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TEACHERS OF THE FREED-MEN IN AMERICA. Not long ago the war news from America was read with feverish interest. The march of armies, with all that followed of carnage and desolation was tracked by millions of readers with the most absorbing attention. The campaigns of Christian philanthropy, though less exciting, we trust will be followed by many with deeper sympathy. The benevolent and thoughtful will not fail to mark what is passing in stations recently the scene of a conflict more costly and destructive than any we have known.
RICHMOND.-Saran F. SMILEY says: “It is “ While inspecting the Freed-men's Hos. now (December, 1865) eight weeks since I pital at City Point some weeks since, I walked first broke ground in this new and vast field. through the camp where were 1200 blacks. On my arrival, every thing looked disheart- few of whom had work enough, while nearly ening: I saw many difficulties, heard rumours all needed more clothing. I at once arranged of strong opposition to our work, and the with Captain Clayton, the superintendent Bureau itself could promise little aid while there to send two of our number down. As all around was a struggling mass of suffering soon as Mary Willets arrived, she and Flora humanity.
Tilton left for this work, on the 28th ult. “To secure a house was the first point, and Captain Clayton kindly supplied them with aided by a gracious providence we are now all I asked for; a room, good fires and straw enjoying one which proves entirely satisfac- for a bed-sack, adding himself a guard to wait tory; in the precise locality to suit our work on them. If fitting out this expedition with and at a rent comparatively moderate. The baskets of food and bales of cloth caused some next point was material for our work, as the little bustle in our own household, it was absence of stores to work in connection with, nothing to the excitement their arrival proinvolved a change of basis, this bas been duced in the camp. They were literally promised me by the Burean, to make up and besieged for work, and could barely eat and return for sale."
sleep. The women sewed day and night. The Committee report on this movement: One poor creature whose stitches looked very "Our recent visit to Richmond was exceed. bad, said "Well, the men were so thick round ingly interesting and satisfactory. We found the fire she couldn't get a fair chance at it to every department of our work under the care see.' M. W. and F. T. have been up once for of Sarah F. Smiley and her six assistants, fresh supplies, and will now stay till all are conducted with great energy and efficiency, pretty well clothed, probably till the 16th. as well as with the strictest economy. That I have directed them to pack the garments work, which having its centre at Richmond, made in barrels, and leave them under Capt. now extends throughout the State of Virginia C.'s charge for shipment where you may direct. into Tennessee. Our intercourse with the They also took down the clothing which I coloured people has tended in nowise to lessen found needed in the Hospital there, and disour interest in a race whose patience in tribu- tributed it. The great success of this expedition lation and exertions to sustain themselves, will encourage me to others, and I have prove them worthy of receiving the priceless plenty of volunteers eager to go. This has boon of freedom. Of 20,000 coloured people been conducted without any increased exnow congregated at Richmond, only 400, and pense. these mostly superannuated, are now suppor- " In the pressure of so many cares, I have ted by the government: we saw no negroes had as yet little intercourse with this people lounging in the street, but all seemed busy individually, but now and then am cheered and happy. They are both willing and desirous by glimpses of their simple faith. "Zarvant, to labour, and consequently find many avenues Madam,' said an old grey-haired man with a of remunerative industry.” Sarah F. Smiley head as fine as Webster's, as I was passing continues :
rapidly through a ward. I listened to a touch.
ing story of one who had suffered stripes for here, trying to help themselves; but the wo. preaching Christ. But his closing words affec- men are behind the men. I am to have them ted me much; and now I can do nothing called together on my return from the west, but lie here with de rheumatism in my knees to give them some advice and encouragement, and de praises of Jesus in my heart.' Again, such as I gave in Danville, and which seemed I was hurrying through a camp in search of a to give them a lift. Many old men and women man to head a barrel,' when a clear, rich voice here, last summer have died. We saw one caught my ear. There was a poor aunty noble old man, not far from 7 ft. high, in mere scrubbing her empty room most vigorously, rags and bare feet. Our No. 12's looked like while with all the energy of her heart she sang baby shoes beside them, but I heard of a pair • There's none like Jesus.'
