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itself and of the present emergency in relation entered into some interesting details of the to it; and in each of the Yearly Meetings existing state of things. He has no doubt of there are standing Committees in active oper. the capacity of the coloured man both for ation with the view both of raising contribu. education and for self-support and government. tions, and of encouraging and assisting those The men who have been maintaining by their who offer themselves as Teachers. A few industry both their masters and themselves, days ago at Plainfield, my dear friend Joseph can surely now maintain themselves. His Crosfield and myself spent a highly interesting private secretary is a black man, "black as ovening with a company of young friends, midnight," highly intelligent and thoroughly most of whom spent last winter among the competent to his work. A white lady called Freed-men at different points of the Missis. a few days ago at his office at Nashville, to sipi Valley or in Tennessee, and 15 or 16 of obtain the necessary order for the recovery of whom were intending to return to their her property. She was dressed in silks and labours in a few weeks. Their united testi. adorned with jewels but when asked to state mony was that up to the age of 12, the her case upon paper, confessed that she could coloured children manifested greater quick. not write. General Fisk desired her to dictate ness in learning than white children of the her claim to that gentleman, pointing to his same age—but that, after that age, the differ. coloured secretary. “What,” she exclaimed, ence was in favour of the white children, “that nigger a gentleman ; can that nigger especially in those branches of study which write ?” “Try him, madam," was the reply: require abstract thought. The moral habits and the white lady was obliged to accept the which they had learned in slavery require the black man's services, and to sign with a cross exercise of much patience on the part of their the statement written out by him, whilst be teachers. They have little conception of the added his name as attesting witness. She re. importance of Truth, and some of the teachers turned home mortified, with a higher concephad not been able to maintain order at all times tion of the capacity of the coloured race. Gen. without resorting to corporal punishment. This Fisk is anxious, as far as possible, to break up had been applied in a few extreme cases, but the camps, as artificial arrangements, suited in a way to convince the children that it was only for the temporary emergencies of the not the result of anger, but for their good. war, and to provide permanent employment The hearts of these dear young friends and homes for the coloured population on the seemed to be in their work. They go forth farms and plantations. In order to do this it in a spirit of self-sacrifice, and in love to is necessary to place the relation of the Freed. their Saviour, and we felt that we could men to the landed proprietors upon a sound ba. commend them to His all-sufficient grace. sis of mutual contract; he does all in his power
On the 25th inst., at Cincinnati, our valued to encourage such contracts; and is careful not friends, Jadge Storer, Levi Coffin and some to interfere with them unless in cases of mani. other warm friends kindly arranged an in. fest fraud or oppression. The freed-man must terview with General Fisk who under General learn to protect his own interests. The nu. Howard, the head of the Freed-man's Burean merous pardons granted by the Government at Washington, is appointed superinten. is having the effect of rapidly withdrawing the dent of the affairs of the Freed.men in confiscated lands from the hands of the Go. Kentucky, Tennessee, and the adjacent por. vernment and of restoring them to the former tions of Georgia, Mississippi and Alabama. owners; large estates are thas being transferred General Fisk is a man of great intelligence to those who were lately in the Southern and bears a high character both as an earnest army. Much obviously depends upon the and sincere Christian and a true friend of the willingness of the land owners to employ the coloured man. All that we saw of and heard coloured people as free labourers upon fair from him corresponded with his character. terms. Many appear willing to do this, and After explaining the nature of the Freed-man's to establish schools on their estates. The old Bureau and his own position under it, he confederate soldiers and generals are more willing to accept the new position than fact, there seems no doubt as to their capacity the poorer whites who were not in the army. being fully equal to the average capacity of These latter are many of them as ignorant and whites, allowing for the difference in outward degraded as the blaoks; with the pride of advantages. At the close of the yearly meeting caste about them; and under the strong im. at Richmond in Ind., I proceeded to Richmond pression that their late sufferings during the in Virginia, by way of Baltimore. At Baltimore war were occasioned by the Anti-Slavery agi. I was gratified by witnessing a spectacle, very tation. General Fisk has been lately through novel in that city- procession of several his district, holding meetings and explaining thousand coloured freemasons. The whole his views. It was but a few days since that he arrangement was under the conduct of coloured attended a meeting, a black man in the chair, men, and in order and respectability was fully an old confederate general on one side, a equal to any similar spectacle that I have federal on the other sidewhites and blacks witnessed in England. Many of the men who all earnestly engaged in listening to his state. took part in it were fine specimens of humanity, ment and considering what is to be done. full-grown and well proportioned. The col. Altogether, whilst feeling the momentous oured population in Baltimore appeared in gravity of the crisis, he is cheered and hopeful. their holiday dress, highly delighted with what Teachers are greatly wanted and for the next was going forward. And though it was the few years, having regard to the large number first display of the kind that had occurred in of the old, infirm, and disabled, and of the the city, all passed off in an orderly manner women and children, there must in his opinion, and without accident. In the evening I passed continue to be a loud call for active liberality down the Chesapeake, and on the following and philanthropic effort. Much will be needed morning, in company with a Friend deeply to supply the wants of the coming winter. interested in the Freed-men, and about
