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gence, candour and becoming ardour. Not a word of rancour fell from the lips of the most impassioned. We have only to appeal to the people to find a warm and generous response.
The mother of the noble McLaren will not want a home. We can answer for it that the land of Guthrie and McLeod will not be the last to succour the “childless, homeless and starving” people of Jamaica. We shall hear ere long that the British army and navy do not pride themselves on the slaughter in cold blood of unresisting fugitives and in the massacre of women and children. Men in high places will soon understand the claims of humanity as distinctly as the common people who have so promptly obeyed the instincts of the conscience and of the heart, and in some form or other the heart-broken widows and orphans will learn that the Queen has not left them. What is done should be done quickly, universally and continuously. Let us gird ourselves anew to this sacred task, with a single aim-self-oblivion and hearty co-operation with all who are interested in the object. The blessing of those who are ready to perish will come upon us—and in life we shall find there are few blessings that are richer.-W.
THE CONNECTION OF ENGLISH PROSPERITY WITH AMERICAN SLAVERY; A MOTIVE TO ELEVATE THE EMANCIPATED
SLAVE. WHILE American slavery was continued, the labour extracted by the lash of the task-master from the oppressed bondman was employed to a very considerable extent in cultivating the cotton fields, whose produce found its principal market in England. In this production the merchant realized the great agent of commerce, the manufacturer the material for the construction of all cotton fabrics, and great multitudes of the inhabitants of the northern districts ready and remunerative labour which supplied their homes with ample and numerous comforts. Nor was there a family throughout our country or colonies, but was clothed to a considerable extent by the labour of the American slave.
That these results of slave labour on English prosperity are not exaggerated, will
appear when we consider the immediate effects of the closing the southern ports of America, to our commerce, consequent on the American war. Trade in the manufacturing districts at once experienced an universal collapse. The lofty chimneys of the mills ceased to pour forth their smoke; the rattle and roar of mighty machinery was hushed; the light tread of the operatives to the scenes of cheerful labour was no longer heard ; and as the result pining want nurtured disease and excited discontent throughout the population. The northern counties of our country became one vast poor-house, and the inhabitants were supplied by the voluntary humanity of the entire country. Nor is all this surprising when we consider that this form of our national prosperity was the fruit of a long series of great injustice to four millions of our fellow-men; and though this prosperity appeared at the time as the goodly Babylonish garment the shekels of silver and the wedge of gold to Achan, yet as then so now, it produced trouble through the entire camp; for in the long run our national prosperity was visited by a national calamity at once extensive, severe and paralizing.
But amidst the sufferings of England and the horrors of the American war, God has said to the bondmen in a most sudden and wonderful manner « Go free,” and the manacles which have bound them for ages are entirely universally and for ever broken to pieces. But though blessed with liberty they are in a state of great necessity. They require dwellings to protect them from the weather, clothing to cover their nakedness, and food to supply their hunger. Beyond this they need to be taught the first principles of general knowledge, and the great truths of religion. Thus to fit them for liberty they must receive the help of those who have always been free. For this purpose mercy has addressed an earnest appeal to English benevolence and the sum of £60,000 has been contributed. Justice now adds its plea to that of mercy and addresses the merchant and manufacturing prince, and asks, Has not your prosperity been built to a considerable extent on the labour and sufferings of the American slave? Should you not therefore give back for their elevation a portion of that large wealth which some of you have derived from their hard and unjust bondage ?
Justice also pleads with the northern operatives and enquires, Should not your humbler contributions be freely bestowed for the benefit of a people, whose FORCED labour for so many years has furnished you and your fathers with the means of FREE labour, by which your homes have been filled with unnumbered blessings while they were suffering the curse of slavery ?
Further justice extends its plea throughout the entire land and says to all, Should you not be prepared to unite for the elevation of the emancipated negro while you consider how his condition as a slave has furnished yourselves and families during your lives with the material from which your comfortable clothing has been constructed and thus your health and happiness promoted.
BRITISH AND FOREIGN
recently carried in the United States should FREED-MEN'S AID SOCIETY. be read to you by Dr. Tomkins. And as a
mark of respect we request that you will rise, GREAT MEETING AT EXETER HALL. and remain standing whilst that Constitutional BENJAMIN Scott, Esq., F.R.A.S., Chamberlain Amendment is read to you. of London, in the Chair.
Dr. Tomkins reading, the meeting stand. On Thursday, February 15th, 1866, & pub- States of America, December 18th, 1865.
:-"Abolition of Slavery in the United lic meeting was held in Exeter Hall, under
Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, the auspices of the above Society, to commemorate the Passing of the Constitutional except as a punishment for crime whereof Amendment by which Slavery is abolished the party shall have been duly convicted, shall for ever in the United States of America. exist within the United States or any place The Meeting was attended by several thou. subject to their jurisdiction.” (Loud cheers.)
