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3rd. The removal of the unjust and injurious operation of an exclusive State Church, which has discouraged and impaired the missionary efforts of the various bodies of Christian Dissenters, who are practically the main civilizers and evangelizers of the coloured race. Such a system is sufficiently oppressive in our own long-settled, wealthy, and aristocratic country, but it is wholly out of place in a comparatively new country, and a country moreover in which the bulk of the population, if it become Christian at all, must become so by the operation of kindness, justice, and religious impartiality.*
4th. The general establishment of free trade, and, as far as possible, of free ports.
5th. The raising of the standard of education for all classes, the labouring class more especially, as is effected in degree at least through the operations of the Committee of Council of Education in this country, and still more completely by the Government system of education in Canada.
6th. The making of grants of land of moderate extent to the coloured inhabitants on reasonable terms, as is now being done with such manifest advantage in several of the Southern States of North America.
Lastly, in addition to all these reforms, and as promoting and assisting them all, vigorous endeavours must be used to awaken and keep alive in the Government and in the nation at large a just sense of what is due from the mother country to her colonies, and especially to the ignorant and degraded coloured inhabitants whom the iniquitous system of the slave trade and slavery introduced into those colonies.
How much might a spirited and able press accomplish herein. May the FREED-Man have its full share of the labour, the success, and the praise of this great work.
THE REV. WILLIAM BROCK. The Rev. William Brock, D.D., of Bloomsbury Chapel, London, left England per the “Scotia," which sailed April 21st, for the United States of America. Dr. Brock has been an unwavering, earnest and eloquent advocate of the freedmen of America, and a staunch friend of the Union during the terrible civil war. He is warmly and affectionately commended to the friends of humanity and liberty on the other side of the Atlantic. Dr. Brock has been from the first a member of the Council of the British and Foreign Freed-men's Aid Society, and was also a member of the Committee of Correspondence on American Affairs, in connexion with which and the Emancipation Society, the Rev. Henry Ward Beecher addressed the British public in the metropolis of our country.
* We are anxious to keep clear of political and ecclesiastical questions on which our countrymen are conscientiously divided, and to stir up all parties to the work of christian philanthropy. We have, however not felt at liberty to suppress any of Mr. Hodgkin's views.-ED.
The guilt of the negroes was made clear to II.
the Colonel by a kind of intuition, and being In all exaggeration there is weakness. The so certain in his own mind, he dispensed with simplest statement is the most convincing. the formality of evidence. We felt a degree of uneasiness in the re- On one occasion he spared six men who perusal of the last number of the FREED-MAN were taken without arms, but he regretted that we should have given currency to the the circumstance afterwards, and felt that it story that a British soldier sworn to maintain would have been better to follow his instinct the honour of his country had ordered his men for blood. He says, “ After this act of cle. to hang a company of negroes in a place of mency so many persons gave themselves up, christian worship. We felt sure that the re- and hung about the camp, that he was afraid port of an act so gratuitously infamous would they would expose his force to danger." find no credence with our readers who judge The "splendid service" of Captain Hole, of the conduct of men in civilized life by an at Manchioneal, mentioned by Colonel Elkingordinary standard. The tale we find however ton, seems to have consisted to a considerable is too true.
extent in the flogging of women. The negroes Colonel Hobbs has appeared before the felt too much distrust to accuse themselves, Royal Comunissioners to explain the part he he therefore ordered them to be scourged. took in the recent military expedition. He “In all cases,” he says, "the women were said he had nine men who had been tried told that if they had hidden stolen property by court martial shot at Fonthill, and three they would not be punished, but only in a bodies hanged to a beam in Maclaren’s chapel. very few instances did they avail themselves The reason was he had been told that treason of this means of escape.” had been hatched there, and thought to hang
GENERAL NELSON, whose activity as mili. them there would make a great impression. tary hangsman gave such jubilant satisfaction We are not surprised that the Colonel should to Colonel Elkington, explained the principle volunteer the statement that “the only people on which he acted in this indiscriminate he did not pity were the religious leaders." slaughter. “ Under martial law," he says,
Colonel Hobbs has not entirely lost the he assumed “that the whole population of St. sense of shame. Though he expresses no Thomas-in-the-East were rebels till they regret for his atrocities, he has virtually tried proved their loyalty.” It was under his to extenuate his acts by quoting the follow. orders that tried and untried prisoners were ing extract from a despatch of Colonel Elk led out to witness the executions at Morant ington, dated 11 a.m., 18th October : Bay.
