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this continent, as their chief peculiarity, good word again ; but it must stand out FAITH IN MAN. They got their idea out from among the people, as did the leper of the New Testament, a very good under the old Jewish law, until it got place to get ideas out of. They measured well. Our democratic principles had man by God's standard, considered him shaped our policy and our social with respect to his possibilities, not by customs. Nowhere else in the world what education might have made him. did professionalism — law, divinity, With them, man was a being to be learningaristocracy of every kind, developed-a creature requiring two find itself compelled to do obeisance to summers to ripen-time and eternity. the people. Here nothing could stand From this belief sprung another faith, that did not commend itself to the comthe capacity of man to receive educa- mon sense of the common people. tion. It had formerly been the custom
“ All these results sprung from the of legislators and teachers of mankind great radical idea of faith in man. Some to believe that man must be restrained ; imagined that a few men were responthat it was unsafe to trust him with sible for all the disturbance created in liberty. Our fathers believed that man our politics, and believed that if a few was more safe in proportion as he was agitators were shot, everything would more free and more fully developed. move quietly on in the old grooves. Without education they regarded man As well might they think of draining as a man and animal, with the animal the ocean dry by corking up a few on top. It was education that placed springs among the Alleghanies. the two parts of his nature in their The education of mankind had proper relation, making the true Chris-redeemed labour from the realm of tian centaur.
muscle. Brain-work exalted labour to “The Jews had believed that God a dignity never before known. He who was the father of all mankind in Judæa, had learned to work, first through the and there were some among us, who head and then through the hand, had believed that God had an especial regard redeemed himself from drudgery. for the Anglo-Saxon. He believed that " It was the want of faith in man that God was the father of all mankind. had been the greatest weakness of the For ages God had stood almost alone South. There they had believed in on the side of humanity. Our fathers learning, in endowments, in adventitious had believed the best way to educate manhood, but had shown no faith in man a man was to let him learn to govern as God made him-simply as men they himself. The exercise of our civil had a thorough contempt for him. The functions has been to us a constant result of their belief had been seen in process of education. Speaking of our the issue of a great war. If God had fundamental principles of civil polity, made a proclamation two centuries ago he said he could scarcely think of any that the opposing principles of faith in other word than democracy. That had man and the want of it should be fairly been a good word once until it was tested side by si le, their respective smitten with leprosy. It would be a merits could not have been more forcibly illustrated. The speaker here showed States as an amendment to the Constitution of that the section wherein labour was the United States, which, when ratified by despised, and wherein the capacity of
three-fourths of said Legislatures, shall be
valid to all intents and purposes as a part of men for improvement was ignored, had said Constitution, namely: enjoyed the finest natural advantages ARTICLE XIII.-SECTION 1. Neither slavery and should have outstripped the other. nor involuntary servitude, except as a punish. Like two knights, the rival forces and ment for crime whereof the party shall have principles had grappled with each other, United States or any place subject to their
been duly convicted, shall exist within the and the white knight had ground the
jurisdiction. black knight to powder. It was simply Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce impossible that men despising labour this article by appropriate legislation.” and debasing humanity should compete
And, whereas, it appears from official docu.
ments on file in this Department, that the successfully with men breathing the
Amendment to the Constitution of the United atmosphere of freedom.
States proposed as aforesaid, has been ratified “ The speaker went on to urge in by the Logislatures of the States of Illinois, eloquent language the necessity of Rhode Island, Michigan, Maryland, New York, carrying the fundamental principles of West Virginia, Maine, Kansas, Massachusetts, Republican liberty into all our political Pennsylvania
, Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Neaetion. We must give the freed-man vada, Indiana, Louisiana, Minnesota, Wis.
consin, Vermont, Tennessee, Arkansas, Now his rights : the right of person and Hampshire, Connecticut, South Carolina, Alaproperty; the rights of labour as they bama, North Carolina, and Georgia, in all are enjoyed on the prairies of Illinois. twenty-seven States : Liberty must be to the black man what
And, whereas, the whole number of States it is to the white man.
in the United States is thirty-six:
And, whereas, the before specially named “ The speaker glanced at the objects States, whose Legislatures have ratified the of the Commission, and in conclusion said proposed Amendment, constitute three. drew a hopeful picture of the future in fourths of the whole number of States in the the South.”
United States :
Now, therefore, be it known that I, WILLIAM ABOLITION OF SLAVERY IN THE U. S. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State of the United OF AMERICA.-DEC. 18, 1865. States, by virtue and in pursuance of the second PROCLAMATION.
section of the act of Congress approved the To All to Whom these Presents May Come, 20th of April, 1818, entitled " An Act to pro. Greeting :
vide for the publication of the laws of the Know ye, that, whereas, the Congress of United States and for other purposes," do the United States, on the 1st of February last, hereby certify that the Amendment aforesaid passed a resolution, which is in the words IAS BECOME VALID TO ALL INTENTS AND PUR. following, namely:
POSES AS A PART OF THE CONSTITUTION OF THE "A resolution submitting to the Legislatures UXI'IED STATES. of the several States a proposition to amend In testimony whereof, I have hereunto set the Constitution of the United States : my hand and caused the seal of the Depart.
