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two months, during which time we have had As the stringency of the military rule has been three teachers employed. Before the house relaxed they have been emboldened. Three was built, one of the ladies had been labouring times in succession our teachers have been from house to house teaching and distributing compelled to relinquish the houses in which clothing to the needy as far as we had them they have taught each time changing the to give. There was suffering there during the locality of their schools. At length, on a last winter of which it is sad to think, and ground that has since proved to be a mere yet it is grateful to know that it was mitigated pretext, the town or county (civil) authorities —that many extreme cases were relieved, by ordered the schools to be closed. In this way the donations of which our Society was the our teachers lost more than a month's time. almoner and our teachers the immediate dis- Driven from the houses in which they had tributors (for our teachers in Gallatin went to taught, our teachers finally secured a stable the camp and laboured with those there). I or barn some 30 by 40 feet, in which they have often wished, when mingling with the again opened school under the protection of a inmates of the camps, that those who have new military officer. Levi Coffin and I visited given of their substance, could hear the ex. the school here while in session. We found pressions of gratitude-simple and heartfelt, about 300 persons, mostly children, crowded that I have so often heard on making inquiries into this building, with seats, &c., of the rudest as to what had been done for them—it would be kind. We heard classes spell and read, the one of the richest rewards that a kind and gene- members of which little more than one year rous heart could share—something of that ago did not know a letter-scarcely knew that greater blessing pronounced upon him that there were such things as books, and knew gives. The children as well as the old per- nothing of their use. sons in the Camp school are making the usual Opportunity was given to address the school. progress--I say “usual progress,” because I Friend Coffin gave an account of his visit to have found no instance yet where they, both England—told them of the many kind friends old and young, have not made encouraging they have in that country-told them of the progress, where they have had opportunity to interest felt for them by the people of Great attend school with any measure of regularity, Britain and of their willingness and desire to though but for a few weeks.
do what they can to help them in their preSchools at Gallatin.
sent condition. He read to the school a letter Our Schools in the town of Gallatin have written and signed by a number of English been greatly interrupted. It may be well for girls in a school at York who were doing some. me to state the circumstances as they illustrate thing for them. It is a sweet spirited letter the opposition against which our work of and was listened to by all the scholars with education must be prosecuted in a large por. marked attention. We cannot measure the tion of the South. Civil authority is being effect it will have upon this people to know restored in Tennessee-being substituted for that an interest is felt for them by the Chris. the military rule that has existed for years— tian public of England. The whole tendency a desirable change when its functions are of slavery has been to destroy all feeling of exercised by loyal men ready to stand by the self-respect—to lead them to think that no Emancipation policy of the general Govern. man cared for them—thereby removing one ment. It perhaps is to be expected that some of the great motives to a worthy life. To give persons will be vested with power who are op- them now to feel that the Christian world exposed to this policy and opposed to every effort pects them to be manly and womanly, will to elevate the coloured man. Such has been have a stimulating and encouraging effect. the case at Gallatin. From the organization Wherever I have visited a school or addressed of our schools a year ago last spring, some a congregation of Freedmen during my tour prominent citizens have manifested all the of the past few months I have felt it a duty to bitterness towards our teachers that they refer to what our co-workers in Great Britain dared to in the presence of a military force. are doing. It has been my privilege to speak
to some 5,000 adults and children—to reveal illustrations that the coloured people will work to them a nation of friends of whom they had without the lash if the common motives to scarcely heard. The contributions received labour are before them. from the people among whom you now move As soon as the camp was established here have done much to relieve suffering and to last spring we sent two teachers there to teach sustain the work of education among the freed and distribute supplies among them. They men but when the kindly feeling and interest have been labouring there some four months, which prompted those contributions are fully and already have scholars who can read in known to and understood by the Freed.man, the Second Reader. To make this plain, I the fact will awaken sincere gratitude to the will say that they are tirst taught the alphabet donors and at the same time inspire a new and words of one syllable on charts; they are born respect for themselves. I never before then formed into classes in the spelling book ; saw so clearly the moral effect of true benevo. after a certain degree of advancement they are lence on those who are its objects.
transferred to the First Reader; then to the I was pleased to find a rare species of bean Second, and so on through the series of six growing in the gardens at the camp from seed books, the highest being a complete rhetorical that had been presented by an English horti- guide. culturist.