“Dear Colonel—I send you an order to push It will be remembered that Governor Eyre on at once to Stoney Gut, but I trust you are said of General Nelson—"We never had a there already. Hole is doing splendid ser difference of opinion even upon the propriety vice with his men about Manchioneal, and or policy of a single act or movement, and the shooting every black man who cannot give public service was consequently conducted an account of himself. Nelson, at Port An. not only satisfactorily, but pleasantly. Every tonio, is hanging like fun, by court-martial. movement has been made by Brigadier Nel. I hope you will not send us any prisoners. son under my own personal instruction and Civil law can do nothing. Do punish the approval; the whole responsibility of what has blackguards well. "Yours in haste, been done, therefore, rests upon me.”
“ John ELKINGTON, D.A.G.” LIEUTENANT OXLEY says he took Paul Bogle's Colonel Hobbs, stimulated by this de- daughter for a guide, promising her £100 and spatch from his superior officer, prevented all the life of her husband if she would betray inconvenience arising from the charge of her father. prisoners, by putting them instantly to death. These military gentlemen claim to be the
Finding their case clear, and being unable saviours of Jamaica, and have received in to take or leave them, I had them all shot.” consequence the tribute of the admiration and gratitude of the leading people in Kings that he had noticed in the demeanour of the town,
native population since the news arrived that It will be remembered that when their a royal commissioner was to be appointed and services were first brought under notice by that Govenor Eyre was to be suspended. Other the press, some of them made a hasty visit to witnesses stated that they had observed the this country. It was anticipated that they same thing. Immediately before the news would receive some special mark of the Royal the native population had been remarkably favour. Dr. Bowerbank worked incessantly peaceful. to exhibit their claims to the consideration of Many of the Jamaica witnesses seem to be their countrymen. The peril of Jamaica was afflicted with a strange loss of memory and represented as extreme. We heard of terrible contradict themselves most flatly. Colonel carnage, “Eight miles of dead,” and were Hobbs in particular disproved the statements left under the impression that these heroes of given in his own despatches. Morant Bay, Manchioneal, Stoney Gut, had All the witnesses are agreed that the codisplayed courage and fortitude equal to that loured population have been left to sink into a of Leonidas, or of Williams of Kars. It now condition that if unchanged may involve all appears that the actual fighting was all on the inhabitants in common ruin. Many of one side, and that the rebels made no more the white people from whom we might have resistance than a covey of partridges. expected help in the work of restoration un
We have no need to dwell on the particular consciously betray a spirit that will rather instances of sickening inhumanity that are enhance the difficulty of the task. related by the officers in the burning of houses We find an undercurrent of lingering regret without règard to age, sickness, destitution, for the abolition of slavery. Freedom, acor the maternal sorrows which for a moment cording to the journalists inspired by Dr. might have suspended conflict in the crisis of Bowerbank, has done all the mischief. Hence extremest danger. We look in vain for any the disposition to creep back stealthily to a trait of the noble or generous feeling that state of slavery wiihont the name.
Mr. accompanies all true courage.
