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Than that poor Brutus, with himself at war,
Forgets the shows of love to other men.

Cass. Then, Brutus, I have much mistook your passion ;
By means whereof this breast of mine hath buried
Thoughts of great value, worthy cogitations.
Tell me, good Brutus, can you see your face ?

Bru. No, Cassius; for the eye sees not itself
But by reflection from some other thing;

Cass. 'Tis just :
And it is very much lamented, Brutus,
That

you have no such mirror as will turn
Your hidden worthiness into your eye,
That you might see your shadow. I have heard,
Where many of the best respect in Rome, 8
Except immortal Cæsar! - speaking of Brutus,
And groaning underneath this age's yoke,
Have wish'd that noble Brutus had his eyes.
Bru. Into what dangers would you

lead

me, Cassius, That

you would have me seek into myself For that which is not in me ? 9

Cass. Therefore, good Brutus, be prepard to hear:
And, since you know you cannot see yourself
So well as by.reflection, I, your glass,
Will modestly discover to yourself
That of yourself which you yet know not of.
And be not jealous on me,1° gentle Brutus :

112
Were I a common laugher, or did use
To stale with ordinary oaths my

love To every new protester;

if
you

know
That I do fawn on men, and hug them hard,
And after scandal them; or if you

know That I profess myself, in banqueting, To all the rout,12 then hold me dangerous.

[Flourish and Shout, 6 Means was sometimes used in the sense of cause or reason. Whereof refers to the preceding clause.

7 By an image or "shadow" reflected from a mirror, or from water, or some polish.d surface.

8 Respect is very often used by the Poet for consideration. See page 101, note 16. - The parenthetical clause, “except immortal Cæsar," is very emphatic, and intensely ironical.

9 Brutus likes to hear Cassius talk in that strain, and here moves him to go on, and amplify the matter.

10 On and of were used indifferently in snch cases.

11 To stale is to make common, to prostitute. The word is often used in that sense.

The order, according to the sense, is, " if you know that, in banqueting, i profess myself to all the rout." – To make lis flattery work the better, Cassins here assures the “gentle Brutus" that he scorns to flatter, that he never speaks any thing but austere truth, and that he is extremely select in his friendships.

Melnalyst .

11

Bru. What means this shouting? I do fear the people Choose Cæsar for their king. Cass.

Ay, do you fear it?
Then must I think you would not have it so.

Bru. I would not, Cassius; yet I love him well.
But wherefore do you hold me here so long?
What is it that you would impart to me?
If it be aught toward the general good,
Set honour in one eye and death i' the other,
And I will look on both indifferently;
For let the gods so speed me as I love
The name of honour more than I fear death.1

Cass. I know that virtue to be in you, Brutus,
As well as I do know your outward favour.
Well, honour is the subject of my story.
I cannot tell what you and other men
Think of this life; but, for my single self,
I had as lief not be as live to be
In awe of such a thing as I myself.
I was born free as Cæsar; so were you:
We both have fed as well; and we can both
Endure the Winter's cold as well as he:
For once, upon a raw and gusty day,
The troubled Tyber chafing with her shores,
Cæsar said to me, Dar'st thou, Cassius, now
Leap in with me into this angry flood,
And swim to yonder point? Upon the word,
Accoutred as I was, I plunged in,
And bade him follow: so indeed he did.
The torrent roar'd, and we did buffet it
With lusty sinews, throwing it aside
And stemming it with hearts of controversy ;
But, ere we could arrive the point propos’d, 46
Cæsar cried, Help me, Cassius, or I sink !
I, as Æneas, our great ancestor,
Did from the flames of Troy upon his shoulder

14

18 There appears to be some confusion here; though I am not clear whether it be the Poet's or the speaker's. Brutus has just said that he “ will look on both indifferently," and he now says a thing not consistent with that. Warburton woull read death instead of both; which would remove the incoherence. But probably Brutus' thought changes somewhat while he is in the act of expressing it. For he does not seem to have a very firin mental grip: his head is none of the clearest. This is not the only instance where the latter end of his thought seems to forget the beginning.

