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moment we desire truce from political strife, and plead for the credit of England, and for the honour of the Christian name, that the wishes of these excellent men who are in the field may be met. Let us provide at once the means to build the schools and to afford some solace to these patient and suffering widows and orphans. Those who are really interested in the matter should go quietly and earnestly to work to supply the funds. The sufferers “cannot recompense” their kind helpers. There will be no great eclat in rendering the service-only those who feel the joy of doing good as beneath the eye of Him who came to heal the broken-hearted, will be moved to acts of prompt benevolence in a case of this kind. We can leave the matter with them, and though we have felt great sadness in the thought that the "outcasts" seemed to be forgotten, we begin to cherish the reviving of hope.
In a letter received by the Baptist Missionary Society, the Rev. W. Teall speaks of
A HEARTY WELCOME. "On Friday afternoon I got to Yallahs where brother Palmer and wife were expecting mo; and so, on Saturday morning, I arrived at my destination, Morant Bay, and was very kindly received by Mr. Parnther, the Wesleyan Minister, who entertained me very hospitably till I got a lodging. Having been thus located, I went out to look after the people. First I went to Mr. Killick's chapel, and found it in a very ruinous condition. There has been no service in it for a long time. The acting minister was hanged in martial law. The really handsome pulpit has recently been almost destroyed by sailors from a gun-boat. I next went to seek for Father Telford, a deacon and trustee, but he was from home, so I walked back to the Bay, and went into the Market-place in front of the burnt court-house and found some Baptist people, with whom I arranged to go up the valley on Sunday, they promising to send down a horse for me to ride. On Sunday morning, however, as no horse came, I started and went by Stanton to Spring Garden, and thus missed the horse which was sent by Morant Road. The first service was held in a class-house, which was saved from being burnt by a marine, who was about to fire it, but seeing a Testament on the table did not carry out his intention. The people had not been able to meet since martial law, and no song of praise had been heard there for months. The notice was very short, but soon the place was well filled and many could not get in. It would have done you good to have heard how lustily they sang for the first time after the late sad events. When the service was over a man named Clarke got up and said, “Fambly! this is a happy day! We were without hope but God is good. He wept as he spoke, and many faces were wet with tears of joy. After the service I took an egg and a biscuit and cheese, which Mr. Parnther's honsekeeper had very thoughtfully put up for me, and then we went over to Stony Gut and had an open air service, I stood under the shade of a mango tree at the corner of Paul Bogle's burnt chapel. There was a large gathering by four o'clock and they seemed much affected. There were the widows of Paul and Moses Bogle, and the poor woman Livingstone, who was half-strangled in the chapel and then tied outside of it in the soaking rain for many hours. One man said to me, Minister, they used me very bad. They cut up my back, and shut me up for nine days and nights in the condemned cell. They burnt my house and everything I had : but I thank God, Minister, I don't feel any resentment. My breast is clear.'
“ The previous day some officers from the Cadmus' had intruded into Stony Gut and alarmed the poor people with abuse and threats, and my presence was hailed by them with delight,
“The people are in great distress, having been robbed or otherwise deprived of all they possessed, and it will take them a long time to recover their position.
“June 21st. -Yesterday afternoon I rode up in the mountains to look at some places which are in the market, and to ascertain if they would be suitable for centres of stations, but found they would not do. On my way back I had a good congregation at Spring Garden, com. mencing the service when the people returned from their grounds about 5.30. I did not get back to the Bay till nearly eight o'clock.
CHARACTER OF THE PEOPLE. “The people here generally strike me as being considerably lower in the scale of civilization than those at the west end of the island, and I hear that superstition is rife amongst them; there is, therefore, much to be done here, and whoever may be brought here will have a most arduous work. Still I think circumstances are favourable for the commencement of the Mission, and I shall, if suitable arrangements be made to support and help in securing chapels, schools, &c., be willing to undertake it.