This article has been ratified by the Legislasands of persons, and the proceedings were characterised by the utmost unanimity and
tures of the States of Illinois, Rhode Island, enthusiasm. A large number of Members of Michigan, Maryland, New York, West Virginia, the House of Commons had promised to attend Maine, Kansas, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and take part in the Meeting, but were pre Louisiana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Vermont,
Virginia, Ohio, Missouri, Nevada, Indiana, vented by the pressing nature of the public business, and by what is denominated as a
New Hampshire, Tennessee, Arkansas, Con. "whip.”
necticut, South Carolina, Alabama, North CaThe following were among the gentlemen rolina, and Georgia, in all twenty-seven, and present:-Rev. Hugh Allan, D.D., rector of since the time that this was written, in New St. George's, Southwark; Samuel Garratt, Jersey, making twenty-eight states. (Renewed M.A., incumbent of Trinity Church, Lincoln's
cheers.) Inn Fields; Henry Killick, M.A., rector
THE CHAIRMAN:-Ladies and gentlemen, of St. Clement Dane's; W. Brock, D.D.; those who have done me the honour-and I Newmau Hall, LL.B. ; Alex. King ; Dr. Hol- conceive it to be a very great honour-to prebrook, of New York; Alex. Hannay; W. K. side on this occasion, have two main objects Rowe; Alex. MacKennall, B.A.; R. Ashton, before them in convening this meeting. The Secretary of the Congregational Union of first object is to commemorate worthily one England and Wales; E. G. Cecil, J. J. of the grandest events that has yet been written Sinclair, W. Morton Mather, J. Bligh, Philip on the page of history, the complete, final, Coter, J. Bidwell, J. Curwen, Aspinall Hamp- and irrevocable abolition of slavery in the son, T. Barker, R. E. Forsaith, J. Waddington, United States. (Cheers.) The other and second D.D., W. Shaen, M.A., Professor Leone Levi, object is to commend to public attention the Dr. Fred. Tomkins, Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, urgent necessity—the very pressing necessities J. Hodgkin, Esq., of Lewes, Handel Cossham, -of four millions of human beings who are now F. W. Chesson, W. Tweedie, J. H. Estcourt, in the transition state between slavery and Stafford Allen, J. W. Probyn, J. Carvell independence. We are not here to-night, Williams, E. T. Smith, T. A. Burr, James to discuss the recent war in America, either M. Macrum (Pittsburg), Mason Jones, Dr. its cause, or the conduct of that war ; wo Sandwith, C.B., of Kars, William Willis, Esq., have to do with a great fact which stands LL.D., &c., &c.
facing us, the consequence of that war.
Slavery has fallen! (Loud cheers.) Mortally The Rev. Samuel Garratt, M.A., offered up wounded by the sword-drawn first by the prayer.
slave-owners themselves—it has fallen by the
sword; and as you have heard just now, by le. THE CHAIRMAN :-It has been arranged by gislative enactment of twenty-eight states out the Committee that previously to the speaking of thirty-six it has been consigned to a deep the Constitutional Amendment which has been grave from which there is no resurrection.
(Hear, hear.) We are not come together to forth to them, by the resolutions passed in this attribute this grand result to the wisdom of this great meeting, the right hand of a hearty, man, or the valour of that—we might perhaps cordial congratulation. (Cheers.) It may find a divided sentiment on that subject; I be objected by our critics—and they are think we shall be all agreed, however, that many—that this is sentimental and not practhere is apparent in this great accomplishment tical. I deny that; sympathy is a practical a hand mightier than man’s and a wisdom thing; and it is time that sympathy were more profound, even the hand and the wisdom extended openly and manifestly by the people of Him who is “wonderful in council and of this country to the suffering and the excellent in working," who rules and who oppressed everywhere. (Hear.) I for one wish overrules, who maketh the folly as well as we had held a meeting of this kind some few the wrath of man to praise him, and the years ago when the Emperor of Russia decreed remainder of which He restrains. Neither the freedom of twenty-five millions of serfs; and are we come together in a spirit of self- when the Dutch Government freed the slaves complacency to welcome our sister across in the Dutch Colonies (hear); and I could have the Atlantic because she has put away her sin; wished that friends had seen with me the pro. the sin is ours as well as hers; let us not priety of coming together, so far as we couldforget that we carried slavery to America, in our aggregate capacity, to express our grati. and we kept it there as long as we had power fication to those who had accomplished those to do so. (Hear.) We can I trust to-night hold great ends. I think that if we had then out the hand of cordial congratulation to the expressed our sympathy as we might have American people without uttering one word done, in kindly words to the Emperor of of crimination or sanctimonious self-laudation. Russia-such words as we could then have used (Cheers) There is no doubt a great and glorious with great appropriateness to him, he might fature for the American people, a future of have been disposed to listen to us with regard to which perhaps the most far-seeing amongst us unhappy Poland, but the time is past. Indeed, can form no conception. We trust and ieve to go back to an earlier period, in 1854, we let that there is a great future for ourselves slip the opportunity of speaking our sympathies and henceforth we can go forward in the march before this great nation and before America. of progress side by side, the laws of these two In that year I attended with a deputation, acgreat nations having been now fundamentally companied by the Rev. Ringold Ward (a black assimilated. We realise to night what was clergyman from Canada) to submit to Earl formerly a vision of one of the American Russell the names of twenty British subjects poets, that great people sitting in the councils who had been taken from ships at Charleston of the free nations,
and Savannah, and sold into slavery. On that Not challenging the nations round
occasion the Foreign Minister told us plainly To note her tardy justice done;
that there was litt or no help to be expected, Her captives from their chains unbound,
and I shall never forget the words, the looks, Her prisons opening to the sun:
the gestures of unmitigated scorn when Mr. But tearfully her arms extending
Ward addressed us as we left the audience Over the weak and unoffending:
chamber, and he closed his remarks by say.
