters ; and that even attention of every man, who en- those venerable men, who finally gages in the episcopal controversy. settled her government and wor. The fact also mentioned by Euty- ship, did not consider this superi. chius, whose testimony Gibbon ad- ority as resting on the ground of mits, is hardly less important, and Divine appointment, but of ecclesideserved something more than astical usage and human expebare quotation in a note. In the diency. This chapter and the latter part of this chapter Dr. Mil- next on the concessions of emiler accumulates evidence to prove, nent Episcopalians' are extremely that an order of ruling elders in curious and interesting. The the primitive church was not dis- Cranmers, and Wakes, and Ushers, continued till after the third cen- and Stillingfleets of the church of tury. The following passage shows England must look down with inthat the writer is not disposed to effable indignation on the folly of relinquish the claims of his own their pretended successors, who church to the honour of being the would alarm the unwary, the time only existing model of primitive id, or the ignorant in a country order.
like this, with the jus divinum of • No church can long proceed in a reg. Diocesan Episcopacy. ular and orderly manner, without ap- The eighth chapter professes to pointing some of its more grave and
trace the rise and progress of predistinguished lav-members to assist the minister in performing ecclesiastical lacy; and the ninth is rather invidduties. Episcopalians have their Ves. iously employed in displaying the try, and Imependents their Committee ; practical influence' of the episcoboth of whom, among other things, pal form of government ; a spedischarge many of the duties which cies of argument, which, if produproperly belong to ruling Elders. And vet both Independents and Episcopa
ced at all, might perbaps have li ans concur in rejecting this class of been urged with less zeal and less officers ; and thus virtually fix on them. exultation. selves the charge of having offices for Upon ihe whole, we consider which no scriptural warrant can be
Dr. Miller in this work, as having produced. How numerous are the
deserved well of the church to difficulties and absurdities to which men reduce themselves, when they de
which he belongs, well of every part from primitive order! And how ecclesiastical inquirer, and well of
the literary world in general, which to study the subject, in Potter on is already permanently indebted to church government, and Slater's him for his admirable « Retrospect original draught of the primitive of the Eighteenth Century." We church, in answer to the celebrated could wish, indeed, that this epis- and standard anti-episcopal “ Incopal controversy, so totally unin- quiry” of Sir Peter King. Dr. teresting except to a few encroach- Campbell, in his Lectures on Ecing spirits, had never again been clesiastical History, is the latest revived ; because, from the ani. and perhaps the most powerful of mosity, which has invariably ap- the modern opponents of high peared in it, we are satisfied that church ; and to him Bishop Skinthe spirit of the gospel suffers ner of Aberdeen has replied. more in the dispute, than any or. No tract, however, with which we der of ministers can gain. But we are acquainted, throws so much also remember, that, in the wisdom light on the subject of the aposof Providence, a slight occasion is tolick arrangement of the early permitted to excite violent pas- churches, as Dr. Benson's Dissersions, because, by this means, tations, annexed to his paraphrase great talents are often set in mo- of the epistles to Timothy. tion, which would otherwise have As to the dispute between Pres. remained dormant ; a spirit of in- byterians and Congregationalists, quiry is awakened, which extends we trust there will be no need of itself to other topicks ; and labo- its revival. If however the spirit rious and extensive researches be- of the times should generate a come necessary to the honour and controversy, the ministers of coneven to the existence of certain gregational churches would do classes and professions. Hence well to know the grounds and reawe are suspicious, that our clergy sons of our present constitution of will never attain to the learning, church government. These may which distinguished the early non- be found largely detailed in Cotconformists, till persecution, or ton's Power of the Keys, Hooker's insult, or opposition, or mutual Survey, and Norton's Responsio controversy compels them to mu- ad Apollonium. The contest betual defence. A peaceful church tween Independency and Scotch will invariably rest satisfied with Presbyterianism distracted for ten an ignorant ministry.
days the Westminster assembly of We have avoided making co- divines, and the arguments on pious extracts from the present both sides were afterwards pubwork, because they would proba- lished, by consent of the parties, in bly be less interesting in New. a book entitled The Grand Debate England, than in any other part of between Presbytery and Indepenour country. Indeed, in a dis- dency. This it is now difficult to pute between Presbyterianism and procure ; but the subject is not Episcopacy we are sensible of an badly treated in Davenport's reply inconvenient excess of impartiali- to Paget, and in many other ty, amounting almost to indiffer- works of the early settlers of
The substance of the argu- New-England. ments in favour of Episcopacy may be found, by those who wish
fastidious than just. The work is
intended for scholars, not for vulENEA NTEPOENTA ; or the Di. gar readers : the former are in lit
versions of Purley : By John tle danger from the levities of GowHorne Tooke, A. M. late of St. er, the grossness of Chaucer, or John's College, Cambridge. First the crudities of Sir Thomas More; American edition, from the second and the latter are secure, on acLondon edition. 2 vols. 8vo. count of their inability to underPhiladelphia, W. Duane. 1806. stand them.
There is another charge against We think it honourable to our Mr. T. in the justice of which we country, that it contains a suffi. fully acquiesce. It is founded on cient number of scientifick readers, his indiscriminate abuse of Lis to justify the republication of a predecessors, whose learning is plilosophical treatise on the Eng. unquestionable, and who, though lisa language. The first part of they were not fauitless, have made the Diversions of Purley, a few co- great advances toward giving stapies of which reached the United bility to our language, directing us States soon after its publication, to the sources whence it was was admired for its ingenuity, and drawn, and explaining its princithe probability of the author's the ples.-Dunces in poetry have the ory concerning the particles of our right of prescription to bestow language, and excited no small de. their ungentle epithets upon those, sire in its readers to see the result with whom they would be proud of his continued researches. An- to claim kindred ; and pretenders other edition of the first, together in literature have lavished their a. with the second part of this work, buse upon men of genius, whose has since been published, from excellence they could not reach : which the American edition is but it should be the prerogatire of printed. The necessity of a re. those only, whose knowledge is aview of this production in our bove competition, and whose wisnumbers is superseded by the dom precludes a rival, to ridicule learned strictures of some of the the labours of acknowledged scholauthor's own countrymen. This ars, and to ascribe their errors to article, therefore, is designed, rath- invincible stupidity. As long as er to call into notice a publication our language shall exist, we shall of merit, than to vindicate or com
cherish feelings of gratitude tobat any of the theories, which it wards Harris, Lowth, and Johncontains.
son : and if they have not done erMr. T. has been censured for erything, which the combined the singular intrusion of his polit. wisdom of English jacobinical sçaical violence into a work where it vans, with Horne Tooke for their had no concern, and for the unne- president, could now effect, we are cessary licențiousness of his quo- not rashly to admit, that they des tations from English writers of for- serve reproach rather than praise. mer times, illustrative of his ety- To those, who have not seen the mologies. For his political invect. Diversions of Purley, nor any acive we are disposed neither to of- count of the work, the following fer, nor to admit an apology : con
view of its contents may not be cerning the indelicacy of the quote unacceptable. The first volume ed passages, the çensure is more contains remarks on the division