Resolved, By the Senate and House of Re-ment of State to be affixed. Done at the City presentatives of the United States of America, of Washington, this 18th day of December, in in Congress assembled, two-thirds of both the year of our Lord, 1863, and of the Indepen. Houses concurring, that the following article dence of the United States of America the 90th, be proposed to the Legislatures of the several WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Sec. of State.
pensable to the permanent prosperity of
the entire country. PLAN FOR GIVING PROTECTION TO THE Resolved, that in view of the fact that efforts LABOUR OF THE FREED-MEN.
by private enterprise to draw capital and To the Editor of the " Freed-Man."
intelligent labour to the Southern States, Sir,-It will be an encouragement to all
must in their results be remote and con. who are anxious for the preservation of the tingent, and however ultimately useful Freed-men to know that in conjunction with they may be, cannot be relied upon voluntary associations for their present physi. materially to increase the agricultural cal relief, the attention of earnest and intelli. products of next year, or even for several gent men is being directed to the question of years to come, it is vitally important to the better protection of their labour and the
interests of the nation that the Govern. temporary supply of capital by the government
ment shonld, within the sphere of its of the United States for raising the next crop legitimate powers, aid forthwith in sus. of cotton. In the Lancashire distress it was taining and organizing such portion of the found necessary to raise a loan to provide labouring classes now in the Southern occupation in public works for the thousands States, as cannot be reached by private of honest and industrious people at that time capital, not only on the ground of a conout of employment. A plan was submitted siderate humanity, but also to save their by the Hon. E. S. Tobey, of Boston, to the labour to themselves and to the country.” Board of Trade at Boston, Nov. 27th, 1865, Mr. Tobey in support of these resolutions which is explained in a pamphlet entitled said: “ Nearly the same working population “ The Industry of the South; its immediate which raised the four millions of bales of organization indispensable to the financial cotton and other products in 1860, is now there security of the country." The Board of Trade to plant and raise the crops of 1866. How at Boston unanimously adopted the following can this labour be made available so as to affect resolutions.
the productions of 1866 ? Let private capital, “Whereas by the recent civil war, many of so far as it exists in the South, or to the extent the Southern States have become greatly to which it can be transferred there from the desolated, and a large part of their capital North, or elsewhere, by adequate wages, destroyed; and no inconsiderable portion of stimulate the labouring classes, and a much the labouring classes are destitute of employ. greater and more general response will be ment, whose labour, unless now aided by made than has been supposed. But capital, capital, must be lost to the country.
as already observed, is greatly depressed in Resolved, that the commercial and financial the Southen States, and as it is seldom placed
interests of the United States alike demand by its possessors where society is disorganized that speedy and efficient measures be and life and property comparatively unpro. immediately employed to organize and tected by a stable and efficient government, develope industry in the Southern States, it cannot be presumed that it will seek invest. in order to increase the production of ment in Southern property in the present
their staples, and especially of cotton. unsettled condition of society there to an Resolved, that while we rocognize the fact amount materially to affect the crops of next
that the causes and principles which more year, when in other portions of our country or less affect the ability of the banks to so great inducements offer in the developement redeem their circulation in specie are of mineral wealth and the various branches of various, the quantity of cotton raised in industry, which have already made profitable this country must in a degree determine returns to a degree without a parallel in the the time when specie payments can be history of this or of any other country. This safely resumed, and that to hasten that deficiency in capital and the protection and time is the part of sound political economy organization of labour now there, can be and a wise statesmanship, and is indis- measurably, and perhaps I mny add in a great degree, provided by government, and occupies a high position in the commercial at the present moment by it only—and this world, and as a Christian philanthropist and being done to meet the present emergency senator commands the respect and confidence and as a temporary measure, private capital of his fellow citizens. Whatever may be the will soon follow order and security, attracted fate of his proposals it is to his honour to by low prices of land, a supply of reliable have submitted them for practical adoption. labour, and high prices of product. Happily His example is worthy of imitation. Too much for the country, congress at its last session conceit and affectation, there is reason to fear, created an agency and a power which in the have sometimes mingled with our benevolent hands of the President may do much towards operations. A philanthropic mission is proaccomplishing these most important objects posed in haste—the worthy delegates pack up through the cperations of the Freed.men's their trunks in a few hours-start for the scene Bureau, as a military branch of the govern- of oppression or distress-raise a fund-publish ment.” After giving an outline of the plan a pamphlet or a volume—and reap the glory, for “protecting alike the labourer and the such as it is, of their rapid excursion. We want employer in their respective rights of contract, more forecast, greater patience, and a single and otherwise until the States shall be in a and steady aim to do the work thoroughly, condition to adopt a similar policy,” Mr. with perfect indifference to the opinions of Tobey adds: “No part of the country can superficial and sanguine men.
