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lute. W at the beginning of a word has the weak sound of 00; as in waft, warble, wave, weave, well, wind, wind, willow.

Many poets have successfully exerted their skill in selecting words the sound of which fitly expresses the loud or soft sounds they wish to describe, and the strength or weakness they wish to paint. Thus in Milton's description of the battle of the angels :

Now storming fury rose,
And clamor such as heard in heaven till now
Was never.

Arms on armor clashing brayed
Horrible discord.

By contrast take his description of soft music :

And ever, against eating cares,
Lap me in soft Lydian airs
Married to immortal verse ;
Such as the meeting soul may pierce,
In notes with many a winding bout
Of linkéd sweetness long drawn out
With wanton heed and giddy cunning,
The melting voice through mazes running,
Untwisting all the chains that tie

The hidden soul of harmony.
From the same author take this description of the last
exhibition of Samson's tremendous strength :

As with the force of winds and waters pent
When mountains tremble, those two massy pillars,

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spirit. In the Tartar-Turkish, savmak means to hate, sevmek to love ; the former being the stronger emotion with a barbarian! In the Semitic languages, “the weaker vowels i and u often convey a less active meaning as compared with the strong full a.” Thus, in the Arabic, “The three consonants q, t, 1, form a root which conveys the idea of killing; then qatala means 'he killed,' qutila, 'he was killed.' Every active verb, like qatala, has its corresponding passive, qutila.See Whitney on “Language and the Study of Language," pp. 301, 302; and Preface to Wedgwood's “ Dictionary of English Etymology." Compare the positive indicative Latin sum, es, est, sumus, estis, sunt, I am, you are, he is, etc., with the contingent subjunctive sim, sis, sit, simus, sitis, sint, I may be, thou mayst be, etc. In German, danken is to thank ; denken, to think. See note, p. 18.

With horrible convulsion, to and fro
He tugged, he shook, till down they came and drew
The whole roof after them with burst of thunder.

Contrast Cleopatra's last words as the poisonous serpent at her breast is stinging her to death. (Shakespeare's “Antony and Cleopatra," Act V. Sc. 2.)

CHARMIAN (to CLEOPATRA). O Eastern star !
CLEOPATRA.

Peace ! peace !
Dost thou not see my baby at my breast
That sucks the nurse asleep?
CHARMIAN.

0, break! O, break! CLEOPATRA. As sweet as balm, as soft as air, as gentle,

O Antony ! Nay, I will take thee too :

(Applying another asp to her arm.)

What should I stay (Falls on a bed and dies.) Read in Shakespeare's “King Henry the Fifth " the monarch's animating words to his soldiers at the siege of Harfleur :

But when the blast of war blows in our ears,
Then imitate the action of the tiger !
Stiffen the sinews, summon up the blood,
Disguise fair nature with hard-favored rage :
Then lend the eye a terrible aspéct ;
Let it pry through the portage of the head
Like the brass cannon.
Now set the teeth and stretch the nostril wide ;
Hold hard the breath, and bend up every spirit
To his full height! On, on, you noble English !

Cry — “Heaven for Harry! England ! and Saint Georgo ! For contrast with the preceding, read Young's description of the languid lady:

The languid lady next appears in state,
Who was not born to carry her own weight;
She lolls, reels, staggers, till some foreign aid
To her own stature lifts the feeble maid.
Then, if ordained to so severe a doom,
She by just stages journeys round the room ;
But, knowing her own weakness, she despairs
To scale the Alps ! that is, ascend the stairs !

My fan,” let others say, who laugh at toil.
“Fan – hood – glove scarf,” is her laconic style ;
And that is spoke with such a dying fall
That Betty rather sees than hears the call.

Again, what power of voice is sufficient to adequately express Satan's magnificent call to his millions of fallen angel warriors, who lay stunned on the fiery flood ?

He called so loud that all the hollow deep
Of hell resounded : “Princes! Potentates !
Warriors ! the flower of heaven, once yours, now lost,
If such astonishment as this can seize
Eternal spirits : or have ye chosen this place
After the toil of battle to repose
Your wearied virtue, for the ease you find
To slumber here, as in the vales of heaven ?
Or in this abject posture have ye sworn
To adore the Conqueror ? who now beholds
Cherub and seraph rolling in the flood
With scattered arms and ensigns, till anon
His swift pursuers from heaven gates discern
The advantage, and descending tread us down
Thus drooping, or with linkéd thunderbolts
Transfix us to the bottom of this gulf.
Awake, arise; or be forever fallen !”