Our friend Levi Coffin accompanied General to settle at Richmond, we proceeded up Fisk in a visit to camp Nelson, in Kentucky, the James River to Richmond, the late where a large number still remain congre- capitol of the late "Confederacy." The ease gated. Dr. Massey is now here and attended of our transit was in strong contrast with the the Freed.man's meeting this morning. I difficulty of the journey when contending expect to go into Virginia in the course of next armies disputed the passage. I will not dwell week, and may probably spend a few days on the many points of interest either in the there previously to returning to Philadelphia. journey or at Richmond itself-the Libby
Prison-Belle Isle-the triple line of fortificaOn board the “Scotia,”
tions--the ruined warehouses and court. 11th mo., 7th, 1865. houses, &c. My business now is with the The pressure of engagements has hitherto Freed-men. I had an interview with Oolonel prevented me from completing the foregoing. Brown, who has charge of the district of Vir. Previously to leaving Richmond, Ind., I had a ginia under the Freed-man's Barean. He very interesting interview with about 18 or seemed to have greater difficulties to contend 20 young friends who were going, and are with in Virginia than General Fisk in Ten. now gone, into the Mississippi district, for nessee. There is a strong disposition on the the purpose of educating the Freed-men. part of the planters to enter into a combina. Elkanah Beard and his wife were among them. tion as to the rate of wages and the employ. They are thoroughly devoted to their work, ment of coloured porsons without the consent and went forth with their lives in their hands, of their former employers. He read me, by well knowing the danger to which they were way of specimen, a long series of resolutions exposed if military protection were withdrawn passed by the landowners of a district in Vir. from the districts in which they were about ginia, with that object. The Freed.man's to labour. Their evidence as to the capacity Bureau treat these arrangements as utterly of the coloured children quite corroborated void, and otherwise discountenance them as the statements of our friends at Plainfield; in much as possible, but the disposition to enter into them is highly obstructive. Col. Brown tending and taking part in the first public gave me an encouraging incident. Col. Drury meeting ever held in Baltimore on behalf of of Drury's Bluff, the well known Confederate the Freed-men. It was crowded with a highly officer, had been with him with a party of intelligent and influential andience; the speaVirginians, a week or two before our visit. kers, in their anxiety to avoid political topics, Col. Drury said in the course of their inter- pretty much confined themselves to the moral view:
"When Lee surrendered I called my and religious aspect of the question. In the slaves together and told them--you know that few observations which I ventured to make on I have done all that I can to keep you in sla- the duty which the white population owed to very" (this was too true to be questioned) “I themselves, no less than to the coloured race now tell you that you are free. You may go of doing their utmost to raise, by a course where you please but I don't want you to of Christian training and education, their co. leave me. I will give you higher wages than loured fellow.citizens to the position which any one elsemand will establish schools for American citizens ought to occupy—I was ably you on my estate." Nearly all his slaves re. followed by Bishop MacIlvaine, Ohio, whose mained with him-only two or three leaving, fervent words were listened to with profound and his testimony to his fellow planters was: attention and scarcely suppressed applause. " From what I have already seen of the re. Our friends considered it a ve successful oc sult, I expect to have a much more profitable casion, and believed that it would produce year than any that I have had under the old good effects. In the important city of Balti. system of slavery." Col. Drury is a man of more the cause of the Freed-man has an able decision, and having tried one system and supporter in Judge Bond, who throws all the found it a failure, is prepared at once to throw weight of his judicial and personal influence in his energies into another. It is to be hoped favour of freedom. The State of Maryland has that many of his fellow citizens may be influ. lately abolished slavery, but whilst the north. enced by his example. My kind host, John ern portion of the State is mostly anti-slaB. Crenshaw, who has an estate about five very there is still a strong pro-slavery pre. miles from Richmond, and has lived there judice in the south-eastern portion. This ac. through the war, has had reason to be satisfied counts for the report read at the meeting that with the result of his kind treatment of his freed five or six schools and churches in that part men. Being a member of the Society of of the state had been burned by the mob for Friends, his slaves were of course emanci- the single reason that they had been appropated long before the beginning of the war priated to the purpose of educating the Freed. They had fled into the woods during the last men. This feeling must gradually give way, year of the war, to avoid the conscription, and its existence onght not to surprise or dis. bat on hearing of General Lee's surrender courage us. Altogether, looking at the won. they returned quietly to work. He had his derful progress that has been made within the faithful servants about him, whilst his neigh. last few years, we cannot but look forward bours were at a loss what to do for want of hopefully and trustfully-whilst not unmind. help.