“But if the Society wish to have a Mission in St. Thomas-in-the-East, and to have that Mission successfully prosecuted, they had better at once put aside the three years' theory and resolve to sustain the work to the extent which may be necessary. You cannot apply to a field like this the principles which may regulate your practice in those parts of the island in which our Mission has been long established: but you must make up your minds to a very considerable outlay to begin with, and to guarantee to your Missionary a sufficient sum to enable him to live, and heartily prosecute his work. What proportion of the needed amount of salary could be raised here is very uncertain. At first however, it would be very little, if anything.
SUGGESTIONS FOR CONSIDERATION. “ The following things strike me as necessary to the successful working of this Mission :
“ Ist. Rent, or lease, or purchase, or, if necessary, build a suitable house for the Mission family in a position central to the work to be done. I have offers of land from two or three persons for this purpose free of charge.
“2nd. Assist the people to put up such commodious but inexpensive chapels as, once erected, would not be beyond their power to keep in repair. I say assist, because, though the people could give but little, if any, money towards the erection, they could many of them give materials or labour, and they ought to do this to the full extent of their ability.
“3rd. Then as to the support of the Missionary, though at first the Society might have to provide nearly, if not quite, all, still, as the Mission got into working order, the people ought to be trained to give according to their ability to meet all the expenses of the Mission.
“ 4th. Schools might, I think, be secured without troubling the Society at all, as aid to commence them might be obtained from other sources, and they would shortly be on the same footing as the other schools of our body.
“Lastly, permit me to say that I think you should lose no time in forwarding such guar antees and instructions as the case requires, that the work may be entered upon withou delay.
“May the Lord give heavenly wisdom to us all in this important matter, and may the result be glory to Christ in the social, moral, and religious improvement of the people in St. Thomas-in-the-East.
«The Committee of the Union in Jamaica having received the report of the above visit have unanimously requested Mr. Teall to occupy this new and important post. To this call he has promptly and heartily responded. No one in Jamaica could be selected better adapted to it; and Mr. Teall will have not only the warm sympathy and good wishes of his Jamaica brethren, but also of the Committee and his numerous friends in England.”
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WORK DONE. The questions connected with the condition and prospects of the Freed-men have awakened earnest discussion in
form. Every step to improve the condition and to raise the character of the negro seems to provoke some controversy. To ourselves the course of duty seems to be perfectly clear. If we admit for the sake of peace and quietness, that a race treated as chattels for many generations has not attained to equality with those who have reaped the accumulated advantages of ages of civilization, it is the more needful to seek their intellectual and moral elevation. Admit that the negro is weaker than the Anglo-Saxon, yet an inspired apostle tells us, that those members of the body which seems to be the more feeble are necessary; and those members of the body which we think to be less honourable, upon those we bestow more abundant labour.” Suppose that the service of the coloured people is not quite of the same order as that of those who have received the highest culture, it is nevertheless indispensable. A sable friend of ours contends that the labour of the negro is just as essential to the world as the force of steam. steam,” he says, with an air of conscious importance, “and how would you manufacture goods ? How would you travel ?" Steam in itself as melting vapour is not worth much, but it may be utilized as we all know, to move the world. Our American friends are directing their efforts to make the negro valuable in the best sense, on his own account, and for the advantage of mankind. Their common sense in the matter affords an example worthy of imitation. They “ bestow abundant labour” on the Freed-men. As an illustration we give the following extracts from the report of our friend Mr. Walden of
FREED-MEN'S RELIEF IN THE MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. “The school year closes in July—the teachers returning North before the first of August to recuperate their health and strength during the vacation—therefore in writing of each year's work, we mean the school and not the calendar year.