At Hendersonville there is also an Orphan Hendersonville, Tennessee. Home or Asylum in which there are now We next went to the camp at Henderson. about 20 children under the immediate charge ville, a station on the railroad about half-way of a faithful and kind-hearted coloured woman between Gallatin and Nashville. Here there -though our teachers give such general su. is a camp of about 400 freedmen, located on pervison as it needs. We have arranged to the abandoned farm or plantation of a Con- have a comfortable suit of clothes or two made federate colonee who fell at St. Donelson, I up for each of these children from the ma. believe. This place was favoured with an | terial which has been sent us from England. abundance of timber, so that the coloured We have discovered that it ensures a very people were enabled to build quite comfort- salutary effect to discriminate as carefully as able cabins. These are a portion of the mul. may be in our distributions giving the finer titude that was driven into Nashville by the and better articles to those who manifest a advance of the rebel army under Gen. Hood, willingness to do what they can. Of course by which all the camps in Central Tennessee in this none are passed by–none forgotten or and Northern Alabama and Georgia were bro-neglected to be relieved—but simply such a ken up and destroyed. These came to Hen. discrimination is made as will constantly dersonville stripped of almost everything but teach them that industry will be rewarded. the scanty clothes they had on, and these were As many of our schools are having vacation worn and torn by the trip they had made in and as I wished the Industrial education at waggons, in box railroad cars, and on foot. the camp named to have more attention I They have been here for several months, instructed our teachers to hold only a forebut with no means with which to purchase, noon session of the common school and devote and with neither the opportunity or ability to the afterpart of the day to sewing. By de. make anything by labour, they only have such voting so much time to repairing and reclothes as have been distributed to them from making old clothes and making new, they our Society. But women who have so many may accumalate a valuable store before the children to care for that no one will hire them, cold season shall be upon them. Of one and aged and infirm persons who can only thing I can assure you, Aunt Mary (the work two or three hours a day, under the coloured matron) will be a happy woman direction of the superintendent of the camp, when the “young'ns" are clad in their new are raising about 300 acres of corn and other English clothes. products which now promise well. The crop
Yours truly, is to be their own another among many
J. M. WALDEN.
FREED-MEN'S AID SOCIETY. RECEIPTS FOR PART OF JULY AND PART OF AUGUST, 1865. CASH
Per Miss Sarah P. Remond. Mr. John P. Thomason, Bolton, 5 0 0 James Stansfeld, Esq., M.P. 2 0 0 Geo. Kitching, M.D., Enfeld 5 0 0 Mrs. William Ashurst
0 10 0 R. G. R. at Barclay's & Co. ... 1 1 0 John Scott, Esq.
0 10 0 John D. Haddon, Wellington,
Little Maurice Hill...
0 0 9 Somerset 1 0 0 Little Margaret Hill
0 0 5 J. B., Stroud, Gloucestershire 0 12 6 Collection at Roslyn Chapel, Hamp2nd remittance fr. Halifax through
stead - William Robson, Esq., Mr. G. Webster ... 70 00 defraying the expenses
13 4 4 Collected at Barnet through Mrs.
Hermann Brecknell, Esq.
0 10 0 W. Joslin 1 13 0 John Ridley, Esq.
5 0 0 G._A. Calder, Esq., per Dr. F.
Miss Norah Hill
0 7 6 Tomkins
5 0 0 Messrs. J. Corderoy & Co., 24, Too.
£22 3 0 ley Street
500 L.L.E.S., per Mrs. P. A. Taylor, Mr. H. Mays, through Barclay's. 5 0 0
4 0 0 J. W. Probyn, 5 0 0
5 12 0 From Baptist Sunday School Chil.
11 2 0 dren at Rye, Sussex 0 3 11
11 15 0 From Manchester through Friend's
Mrs. Henry Brown
... *15 10 0 Central Association
...300 0 0 * £5 10s. of this amount was contributed as
follows:-Mrs. Wood, £2; Mrs. Hemming, £404 105
10s. ; Mrs. Hill, 10s. ; Mrs. Slack, 10s.; Per Hon. C C. Leigh.
Mrs. H. D. Brown, 10s. ; Mrs. Conway, 5s.;
Mrs. Squire, 2g. 6d. ; Miss Semes, 2s. 60.; Birmingham and Midland, F. A. A.,
Mrs. Stedman, 10s. ; Mrs. H. Brown, 10s. per B. H. Cadbury
...200 0 0 Leeds Freed-Men's Aid Society, per
GOODS. Thomas Harvey
50 0 0 Per Rev. Crammond Kennedy. Clogher Anti-Slavery Association,
Ship C 431; New Brentford Mrs. Augher, County Tyrone, per Mrs.
12 19 0 Isabella Waring Maxwell ... 30 0 0
501, Bath, R. P. Edwards 33 12 3 Messrs. Finlay, Hodgson, & Co. 50 00
79 11 4 Messrs. J. S. Morgan & Co.
50 0 0
43 3 7 Rev. J. Kennie. Workington, Cum.
456, Leominster, H. New. 1 10 6
12 1 3 Rev. John Stock, Devonport ... 0 7 0
457, Camberwell, Mrs.Cart.
29 19 6 £481 17 6
510, Peckham Rye Chapel, Per Rev. Crammond Kennedy.
Miss Syrett (Inclosure) 8 0 0
533, Alnwick, Miss Dunbar 10 0 0 Per F. G. Cash, Esq., Gloucester 43 7 0
563, 564, Edinburgh, Rose Miss Delvallé per Miss E. R. Bacon 0 10 0
St., Presbyterian Church
24 0 0
92 5 11 Miss Terrey's Collecting Card 0 8 0
463-466, Halifax Freed. Per H. Newman, Esq., Leominster 14 3 6
Men's Aid Society, Chas. Per Rev. Thomas Davey, Boston... 20 0 0
Webster, including cloth Per J.H.Watson, Esq., Cockermouth 14 17 7
from Messrs. Crossley to By omission and overcharge
4 0 0
the value of £101 78 6d. 218 7 6 Mr. Alfred Whymper
0 10 0 1 Pkg. from Bardfield, Essex 10 0 0 Per Miss Ashley 0 10 0 4 from Northampton
52 0 0 Balance of Profit on Concert 1 16 6 2 from Leeds ...
