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the government, on account of the unpaid taxes. I am sorry to say that this is true only of these Sea Islands and a few other localities ; but this is no fault of the Negroes or the Federal Government. On account of the South being so devastated by war, and the war ending too late to plant crops this season, little cotton has been planted, indeed, little of all things has been planted ; so that while I have the honour to speak to you to-day, many poor whites, and still more of the Negro race, are dying of starvation, exposure, and lack of medical attention.
But though liberty has come to the Negro at this fearful cost, and, though English as well as American charity is taxed for his present relief-to which thank God, both nations are nobly responding—though, I repeat, his liberty may be leaner than his slavery for the present, the members of this Association have this reason for rejoicing, that henceforth the stoppage of cotton will not chill the energy of the manufacturer, nor starve the honsehold of the operative in Lancashire, through slavery trying to prove its shameless and tyrannical boast that Cotton is King, even at the expense of involving the nations in war.
The conclusion of this Article will appear in our December Number.
ON SLAVERY AND THE FREED-MEN.
BY THE REV. ROBERT VAUGHAN, D.D. We are gratified in being able to add the testimony of Dr. Vaughan in regard to the Freed-man, to that which has already been presented in this Magazine, When we gave our vote for the appointment of Dr. Vaughan as a delegate to America, at the Sub-Committee of the Congregational Union, although on important points we were at issue with the good and learned man, we felt convinced that Dr. Vaughan, upon his return, would utter his convictions truthfully and manfully. This he has done. We have now deeply to regret that he has resigned the British Quarterly into other hands.
Of course Dr. Vaughan has much to say respecting slavery and the Freed-men. One of the effects of the war, it is shown, has been to place the antecedent condition of the slaves beyond dispute, and to utterly disprove the slaveholders' allegation, that the negroes were contented and happy, and enjoyed a high degree of domestic felicity. The forcible separation of husband, and wife, and children, instead of being rare, is proved to have been frightfully prevalent, and that by the direct operation of the system of slavery. Another fact revealed is the astounding mortality among coloured children in slavery—the deaths frequently amounting to five-sixths of those born! “One of the first things," says Dr. Vaughan, “that arrested my attention when I went to inspect schools consisting of the children of freed slaves-of scholars, in fact who were themselves until yesterday young slaves—was the gradation of colour I saw among them. The shades graduated from an African blackness to a whiteness in which scarcely a trace of the opposite colour could be seen. But all, by one side at least, were of African descent The fact tells its own tale. Of the three thousand people whose marriages were registered at Vicksburg last year, more than one-third were found to have white blood in their veins, more or less. So the relations of black and white have become a corruption to both, and a corruption which has been such in many cases as cannot be reported to modest ears. Surely it was time that this ósum of all villanies' should come to an end, though at a heavy cost. I inquired of many coloured men and women as to their ages-no one had any knowledge of it. So lost among them had been the affections which make note of such facts."
GENERAL LEE AS A SLAVEHOLDER. General Lee fills a high place in the esteem of many persons, and Dr. Vaughan is far from wishing to detract from his just reputation; but he relates a well-authenticated circumstance to show that the irresponsible power which the slave system gave to the slaveholder over his slave may be
very perilous even to men deemed honourable and humane. A little while before the war General Lee came into possession of an estate that had belonged to Mrs. Curtis, who became the wife of Washington. Now, “it was a provision in the will of Curtis, that at his death the slaves on the estate should be free. Lee construed that document so as to require the slaves to remain in bondage five years longer. Hitherto Lee had been popular with the dependents on the estate, but this proceeding wrought a great change. The slaves threatened to leave. One did leave. This was a young woman who had been a sempstress, and a sort of lady's maid to Mrs. Lee, and had been much prized for her useful capabilities. The fugitive was apprehended, brought back, and, by order of the General, was taken to a building within sight of his residence to be flogged, as a warning to the disaffected. The young woman was required to strip herself. She refused to do so. Lee insisted on the removal of her clothes. She was tied to the post, and her owner looked on while she received, some say, nearly two hundred lashes, certainly a much greater number than such a man should have witnessed. The injured woman is still living."
A GRATIFYING CHANGE. “No man has General Lee's power over human flesh and blood in the United States now. The great questions now are, How are these freed people to be employed ? how are they to subsist? what is to be their relation to the Consti. tution ? Assuredly this abrupt emancipation of four millions of slaves is what no wise man would have chosen, if any more gradual means of bringing about this stupendous change had been available. What such a change must involve has been more patent, I imagine, to the South than to the North, and it is natural that it should have been so. Intelligent Northern men seem to have the impression that there is about a third of the coloured people for whom no provision need be made. They have good sense, are industrious, and can take care of themselves quite as well as the same class of whites. There is another third who are well disposed, but are not so intelligent, not so apt at finding employment, and to whom some assistance should be extended. The remaining third are regarded as inclined to indolence, and as capable in many cases of seeking subsistence by pilfering or crime. The course to be taken with these last, it is said, must be to make them understand that in their case, as in the case of white men betraying the same tendencies, the apostolic maxim, If a man will not work, neither shall he eat,' is to be accepted as law. If they do not seek to live by voluntary labour, society will subject them to forced labour, and will feed them accordingly. But look at this case, even as thus presented-a third of four millions needing help; and another third, if they work adequately, many if they work at all, needing to be coerced! To overtake such a difficulty, will demand resources difficult to calculate, and still more difficult to obtain. Surely if England can help America in this great work, nothing is more fitting than that the help should be given.”