ful of what remains to be done, and of the ne. I had a large and interesting meeting with cessity for continued watchfulness, that the the coloured people at Richmond. It was a ground which has been gained should not be pleasure to look upon their happy and thankful again lost. countenances. Returning to Baltimore, after a short visit to Washington and Philadelphia, (in each of which cities I had the pleasure of Miss REMOND, a lady of colour, formerly of inspecting coloured schools, attesting both Massachusetts, United States, will lecture to the capacity and proficiency of the scholars : the Literary Institution, Tottenham, on Tues. in one of them the pupils were engaged upon day evening Dec. 5th, at 7.30. Subject “ The Euclid, Algebra, and Cicero's First Oration Freed-men or Emancipated Negroes" of the against Cataline); I had the privilege of at- Southern States of North America.
THE AMERICAN MISSIONARY it will be seen that he comes with the most ASSOCIATION
satisfactory testimonials from America. of New York was formed in 1846, on a striot anti-slavery basis, and has ever since main. FRANCE.-A meeting has been held in the tained a consistent record. Its laws made it Music-ball known as the Salle Herz, Rae Pro. a prominent object to benefit the coloured race vence, for the relief of the liberated negroes both in Africa and America. Since the out of America. The hall was crowded to ex. break of the civil war in the United States, it cess; more than a thousand persons had to has given special and almost exclusive atten. remain outside for want of room. The pro. tion to the wants of the Freed-men. It was ceedings were opened by the Chairman, M. E. first in the field for their relief, and expended Labourlaye, of the Institute, in a warm and about £20,000 for this object before any other spirited speech. Mr. Leigh, of New York, organizations were formed. It has sent for and Dr. Sutherland, chaplain to the American ward large quantities of supplies for the desti- church in the Rue de Berri, addressed the tute, and will continue to act as the almoner meeting at some length. Three French cler. of the benevolent who desite to employ it for gymen (Protestants)-M. E. de Pressence, M. that purpose.
Coquerel the younger, and M. Saint Hilaire It seeks also to promote the intellectual eleva- also spoke. But the speaker who seemed to tion of this class, and has now in its employ at produce the deepest impression on the audi. numerous points in the southern states, up.ence was M. Cremieux, formerly member of wards of two hundred and fifty teachers of the provisional Government, and long one of both sexes, including many refined and highly the leading advocates at the Paris Bar. M. educated persons who are devoting themselves Cremieux is a member of the Jewish pergua. earnestly to that work. And this is indispen. sion. The preceding speakers dwelt particu. sible to the permanent elevation and welfare larly on the insufficiency of the efforts made of the coloured people. It has achieved much by France in favour of the slaves, as compared already in this direction.
with the results obtained in America and Eng. And still another and a higher object it land. Nothing could be more exact, in a ma . seeks to accomplish, viz: the moral and reli- terial point of view, but the meeting was regious improvement of this hitherto downtrod-minded that France took a considerable part den and oppressed people. Undenominational in the independence of America and the abol. in its character, it is the chosen medium of ition of slavery. M. Cremieux admitted, great multitudes of christian people for reach with regret, that in 1802 France re-established ing the spiritual wants of the negroes, and has slavery; but he reminded his hearers, amid been cheered by the most important results. general applause, of the two periods of 1792
The Rev. Sella Martin has for several and 1848, when its complete abolition was months been labouring in England and Scot. proclaimed. A collection was afterwards made land as its agent in diffusing knowledge as to for the benefit of the negroes. It amounted, the condition of the Freed-men. But he has I hear, to about 1,100f., or £44-10 great been obliged to return to America, and is suc. result, after such fervid appeals, and with so ceeded by Rev. John C. Holbrook, D.D., of many listeners. A second meeting will how. New York, who is now labouring in a similar ever be held, in the hope of a better material manner, and who can be addressed at No. 11, result. Queen Square, London, W.C.