I hope you have a greater interest in the results and observe attentively what the Britisk Quarterly advantages of such a method of action as has says of Jamaica and the negro_"It is worth been proposed than the people of the Sonth, our while to study his nature and needs and it is to be hoped that a candid and com. thoroughly; for the negro will hang to our prehensive view of the subject will lead them skirts inevitably, and be the source of our most to welcome such reports on the part of the grave embarrassments, if we cannot lift him government. Socurity to life and property in and set him by our side. Other coloured races these States is the first condition indispensably with which the ever-widening sweep of our necessary to their future developement and empire has brought us into contract seem prosperity. Southern people freely allege likely, alas! to spare us the solution of the that it is their desire to interest northern difficult problem which the negro forces on capital and co-operation in the work of re. The New Zealander, the South Sea pairing the desolation of war and in promoting Islander, the American Indian, wither slowly their commercial and agricultural enterprises. before our advancing steps. The breath of Can it then be the part of wisdom and of our civilization wastes them; the most earnest sound policy to await the slow process of and strenuous efforts fail to arrest the steady immigration of white labourers, which it must progress of decay. But nothing withers the require many years to gather in sufficient negro. He can live with us, and multiply, and numbers largely to affect productions, and in can retain his careless, joyous nature under the meantime allow a considerable proportion the yoke of the sternest toil. It needs surely of the labourers now on the spot, where they no prophet's eye to foresee that God is nursing are acclimated and have been trained from the race for a great future, and that substan. childhood to the pursuits of agriculture in the tially our work is to train them for the South, to perish, and their labour to be lost, possession and civilization of some of the merely from want of power or disposition to fairest tropical regions of the earth.” We must make temporary provision for them, and to welcome light from every quarter to ascertain employ measures to secure their industry" the real facts and to arrive at sound prin.
It is not within my province to pronounce ciples. Unless we do this, our labours will be a judgment on a question of political economy, in vain. but nothing can shake my conviction that the
I am Sir, course of sound commercial prosperity in
Yours faithfully, the track of justice to humanity. Mr. Tobey
London, January 12th, 1866. By giving this explanation a place in the Fred. Tomkins, Esq., M.A., D.C.L.
"Treed-man,” you will much oblige, Dear Sir.-I fear, that through misappre
Very respectfully yours, hension, my remarks made at the Manchester
ALBERT L. Post. Meeting, and reported in the January No. of the “Freed-Man," may prove detrimental to
COLONIZATION. the cause of the Freed-men, in this country. To the Editor of the “Freed-Man." I am reported as having said “The slave was Sir,--The negro haters in the United States, perfectly able to take care of himself, for had, and their allies on this side of the Atlantic are during the last two hundred years, supported now doing all they can to prove the negro unfit not only himself, but his master, and his for freedom. Among other devices our old master's children."
enemy “Colonization" seems destined to I used substantially the words thus reported, another revival. It is the custom of this foe but I connected immediately with them, the to appear at intervals like " the famous Sea qualifying words not reported, "Give him Serpent.” I have no word of objection to compensated labour.”
offer against free emigration either for white This may be inferred, but I think it of too or black men, if they emigrate of their own much importance to be left to a mere inference. free will. But I do oppose any coercion or I wish, in all that I have to say upon the sub. pressure of any kind which in the least forces ject, as meaning, that the slavo on becoming anyone to live anywhere, but in the locality free, loses none of his ability to take care of which their own head and heart dictates. Still himself. The Freed-men of America are just more will I oppose colonization, when this as able now to work as when they were slaves, pressure grows out of hatred to an oppressed and far more willing. Their former masters, race, or because a dominant race has neither to a great extent, are either unable or un. the moral courage, nor the justice to do as willing to compensate them for their labours. they would like to be done by. I well know Here is the ground for the Freed-man's suf. the other side of the question: that there are fering, and the reason for furnishing him honest men, some whowish well to the negro, aid. This case is by no means that of the lazy and who think it would elevate his hated rase pauper who is likely to starve or perish, if they could build up a Republic for them. because he will not work. Permit me here to selves. But it will be proved in the long run, introduce an extract from the inaugural in fact the only sound policy which will be address of the Hon. Charles J. Jenkins, recently effective, and the only way to really elevate chosen Governor of Georgia. I copy from the any oppressed race is to bring them within the N. Y. Weekly Tribune of 30th December, influence of the most civilized races. And ultimo.
this is particularly true of races long enslaved. “Since the fiat of emancipation, although This has long been the opinion of the most sometimes unsettled in his purposes, and in eminent friends of the negro on both sides of consistent in his services by contract (the the Atlantic, and history also gives abundant natural result of a transition so thorough and proof of the result. Never until our friends as so sndden) I take you to witness, that in the well as our enemies understand and act upon main his conduct has been praiseworthy beyond the principle which underlies this essential all rational expectation
The fidelity fact and to which they may add another fact of the negroes in the past, and their decorum of much importance, that coloured men and under the distressing influences of the present, women desire to be treated according to their are without a parallel in history, and estab. intellectual and moral worth, or in other words lish for them a strong claim upon our favouring without any reference to their complexion, patronage." Surely no better proof than this exactly the same as any white person would need be giving to any person to convince him be treated when placed in similar circumthat the Freed-men of America, are worthy stances. Until this is done no real advance objects of sympathy and aid.
to their advantage can be made. The spirit