Harvey explains the process of re-enslaveIt is a peculiar feature in this Jamaica ment in part. Writing from Kingstown, struggle that there is a disposition to make February 12, 1866, he calls attention to an all responsible for the dangerous state of the Act passed by the Jamaica legislature for coloured population who plead either for apprenticing to planters and other employers justice or humanity. The censure received of labour, young persons of sixteen or there. originally by Dr. Underhill and Mr. Gordon abouts convicted of theft of ground prois now transferred to Her Majesty the Queen visions, canes, fruit (whether growing in en. and the Commissioners sent out in her name closed or open land). Mr. Harvey says: “I to make an impartial and careful inquiry, need not point out to you and your readers
Men who pride themselves on their supe. the extreme danger of apprenticing young rior intelligence maintain that Governor Eyre offenders to the very parties who are interested had not “ lost his head.” All the good he had in the procuring their conviction, and who, as accomplished by the burning of chapels and a class, including legislators, magistrates, and houses, the shooting and hanging of men'employers, have borne heavily and hardly on without trial, and the flogging of women, has the labouring population of the island. been lost already by the intervention of Sir “Does it not seem perfectly obvious that H. Storks, Mr. Gurney, and Mr. Maule. if a compulsory term of restraint and servi.
MR. Miles, a planter and a magistrate of St. tude be inflicted on young offenders, it should Andrew's, said that as soon as the people be only for serious offences, implying the heard of the appointment of the commission, danger of lapsing into a criminal life, and they refused to work, though previously they that the sentence should be to reformatories, had been peaceable and industrious. such as exist in our own country, and also, I
The Rev. W. FORBES spoke to the alteration believe, in this island ? It will be dangerous,
indeed, to liberty, to ally the self-interest of in Jamaica will imagine they will have no the planter and the employer--the class more need to work. When a foolish tremor which both defines offences, fixes the punish. of this kind comes over a London editor, he ments, and administers the law-to this novel ought to lay down his pen and go out into the scheme of negro apprenticeship. I trust the fresh air. danger needs orly to be pointed out to be A sound mind goes with a kind heart. The averted.
"field is the world." Christianity makes us “ I hope to have other opportunities of in- debtor even to the barbarian. Those who use the quiry into this subject. In company with my telescope to explore the most distant regions, friend, Wm. Brewin, I visited the gaol at use the naked eye in seeking out the abodes Spanish Town this morning. We found nine of wretchedness at home. At any rate, we or ten women, the majority of whom were can assure onr editorial censor that the old undergoing sentences of three months' im. and worn-out epithets that were used so freely prisonment for larcenies of the kind above against Clarkson, Wilberforce and Buxton, referred to-several of them with children in will not deter us from the attempt to remove arms—for taking a sugar cane and eating it, in some degree the mass of ignorance, destituor giving it to the child to suck while in the tion and misery in Jamaica. We shall do field at work. The total number of prisoners something, if it should only be to preserve us was about 60, including seven boys. A large from sinking into the callousness which, if proportion of the offences were of the above it were to become universal, would make our character, many of the commitments being country the scorn of mankind.-W. signed by a few overseers holding the commission of the peace. The change in the law
MINISTERING CHILDREN. I have described, and its harsh administration
We want to educate the heart of every in various places, have filled the gaols with child in the families who reail the FrEED. 600 or 700 prisoners. The plantation watch- Man. It will be a blessing to the youngest men are often constables, and are entitled to to take an interest in saving the “children 28. 6d. for each conviction."
