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This scene shows the Police on herd duty or the guarding of the horses sent out to graze. left is the half-breed guide. Three of the men wear Shaps and Sombreros.

yet deep down in his heart he feels and appreciates the glory of the wilderness. Living day after day within the encircling arms of Nature, he learns to love her with no common love. Even in her wildest and most savage moods, his heart finds something strangely akin to hers. Riding by day through the fragrant prairie grasses, bivouacing by night beneath the silent

On the

There, seated beside his fire, we must take leave of him. As the flames burn low he knocks the ashes from his pipe, and with a sigh of deep content rolls himself in his blankets and lies down to rest. Soon, lulled by the whispering voices of the prairie night, he sinks into the deep, dreamless slumber vouchsafed to Nature's children.

Harold Christie Thomson.




HE foundation of the Dominion in was assumed when the ideas had

effect upon spread and the movement began to

exert an influence on public opinion.

The first idea was to endeavor to bring the Provinces more together by encouraging intercolonial trade, and Robert Haliburton delivered lectures through the country, urging this method of consolidating the Dominion.

the imagination of the Canadians of that day. Before that time the scattered Provinces were comparatively small in territory and weak in population. The people felt that they were simply colonists and were somewhat provincial in their ideas. With Confederation came a marked change. It was felt that Canada had become a great country with immense resources, with entire control of local affairs; and the public mind looked forward to possibilities of future greatness that were limited only by the power of the imagination.

The next object was to get in more Provinces, particularly the NorthWest Territories, the acquisition of which was then being discussed. Already there had been at work for several years in that quarter, the brilliant intellect, the unflagging energy and the devoted efforts of one of Canada's most loyal sons, Sir John Schultz. His boyhood had been passed around scenes made historic by Brock and Tecumseh, and His youthful imagination had been fired by the recital of their deeds of valor and daring, inspiring in him a deep and fervid love for his country, which increased with his years, and only passed away with his last breath. Up to the moment of his decease, he was arranging plans for the bettering of the condition of his less fortunate countrymen of the far north or Arctic circle. He was at the time of which I speak a young physician of great promise and large practice, but one who put country above all other considerations and was busy working in its interests. He saw clearly that the true destiny of both the Territories and the Dominion lay in their being united politically, and in communications being opened up between them. Seeing all this himself, he sought in every way to

The young men, particularly, were affected in this way. It was only a few months after the first Dominion Day, in the early part of 1868, that chance brought together, in Ottawa, five young Canadians. They were: Robert Grant Haliburton, of Halifax, son of the celebrated author of "Sam Slick"; William A. Foster, of Toronto; Charles Mair, of Lanark, Ont.; Henry J. Morgan, of Ottawa; and the writer of these Recollections. We met repeatedly and spent our evenings together, the topic of conversation being almost always the future of Canada, her brilliant prospects, and the duty of her sons to study her interests and to do all in their power to advance her welfare. These discussions led to a pledge being taken that each in his way would do his utmost to encourage and foster a national spirit in our people, and that on all public questions we would put the country before political or any other considerations. From this pledge naturally came the motto "Canada First," which

knowledge of the possibilities which lay before them. His facile pen and eloquent, persuasive powers did good

work to this end.

awaken the people of the place to a full of the idea, entered into it enthusiastically, and agreed to work heartily with us. All who have watched and followed his career, know how nobly he took his part for Canada, and that he did more for her in the North-West than any other inan. Now, when the work has been done,. when the Canadian Pacific Railway has bound the Provinces together, and Confederation has been established. for a generation, it is difficult to appreciate how different everything looked in 1869, when 600 miles of unbroken wilderness separated Fort William from Fort Garry, and when there was no communication with it. or British Columbia, except by way of the States, and over immense tracts of unsettled country.

Charles Mair went to Fort Garry in the fall of 1868, and arrangements were made that he should write letters to the Toronto Globe describing the country and using the opportunity to encourage an emigration that would secure the territory to Canada. His letters were extensively copied, and brought before the minds of the Ontario people the immense heritage that lay open to them. The strong national spirit which breathed through these letters must have awakened the people of the older Provinces, and no doubt exercised a good effect when a year or so later a rebellion broke out, and there seemed a danger that intrigue or carelessness might for a long time delay the opening up of the newly-acquired territory.

In March, 1869, I first met Sir John Schultz. He was then quite a young man, under 30, of magnificent physique, with clear, blue eyes, golden hair with a dash of brown in it, an exceedingly erect carriage, a man who impressed one with the idea of strength of mind and will power. Mair had written to me about him, telling me that he had given Dr. Schultz a letter of introduction to me, and asking that I should introduce him into our little organization, and secure him as an associate. He spoke very strongly of Dr. Schultz's strong patriotic Canadianism, said that he was easily the foremost of the few Canadians in the Red River Settlement, and predicted (truthfully) that he would certainly be the foremost man in the North-West Territories after they were incorporated in the Dominion.

Soon after Dr. Schultz arrived from the West. I introduced him to Foster and Haliburton, and we had long conversations on the object we had in view. Dr. Schultz, already

Dr. Schultz returned to Fort Garry, and on Dominion Day, 1869, he and Mair arranged for a celebration of the day by the few Canadians in the country. A large flag-pole was put. up in front of the place occupied by Dr. Schultz on what is now Main street, Winnipeg, and a Union Jack with the word "Canada" across it in. large letters, was hoisted by the Doc-tor.

In the autumn of that year the Hon. Wm Macdougall was appointed to be the first Lieut.-Governor, and as is well known, his approach was a signal to the French half-breeds to rise in rebellion against his entry, and against the absorption of the Territory into the Dominion. Mr. Macdougall appointed the late Lt.-Col. J. Stoughton Dennis, as Deputy Lt.-Governor, and conservator of the peace, with power to raise the loyal portion of the community, and put down the rebellion. As soon as he arrived at Fort Garry, Col. Dennis put himself in communication with Schultz, Mair; Lynch and the other leading loyalists.. Schultz at once saw the importance of Dennis' commission, and said that it gave the loyal men authority to act, and suggested storming the Fort that night. This was the proper and wise:

course, and showed that he had the true soldierly instinct. Dennis refused to consent to this, but ordered the Canadians to organize and arm, while he himself went to the lower or "Stone Fort" to raise the inhabitants of that neighborhood. Time was lost until any opportunity of same time, but went in opposite direc

Schultz and Mair escaped about the



doing anything was gone, and then Dennis started for the frontier, leaving an order for his followers to disperse to their homes.

ernment property, and being cut off from supplies and water were obliged to surrender to Riel. They were at once put in close confinement in Fort Garry, and kept in great misery for several months of a hard winter.


In the meantime Schultz's little party were besieged in his house, where they had been defending Gov

tions, Mair to Portage la Prairie and Schultz to the Lower Settlements down the river. They both appear to have at once cominenced organizing expeditions for the release of their comrades, who were still in prison, and a junction of the two bodies was

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