GLASGOW FREED.MEN'S AID SOCIETY. After a few introductory remarks, he said
On September 22nd, a public meeting was We quite understand the nature of this meetheld in the City Hall, under the auspices of the ing. No resolution is passed pledging any Glasgow Freed-men's Aid Society, for the pur. person in this meeting to accept any interpose of hearing addresses by a deputation on pretation of the politics of the past in America. the condition, capabilities and prospects of the If there were any here who had sympathy Freed-men of America. Bailie Salmon occu- with the South in their struggle, it would not pied the chair, and on the platform among be in the least inconsistent on their part to other gentlemen, were Councillors James come here to-night, now when the war is over, Moir, James Thomson, and John Burt, the and to support those gentlemen in the claim Rev. Dr. N. Macleod, the Rev. Dr. Storrs, they make on this country. On the other of Cincinnati, the Rev. Dr. Lorimer, the hand, there are those we know here who have Rev. Messrs. Sella Martin (New York), A. M. sympathised with the North-I beg to say Milligan (Philadelphia), David Russell, R. T. that my sympathies with the North were unMartin (Wishaw), Norman M'Leod, (St. changed from the beginning. (Applause.) I Columba Church, Glasgow), and J. M'Dermid; never altered my conviction for one moment Messrs. Robert Paterson, Robert Woodside, regarding the justice of that cause, and never Wm. Smeal, Wm. Gray, Alexander Craig, in the darkest darkest hour did I lose hope of Andrew Paton, Wm. Melvin, Alex, Graham, the grand results that have already been Wm. Forsyth, James Smith, jun., George achieved-(loud applause)-results greater M’Kinlay, James Smith, sen., John Taylor, J. than have been achieved by any country in Wilkinson, W. Logan, &c. The attendance modern times; equal to the results that have was not so numerous as might have been been achieved in any war since the world bewished, the hall being scarcely more than gan. (Renewed applause.) Twist the matter half filled.
as we like that great war turned essentially The Rev. Mr. M'Dermid having opened the upon the question of slavery. (Hear, hear.) meeting with prayer,
The question before the war; the real quesThe Chairman made a few remarks. tion of the war was this—is the negro a man
We regret that our limits do not allow of or is he not-hear, hear)-is my friend our giving the able and eloquent addresses of Sella Martin, the slave, a brute or a brother. the Rev. D. Storrs, the Rev. Sella Martin, and (Applause.) I shall never forget as long as I the Rev. A. M. Milligan, of Pennsylvania. We live when I was offered for sale a woman with invite special attention to the speech of Dr. a child beneath the shadow of the capitol of Macleod.
America. The sight of that woman on tho The Rev Dr. Norman Macleod rose amidst block was a more terrible sight than the sight great applause to propose the next resolution. of any martyred sovereign on the scaffold. It was an insult to humanity—(hear, hear)—it ing of American slavery as a blot; and if men was an insult to that race of which Jesus in this country received a farthing of money Christ had been born a brother. (Applause.) that had been taken from the South, you had I felt it to be an insult to myself, as belonging the walls all posted with the words "send to that race, so horrible was the spectacle. I back the money.” (Applause.) Where are read with horror the declaration made at the those enthusiastic friends of the slave now? beginning of the war-before it broke out-by (Hear, hear.) Why this mysterious silence, I one of the most distinguished of Southern want to know, throughout the land ? Where clergymen- a man to whose Christian charac- are our influential men, now so few, as it were ter the highest testimony is borne—and he to say Amen; to give an echo, to give a wele uttered the sentiment which I read in a ser come to this almost the first deputation-men mon sent to me, that God Almighty had con- of eminence in America-how few to give a secrated the south for this grand and noble hearty welcome to this, as it were, the first end—the establishment and propagation of demand for sympathy made upon us by the slavery throughout the world. (Hear, hear.) American people! (Applause.) I feel it quite That was the consecration of Satan, and God a compliment to be permitted to bid them has brought contempt upon it. (Loud ap- welcome. I recognize them as representatives planse.) This great emancipation, this free of a new era-of an era which was inauguradom in America has cost much, but it is worth ted when England grasped the hand of all it cost. (Hear, hear.) You cannot weigh America with full heart and with tearful eye gold and silver against truth and justice. (Ap. over the dead body of one of the greatest men plause.) You cannot weigh material power or that ever lived, Abraham Lincoln-(enthumaterial value against the souls and bodies of siastic applause)—of an era, we may say, in men. (Renewed applause.) If a heathen the history of these two countries, when for could say that the Heavens should pass away, the first time for nearly half a century, we but let justice be done, surely the Christian shall be permitted to meet free America, the may say-Let five hundred millions or any America of the North-(applause)-meet faco sum of dollars be spent, and men's lives be to face and deal with her, and not with the given, but let justice and truth prevail. (Ap. South-(renewed applause)--of an era which plause.) Never, never shall we say again I do not think it requires to be a prophet to that a slave has been sold on the conti- predict will be marked by a peace, by a vital. nent of North America. (Great applause.) ity, by such a union as ought to exist between Never shall we hear such doctrine as I have two of the