“ BEGINNING OF THE WORK, 1862-3.-During the summer of 1862, after the successes of the Union armies in Tennessee and west of Mississippi, the coloured refugees—Contrabands' as they were termed-congregated at Corinth, Miss., Helena, Ark., Cairo, Ill., and some other points. On the 5th of September, 1862, Gen. Ord appointed Rev. J. B. Rodgers, Chaplain of the 14th Wisconsin Volunteers, Superintendent of the Contrabands at Corinth-one of the first official acts in their behalf in the West. A number of coloured refugees had already congregated there, and others came in daily. On the Sunday following the above appointment, five hundred came to the camp; on the next day, eleven hundred more appeared ; in about one week, the multitude of helpless beings gathered there, numbered about two thousand. A few days later followed the first Proclamation of Emancipation. As winter came on, the inmates of all the camps being poorly sheltered, miserably clad, destitute of food and the means to provide it, suffered incredible hardships. As their sufferings became known in the North, the sympathies of the humane were moved. Among the first to visit the sufferers at Cairo was Levi Coffin, the long-tried friend of the oppressed race, who in the days of slavery had fed at his own table more than three thousand of its fleeing victims. When rumours of the suffering among the Contrabands at Cairo reached him, he went there at his own expense, to inquire into their condition, and to relieve them so far as he had the means at hand. On his way thither, he fell in company with two of his long-time co-labourers in the anti-slavery cause, Job Hadley and his wife, who impelled by the interest they felt in the coloured people, were going to Cairo with the hope that they might open a school among the Contrabands there. They were favoured in their good purposes and were the pioneers in the work of education. At this time there were above three thousand souls in the camp at Cairo, among whom there was great destitution. On the return of Levi Coffin to Cincinnati, his home, he laid the wants of the sufferers before a number of philanthropic persons, and as one result the Contraband's Relief Commission was organized. He continued his labours, and by correspondence and personal application, enlisted the sympathies of many persons in behalf of the sufferers, and in a short time, contributions of money and stores for their relief, were daily received. About the same time, the Western Sanitary Commission at St. Louis, organized to supply sanitary stores to the Western armies, became aware of the suffering that existed among the coloured people at Helena, Ark., and took measures for their relief. About four thousand Contrabands had collected there; a large proportion of them had come with the army of Gen. Curtis; the others from the neighbouring districts on both sides of the Mississippi. The following from the pen of Rev. J. G. Forman, Secretary of the Com mission, gives the experience of these people at Helena, less than four years ago :
9:- Many of them were put to work upon the fortifications, and were employed by the quartermasters to load and unload steamboats and coal barges, and as teamsters, with the promise of wages at ten dollars a month. In these labours they were industrious and faithful, and their temperate habits and good conduct were worthy of the highest praise. All of them who could give any evidence of having been employed by their masters to aid the rebellion, received free papers from Major-General Curtis, who was always just and friendly to them, and willing to listen to their complaints. Unfortunately for these people, General Curtis was transferred to St. Louis, the latter part of the next month, to command the Department of Missouri, and was followed by a succession of brigadier-generals, who passed military orders withholding the payment of their wages, expelling them from their lines, and otherwise persecuting them, under which rule many were returned to their masters, and those who remained suffered untold hardships. With the indifference of the commanders to their wel. fare, the quartermasters neglected to keep full and correct pay rolls, and press-gangs of mounted orderlies were sent through the streets of Helena, who brought them to the levee and compelled them to work without wages or food till they sometimes fell down with exhaustion. Murders, rapes, and robberies, were committed upon them by the worst class of the soldiers with impunity, and the military commanders took no notice of these things. As winter came, these people, being poorly sheltered in huts, worn-out tents, and the most uninhabitable buildings, and very miserably clad, unpaid for their labour, and destitute, suffered incredible hardships, and died in large numbers. The hospital building assigned them was a miserable one-story house, surrounded by mud, where they were put under the charge of a contract-physician, who utterly neglected them, and in which they had no better accommodation than a straw bed on the floor, being without chairs, tables, stoves, cooking utensils, or any of the usual furniture either of a dwelling house or a hospital. The mortality in this hospital in December and January, 1862-63, was fifty per cent. of all who entered; so that the sick freed people often preferred death in any other place to going there.'