ing, “Now go and sing your Rule Britannia, Her regal emblem now, no longer
Britons never will be slaves." (Cheers.) I, A bird of prey with talons reeking,
for one, felt that I could not comply with that Above the dying captive shrieking;
request of his, and I never have complied with But stretching out her ample wing
it, or remained in any room in which that song A broad impartial covering
was sung since those British subjects were left The weaker sheltered by the stronger."
to pine without a word of pity or of protest, (Loud cheers.) This is the vision which greets in slavery. We can sing Rule Britannia now, us to-night-this is the attitude of that great for although that poetry was a piece of har. people, and I trust we shall be able to stretch monious hypocrisy from the days of Dryden, when it was written, down to 1864, I believe across the Atlantic to aid these suffering freed. now it can be said that no British subjects men. We to-night hope that this meeting will are slaves. (Cheers.) (A voice: “Jamaica”) | afford a healthful impulse to all those moveThey are not slaves in Jamaica, they may be ments, that we may do something commenoppressed, but I say that no British subjects are surate with the great needs of this suffering in slavery. My opinion is, I state it humbly, people. There are many thoughts which that if there had been more expression of public crowd upon me on this occasion, but there is sympathy upon these matters before the great no time for their expression. I feel that it is British public, there would also have been less my duty, occupying the chair to-night, that I of cruelty in the world, and possibly the Ja- should inculcate by my example and in my maica tragedy might never have been enacted. person a lesson of brevity of statement, which That however is past; let us learn by the past I shall have to inculcate upon others. (Cheers.) how to act in the future, and I congratulate you HANDEL Cossuam, Esq.: - Mr. Chairman, my friends upon this great meeting, and it will ladies, and gentlemen, the resolution which I not be without its results. Westill-although have been asked to move, and to which I it is very unfashionable so to believe-we still hope I shall have-as I expect to have-your do believe in the words of the ancient book- unanimous consent is as follows:-"That this words which reverberated about the old meeting reverently, and gratefully acknow. Galilean Lake and re-echoed from Mars' Hill ledges that in the good providence of God, the at Athens--that God has made of one blood crime, and withering curse of chattel slaveryall the nations of man to dwell on the first introduced by England into her transatface of the earth. (Hear, hear.) We belantic colonies, and then perpetuated by the lieve that if God has made men of diffe- fundamental constitution of the United States rent colours, he has made them of one heart, of America" (which you have heard read to. one blood, one soul, one spirit, and we night) “ has by the recent adoption of the believe that Christianity teaches us that Constitutional Amendment, been rendered God, our great Father, is no respecter of per- illegal, and for ever hereafter prohibited sons, and that we his children likewise ought throughout those United States. And this to be no respecters of persons. If there meeting tenders cordial congratulations to the is any difference to be made, that difference friends of freedom in America upon the occamust be in extending the greater amount of sion of this gratifying and signal triumph of sympathy and the larger amount of protection the course of righteousness and humanity, to those who are the humblest and the most recognising in this auspicious assimilation of oppressed. (Cheers.) That is our creed, and the fundamental laws of the United States, we are not ashamed to own it; it may not be and of Great Britain a new and enduring bond the fashionable creed, but we know this, it is a of union between the two nations.” (Cheers.) creed that will prevail in the earth. (Hear, Such is the resolution which I have to-night hear.) And now, with reference to the British to submit for your approval, and I quite and Foreign Freed Men's Aid Society. That endorse the sentiment with which the Chair. Society has been labouring for more than man opened his valuable speech, when he said, eighteen months under the name of the Freed that we are met to celebrate one of the greatman's Aid Society, before it made its ap- est triumphs, and one of the most glorious pearance here. We are not here to-night to events of modern times. I venture to say in originate any movement for the poor freed-men your hearing to-night, there has been no such who are struggling into independence in event since the time when Moses marched out America : they have collected either in clothing of Egypt at the head of two millions of Freed. or in cash about £12,000 Other societies, men, in the history of the world, in connection of which I cannot speak officially, have been with this humanity of ours (excepting of doing the same good work quietly and unos- course the coming of our Lord to redeem the tentatiously, and probably at this moment up- race) there has been nothing like it in the wards of £60,000 has been already remitted history of this world. My only wonder Sir,