14 This mode of speech was not uncommon. The sense is, “ with contending or controverting hearts." For instances of similar expression see page 129, note 3.

16 The verb arrive, in its active sense, according to its etymology was formerly used for to approach, or come near.

17

The old Anchises bear, so from the waves of Tyber
Did I the tired Casar: and this man
Is now become a god; and Cassius is
A wretched creature, and must bend his body,
If Czesar carelessly but nod on him.
He had a fever when he was in Spain ; 18
And when the fit was on him I did mark
How he did shake: 'tis true, this god did shake:
His coward lips did from their colour fly;
And that same eye, whose bend doth awe the world,
Did lose his lustre. I did hear him groan:
Ay, and that tongue of his, that bade the Romans
Mark him, and write his speeches in their books,
Alas, it cried, Give me some drink, Titinius,
As a sick girl. — Ye gods, it doth amaze me,
A man of such a feeble

temper

should So get the start of the majestic world, And bear the palm alone.

[Shout. Flourisha
Bru. Another general shout!
I do believe that these applauses are
For some new honours that are heap'd on Cæsar.

Cass. Why, man, he doth bestride the narrow world,
Like a Colossus; 19 and we petty men
Walk under his huge legs, and peep

about
To find ourselves dishonourable graves.
Men at some time are masters of their fates :
The fault, dear Brutus, is not in our stars,
But in ourselves, that we are underlings.

18

16 Cæsar had three several campaigns in Spain at different periods of his life, and it does not appear which of thein is here referred to. He w's somewhat subject to epileptic fits, especially in his later years, as Napoleon also is said to have been.' Fever' was used for sickness, ģenerally, and not merely for what we call a fever.

17 The image, very bold, somewhat forced, and not altogether happy is that of a cowardly soldier running away fr in his flag. – In “did lose his lustre," his is used for its, the latter not being then an accepted word. See page 103, note 24.

18 Temper is here used nearly in the sense of constitutim or temperament. This mighty man, in fact, notwithstanding his fiery energy and lightninglike swittness of thought and act, was of a rather tragile make, with an almost feminine delicacy of texture. Cicero, who did not love hiin at all in one of his Letters applies to him a Greek word, the same that is used for miracle or uamuler in the New Testament: the English of the passage being, " This miracle (in nster?) is a thing of terrible energy, swiftness, diligence."

19 Observe the force of narrone here; as if Cæsar were grown so enormously big that even the world seemned a little thing under him. Some while betore this, the Senate bad erected a bronze stitue of Cæsar, standing on a globe, and inscribed to “ Cæsar the Demigod;" which inscription, he wever, Cæsar had erased. – The original Colossus was a bronze statue a hundred and twenty feet high, set np astride a part of the harbour at Rhodes so that ship, passed " •nder its huge legs” It was one of the seven wonders of the world.

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23

Brutus and Cæsar: What should be in that Cæsar?
Why should that name be sounded more than yours ?
Write them together, yours is as fair a name;
Sound them, it doth become the mouth as well ;
Weigh them, it is as heavy ; conjure with them,
Brutus will start a spirit as soon as Cæşar. 20
Now, in the names of all the gods at once,
Upon what meat doth this our Caesar feed,
That he is grown so great? Age, thou art sham'd !
Rome, thou hast lost the breed of noble bloods !
When went there by an age, since the great flood,
But it was fam'd with more than with one man?
When could they say, till now, that talk'd of Rome,
That her wide walls encompass’d but one man ?
Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough,
When there is in it but one only man.
you

and I have heard our fathers say
There was a Brutus once 33 that would have brook'd
Th' eternal Devil to keep his state in Rome,
As easily as a king!
Bru. That you do love me, I am nothing jealous ;
What

you

would work me to, I have some aim :
How I have thought of this, and of these times,
I shall recount hereafter; for this present,
I would not, so with love I might entreat you,
Be any further mov'd. What you have said,
I will consider; what you have to say,
I will with patience hear; and find a time
Both meet to hear and answer such high things.
Till then, my noble friend, chew upon

this :
Brutus had rather be a villager
Than to repute himself a son of Rome

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in Rome, injevac.