34 00 Per Rev. Charles Short, Swansea 55 1 3 Besides others per Messrs. Johnson. Per Henry Belasco, Esq.
1 10 0 Johnsons & Co., Blomfield Street
Printed by Arliss ANDREW3, of No. 7, Duke Street, Bloomsbury, W.C., in the Parish of St.
George, Bloomsbury, in the County of Middlesex.
OUR PLAIN DUTY WITH RESPECT TO THE FREED-MEN IN AMERICA ; AND THEIR PRESENT CONDITION AND PROSPECTS.
BY THE REV. SAMUEL GARRATT, M.A., One of the Honorary Secretaries of the Freed-Men's Aid Society, London. Four millions of human beings-men, women, and children have passed in America within the last four years out of slavery into freedom, and are in urgent need, all of them of education, which while in bondage the law denied them, and many of them of food, which they have not been accustomed to provide for themselves, being fed by their owners like his oxen or his horses.
It needed no foresight to convince the most thoughtless that one result of emancipation and the war combined would be an immense amount of want among vast masses of the coloured people whose masters were many of them ruined, and most of them reluctant to submit to the change in their relations with their servants, and also among other vast masses who had flocked for the sake of freedom within the lines of the Federal army. In that flight from slavery many must have perished, and when the survivors reached their destination they came in naked, and footsore, and famished, and ignorant. A miserable condition truly, but yet in their eyes a happy one, because, as they so constantly expressed it, their prayers were answered and they would die free.
Writing for English men and English women, I need not pause to explain this. If any of my readers think that it would have been happier for those people to have remained slaves, I do not write for them, or ask their help. It is recorded to the disgrace of the Israelites that they did once think that slavery with plenty was preferable to freedom with scarcity. The Negroes do not think so, and, in spite of words which have been spoken during the last few years, I will not believe that any British Christian does reckon in his heart that a hungry freeman is worse off than a pampered slave.
It is not so well known as it ought to be in this country how great the effort was with which while the war lasted negroes made their escape from slavery. An impression, which must be ascribed to a Divine influence, that the war would result in their deliverance, and that like the Israelites of old they had only to o stand still and see the salvation of the Lord,” a favourite text with many of them, restrained them from acts of violence, and from attempting flight under hopeless circumstances.
But when escape was possible they underwent willingly every risk and hardship to effect it. An eye-witness relates how while a battle was raging in the neighbourhood he saw numbers of men, women and children arrive within the Federal lines, who had taken that opportunity of slipping into freedom. “ They had no shelter, little clothing, and no food, but such as the more fortunate coloured people gave them, or such as the Freed-men's Aid Societies supplied. They arrived in the evening, some of them having made a detour of sixty miles, footsore of course and wearied. Some were almost white, others black as ebony. There was no murmuring among that group. I took aside nearly fifty of them. 'Are you not tired,' said I, and do you not wish yourself back again at the old home?' Not so tired as we were last night,' said one of them, with hope beaming in his countenance; "and though we should like to go back to the old place, we came here because we were resolved to be free.”' And Dr. Tomkins says distinctly, “ I did not meet with a single negro who did not spurn the idea of going back into slavery. All desire to be free, though they may suffer and die."*
A great duty lies upon the people of this country to help in the work of providing for the necessities of these emancipated slaves.
In the first place there is a very urgent necessity for assistance.
One result of so great a war has been the draining all the resources of the United States. In the north the support of an army reckoned by millions, in the south, in addition to this, the presence of an hostile armed force of such immense magnitude exacting contributions, the blockade of the ports, and the breaking up of the compulsory labour system have exhausted the wealth of the country. And while the Americans in the Northern States are making the most strenuous efforts to supply the necessities both of whites and blacks in the South, it is a task of overwhelming magnitude.
Writing from Nashville, Dr. Walden states that there are 10,000 coloured people in that city and its vicinity, of whom 500 only are in the Freed-men's Camps. The rest support themselves at present by their own labour. But then, as he observes, this labour is dependent on the existence of the army. As that dissolves, the work it has created ceases. The coloured soldiers will have to make their homes in the Freed-men's camps, or in huts about the city, and it will be difficult for them at first to find employment. “From the time,” he says, "the grand problem before us was first presented in the course of the providential
* “ Report of a Mission to the United States from the Freed-men's Aid Society, London," by Fred. Tomkins, Esq., M.A., LL.D., of Lincoln's Inn. Dr. Tomkins adds, “Nor did I meet with a confederate soldier"-he saw many prisoners of war—"or white men in the South, who did not at once admit without the slightest hesitation that slavery was the cause of the war."