Tue Committee of the Freed.men's Aid Lewis Tappan Esq., the Treasurer of the Society meet on the first and third Wednes. Association, is extensively known in England. day in each month, at two o'clock, at the He was the friend of Joseph Sturge, deceased, Anti-Slavery Society's Rooms, 27, New Broad and his guest several years ago when he visi. Street, City, E.C. ted this country.
ALL packages of goods intended for the Dr. Holbrook has a testamur from the Freed-men should be forwarded to Messrs. Freed-men's Aid Society, London, from which Johnson, Johnson & Co., Blomfield-street, E.C.
the “still small voice" as in the tempest.
How often I have wished while in New Berne, There seems to be a persistent effort on the that some of our Northern people, who persist part of some, to depreciate the intelligence of in the assertion that the freed-men can not be the freed-men, to represent them not only as educated, and thereby elevated, could for a entirely ignorant, but as incapable of taking little time stand within one of our coloured care of, and supporting themselves. There is schools and see the earnestness with which necessarily great ignorance and degradation lessons are studied, the quick bright answers among them, for we know that their entire given, and when you bring before them the life training has been only such as had a ten. incentive of comparing favourably with North. dency to degrade, demoralize, and crush ont ern schools the determination written on every whatever might be left of human nature. Now face, to bring about such a result. One has the great marvel to me is, that so much still only to mingle with the freed-people as a remains of real intelligence, and earnest teacher must necessarily do, to discover under Christian character.
the dark sable skin a bright intelligence, & I have found them with few exceptions to be quickness of perception, and a kindness of earnest and indefatigable in their efforts to heart, that at first almost startles you, and learn, they are, if I may use the expression, then yon mingle with them day by day, and hungering and thirsting for that, which many find so many Christian traits of character, of our Northern children pass so indifferently chief among which is their forgiving, not only by; they are as much pleased with the seven times, but soventy times seven. They smallest acquisition of knowledge, as many a are more Christlike in this particular than any boy would be at the solving of some difficult | wronged oppressed people the world has ever problem. I rejoice that it has been my pri. known, willing not only to forgive all the past vilege to teach for a season among these poor wrongs of their masters, but when these same freed-people. It has been a pleasure, bringing masters come back poor and penniless, in many its own and immediate reward, both in their instances they give them all their own hard eagerness to learn, and gratitude expressed in earned wages. I have never heard one word many ways peculiar to themselves. How in. expressive of revenge or retaliation towards teresting to watch them as they sit before their oppressors, from the lips of a coloured yon in school, with their earnest upturned person during my stay at the South, even those faces, ready to catch every word, and to seize who have suffered the most keenly, who have every new idea and make it their own, known nothing but harsh words and cruel giving you that implicit faith, which says blows, still express no other feeling than that plainer than words can speak, “We know you of forgiveness, saying with much earnestness will teach us what is right and true," and in "I forgive Massa, and hope the good Lord reference to the facility with which they learn, will forgive him too, I always prays for Massa." I would add that although I had been a How forcibly this brings to mind the words of teacher at the North six years, yet I have the blessed Saviour " Father forgive them for never seen a school, taking them as a majority, they know not what they do." Never before that learn more rapidly than the coloured have I seen so beatifully illustrated the for. schools in New Berne.
bearing forgiving spirit which Jesns himself As a people they are naturally inclined to has taught us. And in this connection I be religious, and are nover so happy as when would speak of the Freed-men's Association of singing and praying; they would by most freedom. of our good Northern people seem too noisy During the latter part of the past winter, and demonstrative in their mode of worship, every day would bring scores of the freed. yet I think none would doubt their sincerity. people to New Berne, they came to us in They need but the elevating, refining influence companies of 60, 70, or a hundred, In the that an education must bring them, to teach most destitute ragged condition one could them that true religion is as often found in well imagine. Many of them had been fol.