On the other hand, silence, like that of a clear midnight, requires a very different degree of force. Thus, in Shelley's “Queen Mab”:

How beautiful this night! The balmiest sigh
Which vernal zephyrs breathe in evening's ear
Were discord to the speaking quietude
That wraps this moveless scene. Heaven's ebon vault,
Studded with stars unutterably bright,
Through which the moon's unclouded grandeur rolls,
Seems like a canopy which Love has spread
To curtain her sleeping world. Yon gentle hills,
Robed in a garment of untrodden snow ;
Yon darksome rocks whence icicles depend,
So stainless that their white and glittering spires

Tinge not the moon's pure beam ; yon castled steep,
Whose banner hangeth o'er the time-worn tower
So idly that rapt fancy deemeth it
A metaphor of peace,

- all form a scene
Where musing solitude might love to lift
Her soul above this sphere of earthliness ;
Where silence undisturbed might watch alone,

So cold, so bright, so still. From the foregoing considerations and examples we evolve FORCE as an element of vocal expression in elocution; and we see that loudness and energy are naturally expressed by a louder or more energetic voice than feebleness, languor, or silence.

How loud should one speak or read? Evidently and always, loud enough to be heard without the slightest effort on the part of the audience. Not only so, but one should commonly use a somewhat greater degree of force than this, in order to allow room for variation of the voice by diminution.

This degree of force which is recommended for all ordinary occasions, and which is somewhat above the degree of loudness that would naturally be used in conversation, may be styled moderate ; a higher degree may be termed loud or strong, and a lower, soft, slight, or weak.

Strong force is usually appropriate to joy, mirth, distress, surprise, scorn, impatience, and remorse, when these emotions are powerful ; also to anger, rage, defiance, terror, excited command, and energetic decision. Moderate force should be used when no special reason can be given for any other. Slight force is generally used in tranquillity, tenderness, sorrow, pity, quiet contempt, secrecy, fear, awe, solemnity, reverence, and utter despair.

VOLUME.

The sounds of i in pit, e in pet, u in put, a in pat, o in pot, are small.

Those of a in far, o in foe, a in fall, are larger. The sound of short i is especially adapted to express

littleness; as in nit, flit, giggle, tittle, and a multitude of other words. *

We read in Holy Writ of “ a still small voice," and Shakespeare tells us of a “big manly voice.” Which of these is appropriate to the following extract from Tennyson?

O mighty-mouthed inventor of harmonies !
O skilled to sing of time and eternity!
God-gifted organ voice of England,
Milton, a name to resound for ages !
Whose Titan angels, Gabriel, Abdiel,
Starred from Jehovah's gorgeous armories,
Tower, as the deep-domed empyrean

Rings to the roar of an angel onset ! On the contrary, what volume of voice bests suits the following from Poe?

Hear the sledges with the bells, silver bells !
What a world of merriment their melody foretells !

How they tinkle, tinkle, tinkle,

In the icy air of night!
While the stars, that oversprinkle
All the heavens, seem to twinkle

With a crystalline delight;

* Diminutive nouns are usually formed by some termination that has a short-sounding vowel. Thus -kin is appended; as lambkin, little lamb; or -ock, as hillock, little hill ; or -let, as streamlet, little stream; or -ling, as darling (for dear-ling), little dear; or -ie, as Willie, little Will; Annie, little Ann. Some are formed by a change of vowel; as tip from top; chick from cock ; kitten from cat. Compare spout and spit ; float, flout, fleet, and fit. The fitness of vowels to express size as well as force (see note, p. 13) is seen in other languages. Thus in Greek, Marpós, makros, large; but ulapós, mikros, little ; 'Apns, Ares, god of war; but 'Epis, Eris, goddess of discord; kpuśw, krozo, croak; but wpiśw, krizo, creak. In Latin, the masculine ending or is changed to rix for the feminine ; as victor, victrix. In the German, we find hahn, a cock ; but henne, a hen. In the Danish and Swedish, he is han, she is henne. In the Irish, many masculine nouns are changed to feminine by the insertion of the light vowel i after the radical vowel. These examples and those in the note on page 13 show that a correspondence between sound and sense, in the matter of strength and of size, extends to the very roots of language. See Excursus in Roelirig's “Shortest Road to German.”

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