24

25

20 The allusion is to the old custom of muttering certain names, supposed to have in them “the might of magic spells," in raising or conjuring up spirits. - Brutus and Custır are here printed in Italic, to show that Cassius íg referring to the magical power of the names, and not to the men.

21 By this a Roman would of course mean Deucalion's flood, not Noah's.

22 The original has walks instead of walls. In the next line there is a play upon the words Rome and room, which may have been more consonous in the Poet's time than they are now.

23. Alluding to Lucius Junius Brutus, who bore a leading part in driving out Tarquin the Proud, and in turning the Kingdom into a Republic. Afterwarus, as Coisul, he condemned his own sons to death for attempting to restore the Kingdom. The Marcus Junius Brutus of the play supposed himself to be linealle descended from him. His mother, servilia, also derived her .ineage from Servilius Ahala, who slew Spurius Mælius for aspiring to royalty. Merivale justly remarks that “the name of Brutus forced its possessor into prominence as soon as royalty began to be discussed."

24 To aim is to guess. So, in 'Romeo and Juliet, i. 1: “I aim'd so near when I suppos'd you lov'd." Jealous was often used in the sense of doubtful.

25 To chero is literally the same is to ruminata See page 81 note 6.

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Under these hard conditions as this time
Is like to lay upon us.

Cass. I am glad that my weak words
Have struck but thus much show of fire from Brutus.

Bru. The games are done, and Cæsar is returning.

Cass. As they pass by, pluck Casca by the sleeve; And he will, after his sour fashion, tell

you What hath proceeded worthy note to-day.

Re-enter CÆSAR and his Train. Bru. I will do so.

But, look

you,

Cassius,
T'he

angry spot doth glow on Cæsar's brow,
And all the rest look like a chidden train: CL-
Calpurnia's cheek is pale; and Cicero
Looks with such ferret and such fiery eyes
As we have seen him in the Capitol,
.Being cross'd in conference by some Senator.

Cass. Casca will tell us what the matter is.
Cæs. Antonius, -
Ant. Cæsar ?

Cæs. Let me have men about me that are fat;
Sleek-headed men, and such as sleep o' nights :
Yond Cassius has a lean and hungry look ;
He thinks too much : such men are dangerous.24

Ant. Fear him not, Cæsar; he's not dangerous ;
He is a noble Roman, and well given.28

Cæs. 'Would he were fatter! but I fear him not:
Yet, if my name were liable to fear,
I do not know the man I should avoid
So soon as that spare Cassius. He reads much ;
He is a great observer, and he looks
Quite through the deeds of men: he loves no plays,
As thou dost, Antony; he hears no music : 29
Seldom he smiles; and smiles in such a sort
As if he mock'd himself, and scorn’d his spirit
That could be mov'd to smile at any thing.

28 The ferret is a very ferocions little animal of the weasel kind, noted for its fire-red eyes. – The angry spot on Cæsar's brow, Calpurnia's pale cheek, and Cicero spouting fire from his eres as when kindled by opposition in the Senate, make an exceedingly vivid picture.

27 So in North's Plutarch, Life of Julius Cæsar: “When Cæsar's friends complained unto him of Antonius and Dolabella, that they pretended sonie mischief towards him, he answereil them, 'As for those fat men, and smooth combed heads, I never reckou of them; but these pale visaged and carion leane people, I feare them most; meaning Brutus and Cassius."

28 'We'll giren is well dispused.

2 This note of Cassius naturallr draws to him what is said of "the man that hath no music in hiinself," in The Merchant of Venice, v. 1.

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