of the needy.” The work is beginning. A There will be no moral protection for these young lady, the daughter of a minister, opens people but in the presence and influence of the correspondence in the following note :teachers and advisers like those whose self- “ To the Editor of the FREED-Man. denying philanthropy has constrained them
“Colchester, April 2, 1866. to occupy the stations in the Southern States “Sir-Being very interested in the Freed. of America. They have no party spirit nor men's cause, I wrote to Dr. Holbrook last inveterate prejudices. Kind, judicious, and week about prompting the children here in disinterested, they disarm the resentment of England towards helping the children yonder the dominant class and win the confidence of in America. He kindly answered my letter, those who are weak, and inexperienced. and said he would forward it to you. He
We observe that an evening journalist also sent me a copy of the Freed-Man, in whilst referring to the susceptibility of the which I read the piece about “Our Children.” negroes and other inhabitants of Jamaica, to As you seem to wish for suggestions to help hope and fear, betrays himself an apprehension on this project, I take the liberty to send you that really amounts to hallucination. Hon some which I trust will shortly be carried out dreds are stripped of their all their houses are in this my native town. burned to the ground-their husbands, sons, or "Could not a committee be formed of brothers are killed, and it is too evident that several ladies, with a treasurer to call the locally there are one to befriend them. different members together at certain times, This writer deprecates the interposition of and to put to the question such suggestions as what he calls “ telescopic” philanthropists, the following:from the apprehension that if we send either “1. Shall some gentleman, who is well food or clothing, the 450,000 coloured people versed in the history of the Freed-man, be
asked to address the children of all denomin. were living on plantations in this vicinity. ations in this town-telling them pleasing These parents were either obliged to leave little anecdotes of the poor and suffering plantations on which they were residing, or little ones over the other side of the water ? the children were too young to be of valuable
"2. Could not small boxes be at hand, so service to the planters, and were therefore that after the lecture, any child who might turned adrift or thrown upon the Burean, wish to have one could come forward and after their parents' death. receive one ?
“The Burean has no home in which to place “3. Could not working parties be organized them; consequently, they live about as they for the girls, to make children's clothing? can.
Some have found refuge in freed-men's “4. Could not some boys either collect, families ; some are staying with parties who buy, or make toys or writing books, pencils, cannot feed them : most are knocking about, or penis, slates, or such like?
starving and naked, becoming street children. “And, as one needs a small capital to set such Some of these orphans are very young, and things on foot,
are perishing through sheer want. Take a "5. Would it not be worth the while of the single instance, and it is only one of a score. Freed-men's Aid Society to furnish such com. Last sabbath afternoon, as I was returning mittees with a little money to buy materials home from meeting, a coloured man met me, to work with, just at the beginning, and to and said he wished to call my attention to buy boxes with ?
a case of suffering. Just across the river there “Trusting you will excuse my thus writing, were a father, mother and four children. The and let me know what you think of these children were all small, the oldest not above suggestions, “I remain,
ten years. The parents sickened and died a “ Yours truly devoted to this work, few weeks since. The children were left alone
and lived alone. They were attacked with “ Mary H. DAVIDS."
small-pox. Two days ago one of them died, Our reply is this :
and the other is still lying by the side of the MY DEAR YOUNG FRIEND-We think the corpse, sick with the small.pox ; the other two guggestions are all good and practical. It is are ailing, and will soon be down. There they natural and kind that an English girl should are, the dead and the living; the dead unthink that a negro child ought to have toys; buried, the living starving, naked, sick, and but if these are sent they must be put into the none to care for them. box quietly and with no expense to the Society.
“Men and women are almost daily enquir. The rule of the Saviour is that we should do ing of me as to what they shall do with certain to others as we would they should do unto us. orphan children that have come under their Now, my dear young friend, here is
hands. It seems to me that these childron should be gathered up and cared for until
suitable homes can be found for them. They dated Wilmington N. C., March 8, 1866: should be taken from the streets and placed “ You are aware that last spring General under instruction." Sherman sent into this city and vicinity WHAT WOULD YOU DO FOR THESE CHILDREN IT about 12,000 refuge freed-men. Full one- YOU WERE AT WILMINGTON -What will you do third of them died before summer was for them here 2-Begin to work-we will past. Very many of the deceased were help you with a little money-and let your parents. Some were the guardians and native town be made an example to all the protectors of children whose parents had towns in Great Britain. perished on the way. Consequently, crowds We have a striking photograph of a little of orphan children were left to be provided refuge negro boy just as he came into the camp for by charity. Most of these orphans are in his shreds of clothing-We want to have a now in the city. In addition to these orphans wood engraving made from it which would cost f refugees, there are many whose parents three pounds or sixty shillings. A gentleman
AN EXTRACT FROM A LETTER