of No. 19's at the Commissary, which they “I can feebly express the deepening interest were very glad to exchange. The old man I feel in this great work. Surely we have had had a hard master, and been driven off been remarkably cared for and prospered. All without food enough to cover a pin.' But the southern men with whom I have had deal. I never saw such a flash of joy as when I said, ings have treated me with marked kindness. But, uncle, you have such a good, kind From our officials also, I have had many favors; master now, and such a beautiful home up in Col. Brown has renewed his former kindnesses. heaven.' It was like lightning on a dark Capt. White has renderd my business rela- sky. Oh, Missus, it's that, it's jes that, tions with him really agroeable. Dr. Dela- that's 'stained me all along. They all seemed mater has obtained for my household a supply so grateful, and we had a happy day indeed. of bedding, new and not noeded in the Hospital “I went down to the Tennessee River Rail. and from the Depot Quartermaster I have been way depot this evening, and without any able to obtain, by personal request alone, all difficulty got another pass for Mary Mead and the teams I wished for any purpose, which has myself to Bristol, the end of that road, equal saved many expensive items.
to 40 dollars. The superintendent said he “Our family of seven will soon be complete, was very happy to do it. So we shall press and a great work lies before us.
I feel very on.
We can learn very little here, about the desirous that our intercourse with this long- state of things there; there ara no schools oppressed and still-oppressed people should and no missionaries, is all we can learn. Mary tend to their help in heavenly as well as Mead is busy boiling our eggs for to-morrow earthly things for in this respect the field is and getting up a commissary for a few days. truly white unto the harvest."
It is a great help to have such a woman with LYNCHBURG. “Here at last," writes Sarah
We are both pretty courageous. I have F. Smiley, January 4th, 1866. “I had a thought often to-day of those noble words of great dread of coming alone, especially if I Mary Lyon :-“There is but one thing that I went further, so I took Mary Mead, and we fear, that I shall not know and do all my duty.' arrived here safely last evening, just as the I feel anxious to reach first the right places." weather cleared beautifully in a glorious sun. CHATTANOOGA.— The expedition of Sarah F'. set over the Blue Ridge and peaks of Otter. Smiley and Mary Mead as described in their This morning we found Capt. Lacy, who at letters is full of interest; but our space is once sent us in an ambulance to the Barracks, limited. At Roxville Sarah F. Smiley says: where our boxes had just preceded us. A11 “Col. Henry is doing a great work, surrounded were as kind as could be, in opening boxes with grea er enmity than any agent. I have and saving us steps, and we had everyone even known the poor blacks openly assaulted there pass before us in the store-room except with clubs in the day-time, (one of them we the quite helpless, to whom we carried cloth saw with broken arm and bleeding head); he ing. There was indeed great destitution. The yet succeeds in keeping his ground. Al. first barrel which I sent had not yet been given together it was the most hopeful spot I have out, and we felt the importance of a woman's seen. care. The coloured people are doing nobly “We left next morning for Chattanooga,
where we heard of great suffering from small and if my school room was large enough I pox. We again obtained tickets; the whole could have 100. By dispensing with the use value of passes thus kindly granted to go and of desks I can accommodate the present num. return was 126. 60 dollars and I think we ber, and perhaps a few more, tolerably well. might have gone on to New Orleans in the The house is quite comfortable during pleasant same way. Going down, I stopped at Loudon, weather, and we are hoping to have it made and M. M. at Philadelphia. At the former better soon. place I found much suffering among about 300 “The coloured people are intensely intecoloured people, mostly “refugees off” from rested, and are laying plans I believe to build further south, and many of them lone mothers a church.” of large families, husbands lost in the army.