most Protestant, and two of the announced advocated by the Church of North freest nations of the world—(applause) —of an America; and when that mighty result has era, I am convinced, which will be marked by taken place—the emancipation of four millions an irresistible influence that will be exercised of the human race, the ending of slavery upon mankind by those two nations at once among Christian nations-I am amazed, I am the most free, the most Protestant, and the ashamed, I am humbled for my country that most prosperous on the face of the earth. (Ap. it was not received with greater thanksgiving. plause.) To me there is something more im. (Applanse.) It would have been worthy of us portant than this demand for money. Four if a holiday had been proclaimed as a day of or five hundred millions of pounds have been thanksgiving; if every bell had pealed a tone spent-spent in a terrible war sufficient to of thanksgiving it would have been worthy of harass any country, but the country which has the land; bat hardly has there been any recog. spent this money-not one farthing too much nition of it in this country, and there ought to have, in their generosity, and in spite of the have been a greater recognition of it to-night terrific taxation, raised for charity, charity to in this hall. (Applause.) We have heard, in the soldier, charity to add to his comforts, days long gone by, much said about America, charity to the wounded, to the sufferers by and contempt poured upon her because she the war, the sum of two millions sterling. had the blot. Eyer and anon we were speak. (Applause.) This was the people who assisted us in our distress in Ireland, this was the peo- When man to man the world o'er ple who assisted us in our distress in Lanca
Will brithers be for a' that." shire. (Applause.) These are the persons I have transgressed my time, for which I ask who now come with the tremendous problem your pardon. Taking up the resolution which which you have heard fully explained to he had undertaken to propose, Dr. Macleod night-they say that we have ourselves borne said—I am very sorry my eyes are failing me, a portion of this guilt; anyhow we belong to though I am not dead yet. (Laughter.) one family. Come and help us. We have Rev. Dr. Lorimer seconded the motion, sunk the pirate ship; bear a hand, and help and it was carried unanimously. to rescue the sailors who were in the ship from A vote of thanks, on the motion of Coundrowning. (Applause.) I should be aggrievedcillor Moir, to the Chairman for having preand ashamed to think that this great commu- sided, concluded the proceedings. nity-this great nation to whom freedom is a
LETTER OF MR. JOSEPH SIMPSON. hereditary thing-(hear, hear)—will refuse to
We are indebted to Robert Alsop, Esq., for help our brethren in America in such a crisis the following communication, which we preas this. (Hear, hear, and applause.) But it sent to the readers of the “Freed-Man," with has a deeper meaning. When the Apostle much pleasure. We can add our testimony to Paul went to the Gentiles to ask their contri.
its accuracy. butions to the poor, his appeal was not merely
Woodlands, Eccles, near Manchester, that the rich should assist another in trial, but
September 9th, 1865. I believe Paul had something more at heart
My dear friend, J.H. Tuke. a Christian desire to unite the two portions of
Having now returned to England after a the Church, and draw them together. I look four months tour in the United States, it may forward to the time when the bond between be well to give your Committee, in as concise us and America will be more closely drawn
a form as possible, the general impressions together, not through the newspapers—(hear); left upon my mind in connexion with the but through the convictions, and through the Freed.men's work now going on in America. principles of the Christian members and I will sum these up briefly, leaving statistics Christian ministers of our common church. and general information for others to supply. I bid those gentlemen welcome. We welcome
In regard to the condition of the Freed.men them with our open hearts and open hands. I themselves, I may state that I fear an almost hope we shall also welcome them with our incredible amount of destitution and misery open purses. (Applause.) I hope they will prevails, and will continue to prevail, amongst return back to America and assure their breth- them; and though this is inseparable from a ren of the fact that there are thousands- state of violent change, it behoves all to do aye, tens of thousands-whose names may be their utmost to mitigate its horrors. The unknown, or whose words may not cross the United States Government seems fully alive Atlantic, who have the deepest respect and to this; and the “Freedmen’s Bureau" is in. affection for America, whe feel this—that the creasing in efficiency every day, and labours progress of Christianity and of Protestantism diligently to suppress outrage and injustice tothroughout the world, and the progress of wards the coloured people. Many good Abotruth and genuine civil liberty, depend chiefly litionists were at first inclined to question the now in this world upon England and America. usefulness of the Bureau.
They feared it (Great applause.) Our poet has been alluded might be rendered comparatively useless by to. Our Burns, I shall not say, was the great- the trammels of official red tapeism. But, est poet that Scotland ever produced, but, thanks to the wisdom and the energy of the with very few exceptions, the greatest poet head of the Department, General Howard, it the world has ever produced. I pray with is now doing a noble work, and daily proving him
a real blessing to those whose interests are “Come it may,
committed to its keeping. And come it will for a' that,
Speaking of the American Freed-Men's Aid