—This truthful representation of the sufferings at Helena, which an American cannot now read without a blush of shame mantling his cheek, is but too true of every other point where the despised Contrabands were then forced or permitted to congregate. The Contraband Relief Commission began operations late in November, 1862. In January 1863, the Western Sanitary Commission sent Miss Maria R. Mann, a most excellent lady, to Helena, with all the furniture and outfit of a good hospital, with sanitary stores and clothing also for the sick, the poor and the neglected. Before the close of January, 1863, the Western Freed-Men's Aid Commission was organized at Cincinnati, by a number of Christian men--several of them well-known ministers-for the purpose of combining with physical rolief, montal
elevation. Levi Coffin became its General Agent, and by his efforts and the co-operation of others, it was enabled to do much during February and the early spring months, to relieve the wants of the suffering thousands then to be found in the several Contraband camps in the West. In April, 1863, the Cleveland Freed-men's Aid Commission was organized, and during the first three months of its existence, Chaplain J. R. Locke, detailed by Gen. Grant for the purpose, canvassed for supplies under its auspices. The stores thus collected were chiefly sent to the needy at Helena and vicinity. With the return of the mild season, attention was directed to the subject of education. The Freed-men were everywhere found anxious to have teachers and books; an intense desire to learn to read was all pervading among them. The Western Freed-men's Aid Commission sent three or four teachers to the camps on the Mis. sissippi early in the summer; the Western Sanitary Commission sent three to Helena, Ark. ; the United Presbyterian Society sent a like number to Nashville, Tenn.; the American Missionary Association sent a small corps to Corinth and Memphis. We cannot now give the chronological order in which these schools were established under these societies, nor does it matter. During the year ending Aug. 1st, 1863, comparatively little was done for the education of the Freed-men beyond inaugurating this important part of the benevolent movement in their behalf, though the experiments fully demonstrated their eagerness to learn and the practicability of a combined effort for their relief and elevation.
“ SCHOOL YEAR, 1863-61.—The Indiana Freed-men's Aid Commission was organized in September, 1863, with its office at Indianapolis, and the North Western Freed-men's Aid, January 1st, 1864, with its office at Chicago. At the General Assembly of the Old School Presbyterian Church in May, 1861, a Commission was raised to institute a denominational work in behalf of the Freed-men. About the close of this school year, a convention of Freed. men's Societies was held (July 19th and 20th, 1864) at Indianapolis. Reports were made of their operations severally from the time of their organization. As by far the larger proportion of the collections and distributions reported were made during the year of which we now write, we present the following summary: Commissions.
Cash. Stores. Total.
dollars. dollars. dollars. Contraband Relief, 20 mo.
30,000 50,000 80,000 Western Sanitary, 19
15,000 40,000 55,000 Western F. Aid, 18
26,000 75,000 101,000 Cleveland
8,000 10,000 18,000 Indiana
9,000 13,000 22,500 Indiana Friends Com. 9
23,000 10,000 33,000 N. W. F. Aid,
14,700 17,000 32,200 Grand Total,
D. 125,700 D. 216,000 D. 341,700 With this table before us we may estimate that the contributions of cash and stores to these societies for the year ending August 1st, 1861, amounted to not less than a quart er of a million of dollars. During this year the Western Sanitary Commission had six teachers and agents in the field; the Western F. A. Commission, fifty-six; the Indiana F. A. Commission, ten; the Indiana Friends' Committee, twenty; the North Western F. A. Commission, thirtyseven; total, one hundred and twenty-nine. Many of the schools in which these taught were at the Freed-men's camps and hence subject to the same changes. During the year the teachers laboured at Cairo, Ill., Columbus, Ky., Island No. 10, Memphis, President's Island, Camp Holly Springs, Fort Donelson, Clarksville, Providence, Gallatin, Nashville, Murfreesboro, Tenn., Helena and Little Rock, Ark., Goodrich's Landing, Milliken's Bend, Baton Rouge and New Orleans, La, Pawpaw Island, Vicksburg, Island 102 and Natchez, Miss., and in several coloured regiments and on a few plantations. The American Missionary Association had teachers at Vicksburg, Natchez and New Orleans; the United Presbyterian Society at Nashville; the National Freed-men's Relief Association of New York at New