SAVANNAH.-HARRIET Jacobs says, “Ten All these small towns have been neglected by thousand four hundred coloured people are in the superintendent of schools. I found about the city. On the plantations on either side 30 children in a perfectly dark room, taught thousands more may be counted. These are by a filthy mulatto. It was bitter cold, but the plantations given them by Gen. Sherman, she opened the door a crack and stood the to work for themselves three years, paying a children in a streak of light to read. I found certain percentage to the Government. By in one room two women and nine children in the order of the President, papers to that effect a space less than ten feet square, with typhoid were given them by Gen. Howard, after the fever in their midst, and children crying for Bureau was organized. Now these people are food. I never saw such wretched houses. I found fault with for believing the government looked up the “head men” and had a long would help them. All the men that planted talk with them. They agreed to build a school. rice have done well; I am afraid they will house, and I promised to see that they had a not be allowed to plant again; next week will teacher, so that the other 30 children could settle the point on many of the plantations. go. The mulatto clears over 30 dollars a I hoped before this to have a place for the old month. I left money with them to buy meal people; the work is stopped for the want of and a little rice, which the stewards of the shingles. church were to give in the most suffering cases. You spoke of the people dying for want of
“We found a family of teachers at Chat- food; I am sure many have died at the smalltanooga but they were sorely crippled by the pox hospital for the want of attention and inefficiency of the secretary. In their small- nourishment. They are carried five miles in pox hospital there were already 200 cases, and the country, put in tents, without stores, scarce thirty waiting for admission. The clothing any bedding. More have died from exposure asked for long since by the teachers was a and starvation than from the disease. I have great disappointment. In Chattanooga a large made soup and sent it, but you are not always college is to be erected for the Blacks on sure they get it. To-day they are making Mission Ridge—another great victory. With new arangements, I hope for the better. The all our night travel, and rarely more than people here don't seem to think coloured one regular meal a day, we both kept perfectly people should have any rights or wants. One well, finding constant occasion of gratitude great trouble; it is hard to find shelter for for the protection and loving-kindness that the people. They are not able to put up little seemed to follow all our steps.
shanties, rents are enormous, and there is no “We learned much from conversations with confiscated property. planters in the cars. One thing is certain,
“Jan. 9th, 1866. They are turning most of that the higher classes have no wish to return the people from the plantations. It is a pitiful to the old system.”
sight to go down to the Bluff where the poor SUFFOLK, VA.-OLIVE ROBERTS says: “Jan. creatures are landed. You will see crowds of 17, 1866. I am well and in good spirits, and them huddled around a few burning sticks, very deeply interested in my school, which so ragged and filthy they scarce look like hunow numbers seventy-six. Only think of that! man beings. Some of these people are from
Florida, some from Alabama, some from the Fortress MONROE.-Nellie L Bensou writes, upper country in South Carolina. They were " Jan. 20, 1866. This month I began my labors carried to these places that they might be out as missionary in earnest, visiting the suffering, of the Union army. Some of the river planta. and giving them tickets for bedding and cloth. tions that I visit are sending off all that will ing. Our supply was soon exhausted, and I not make yearly contracts. The old men and hardly know how to tell you of the distress I women are not considered. Some of the con- am daily obliged to witness, with no power to ditions of these are very unjust. They are relieve it. I go into a cabin and find a woman not allowed to have a boat or musket. They with four or five little ones, who have been are not allowed to own a horse, cow, or pig. crying all night with the cold. They have no Many of them already own them, but must wood for a fire, and very little clothing. sell them if they remain on the plantations. There are many such instances. The people I was on one plantation where the master do all the work they can find to do, but at owns three hundred acres of rice land. He present prices can hardly feed themselves. wants to employ thirty hands; make the con. In one cabin I found a woman with an infant tract by the year, at ten dollars per month; of four weeks. The child had never been gives them rations and four dollars a month dressed, for the mother had no clothes for it. out of their wages. When the crop is laid by, She wrapped it in an old tattered shawl, and the master has two-thirds, the labourer has when I entered, was cowering with it over one-third, deducting the pay for the rations. the few brands that were burning on the hearth. Many of the freed people are leaving this place These were the last of her supply. In cabin There was an interesting school here, but it after cabin I find the children out of school, has been broken up.”
because they have neither shoes nor clothing. GEORGIA.—"SAVANNAH, Feb. 9th, 1866. I In one room I found a little girl sick with must tell you about my island poor: they have dropsy, a poor patient little sufferer; she was increased in numbers, mostly women and chil- feverish, and needed something tart, or a dren. They are not allowed to plant, and are little fruit; another little girl, covered with expecting every day to be driven off. These scrofulous sores, wanted some white bread and are the poor creatures from the interior of a loose gown. South Carolina ; they did not know they were “We are much in need of sewing materials, free last month. When I asked some of them for the Industrial school-thread, needles, but. why they left the country and came to the tons, tapes, hooks and eyes, scissors, and city where it is so hard to get work, they said thimbles. I consider this work an important
Massa neber tell us freedom come till New one, as these people know nothing of cutting Year day, then he say you may stay and work or making, or even mending; when we give as you hab done; I want to hab no hired free them a garment a little too loose or too long, nigger around me; den we lef go to de Yankee it is worn just as it is. quarters to ax bout our free time; he tell us “The people have improved since I came, dat we had Linkum freedom long afore dis and if they had a fair chance would do well. time; dey send us to Hilton Head, and say we The abandoned lands are fast passing back must go to Georgia and work for de Buckras, into the hands of their former owners, who and dey see us paid.'
are not disposed to help their former slaves “One old woman making a low curtsey said to take care of themselves. It is a mystery • We hear miss ob de kind tings you hab sent to me how they live at all. Every day makes to de poor; we come to beg for any ting you their prospects worse. Here and there one can spare.' The sight of warm under.clothing makes a little money, but a large majority such as she had never owned, and a new dress, suffer, and must suffer. I go about emptymade the old woman so happy; after repeated handed, with only words of counsel and thanks, she said, “If you'll pray for yourself, sympathy, till I am sick at heart, and each I will ax de Massa to bless you here and sabe night I return weary from my five or six miles you to glory.'"
walk feeling that I have accomplished nothing.
NOTICES TO CORRESPONDENTS. ber by John Hodgkin, Esq., of Lincoln's
Inn, and of Lewes, was penned and in All orders and enquiries concerning Adver: type before the melancholy intelligence tisements, or other business connected with
of his brother's removal reached our this Magazine, are to be addressed to Arliss Andrews, 7, Duke Street, Blooms-shores. We have no doubt that the bury.
cause of the Freed-man, as well as those MR. RIDLEY's letter received with thanks. It general philanthropic efforts in which is in type, but must stand over.
Dr. Hodgkin took so large a share, will We shall be happy to hear further from Mr.
now have an additional and even a Bourne.
sacred interest for his surviving relative. MR. Steinthal and Mr. Joseph Waddington's communications are received with thanks. Our space will not allow of our re
cording all the services rendered to the Freed-man's cause by our deceased friend. ['pon the arrival of Levi Coffin
this country, in June, 1864, it was at MAY, 1866.
the residence of Dr. Hodgkin that the “I have observed with satisfaction that the first large and influential meeting was United States, after terminating successfully gathered, which gave renewed and inthe severe struggle in which they were so long creased impetus to the efforts made on engaged, are wisely repairing the ravages of
behalf of the American freed people in civil war. The abolition of slavery is an event calling forth the cordial sympathies and this country. Upon the return of Dr. congratulations of this country, which has Fred. Tomkins from his mission in the always been foremost in showing its abhorence United States, on behalf of the Freedof an institution repugnant to every feeling of men's Aid Society, the report of what justice and humanity.-QUEEN VICTORIA.
he had witnessed amid the negro camps DR. THOMAS HODGKIN.
and schools and the coloured troops loIt is with deep and heartfelt regret cated in the Southern States was that we refer to the demise of the valued delivered to a large meeting under the and beloved friend whose name we have presidency of Sir T. F. Buxton, Bart., placed at the head of this article. Most held at the hospitable residence of Dr. of our readers have already learned that Hodgkin. The time, the wisdom, the à telegram dated “Jerusalem, 5th influence, the very home of the departed April,” has been received in London, were rendered not only without reluctannouncing the death of Dr. Hodgkin ance, but with a prompt generosity to at Jaffa after a severe attack of dysen- the claims of humanity and the cause tery.
of the Freed-man. As a medical man, By the removal of Dr. Hodgkin, the he oftentimes expressed his care for British and Foreign Freed-men's Aid the health of those who were devoting Society has lost one of its earliest and themselves as he feared too strenuously best friends, and the Freed-Man one to works of benevolence and freedom. of its most willing and able contributors. His calm judicious mind and admirable It is an interesting fact, that the leading temper, never ruffled in debate, won and valuable article in the present num- not only the confidence but even the