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ment of labour's hosts have continued such observance is held to promote to grow in importance, and have reach- the public good. The results followed up to the full development of modern ing the enforcement of such a law civilization and progress. Vast strides would clearly justify its enactment have been made in the development of from the purely civil standpoint only. the industrial arts and in bringing Among these results would be found earth's wastes under cultivation. The the protection of the toiler in the enrailway and the steamship have super- joyment of a right essential to his seded the primitive modes of com- highest intellectual and physical inmunication. Nations separated by terests; protection from the consciencewide distances are now neighbours and less greed of the classes who pocket have intimate relations. Man's ma- the dividends swelled by the Sunday terial condition has greatly improved, toil of the white slaves, whose natural and the fruits of his labours are abund- rights and religious scruples are ruthant beyond any previous period. He lessly trampled in the dust in the has now reached a stage of develop, scramble of the money-grabber and ment and has accomplished material the pleasure-seeker; the legal estabresults that present å startling con- lishment of the best of all sanitary trast to his early condition. But he arrangements resulting in the more has not outlived his dependence upon efficient promotion of public health, the commands of his Creator. The cleanliness and self-respect; greatly same old decalogue is the law to re- increased opportunity for securing the strain and govern, and is, at the same benefits of the higher education furtime, the venerable Magna Charta of nished by Church and Sabbath school; his liberties. Its provisions can only the resulting increase of Christian be disregarded at his ruinous cost. homes which are

the graduating The observance of the weekly rest-day schools of good citizens and the bulstill confers the most important social, wark of the State; the promotion of sanitary,intellectualand religious priv. temperance and the spirit of obedience ileges; and, amid the intensity of to the law, as well as of good morals action and the high pressure of our and social purity; and the securing generation, it is more essential to his to the toiler the rights of conscience welfare than at any previous period. and religious liberty.

Sunday observance legislation may The State cannot with propriety be rest upon purely civil grounds and indifferent to the operation of all will find in this a sufficient foundation, influences, religious or otherwise, that even if divine obligation and religious tell upon the moral and physical conrequirement is ignored. The proper dition of the citizen, and the prohibiaiin of human enactment is to secure tion of obscene books and prints. The justice and proinote the public wel- suppression of obscene plays, the enfare. It cannot properly trample forcement of quarantine regulations, upon human rights, reduce to a con- the destruction of infected clothing, dition of slavery, or deny protection the isolation of persons siitten with to the humble and the oppressed. A infectious disease, and the destruction law that is calculated to confer upon of infected herds and flocks are in the people great physical, material and line with, and justifiable upon, the social blessings needs no defence. same grounds as would be provisions Such a law may utterly ignore all for securing Sunday rest, because of recognition of religious duty, and may the moral and physical blessings which simply require the observance of the result. Sunday rest-day so far as abstaining From the economic standpoint Sunfrom labour and unseemly recreations day labour is worse than unnecessary. and actions are concerned, because The most serious economic problem of

man.

the day is to provide a remedy for the lation it is objected that it is religious business disturbances arising from lawmaking, that it interferes with the over-production. Sunday labour sim- liberty of the individual, and that if a ply tends to intensify this evil. In man wants to work on Sunday no law the near future, it is not improbable should prevent his doing so. Sunday that shortening the hours of labour rest legislation cannot properly interwill be one of the remedies applied. fere with religious convictions, or the Cessation of Sunday labour is one of reverse, and cannot properly prescribe the most obvious of the remedies for religious observances and usages. It over-production. Sunday labour is can, however, with propriety secure never in the interest of the working- to the toiler the right to enjoy reli

Under present conditions of gious privileges, and to follow the production it means seven days' work dictates of his conscience. for six days' pay; nay, worse, it means Blackstone has said of Sabbath that seven days' labour will bring the observance: “It is of admirable serweekly wage below the figure that vice to the State, considered merely as would be given if the Sunday rest a civil institution.” Justice Field, of were strictly adhered to.

the United States Supreme Court, Railway corporations are the most when Chief Justice of California, said, remorseless offenders against the rights when pronouncing judgment in an of labour. To remedy the evil so far appeal against a Sunday observance as the railways are concerned concur- law : “ The legislature has the right rent action is necessary, and individual to make laws for preservation of health action can only be applied with diffi- and the promotion of good morals; culty, and to a limited extent. An and so to require periodical cessation adequate remedy for existing evils can from labour, if of opinion it would be provided only by the intervention tend to both.” of civil authority. Intelligent railway If legal enactment is necessary to employees are not in favour of Sun- enable the toiler to wash off the grime day labour. The responsibility for and stain of toil; to put off the greasy the evil comes home to the gentlemen blouse and overall, and unclean attire, who pocket the dividends. Three- a respectable and self-respecting citiquarters of the Sunday work upon zen, to spend Sunday with his wife railways could be dispensed with and family, and with them to attend without injury to public interests. church and Sunday-school, if he dePressure of business is no excuse. sires, are not the highest. interests of This reason could be made to justify himself, of his family, and of the State almost any desecration of the Sabbath thereby promoted ; and does not such by labour.

The provision of more a law secure for him and for his the rolling stock and the employment of exercise of a civil right in the highest more men is the simple and sufficient sense ? remedy. The higher moral tone and The artisan, employee, or labourer the increased efficiency and alertness who believes that Sunday labour is a among railway employees that would degradation, and who desires to secure result from Sunday rest and its nat- the blessing of Sunday rest, should reural influences, would of itself large- member that to fasten upon others a ly make good the apparent diminution bondage from which any portion of of transportation capacity resulting the great fraternity of toilers seeks to from the discontinuance of Sunday escape is treason to the cause, and labour. To protect the labourer, and tends powerfully to secure the success especially the railway labourer, in the of the attempt to break down all opright to Sunday rest, stringent legis- position to Sunday labour. He shall lation is required. Against such legis- scorn to ask for, or participate in, any

enjoyment or holiday that dooms a lax Sunday regulations, and is now fellow-labourer to loss of his Sunday becoming alive to the importance of rest and privileges. Only works of Sunday rest. There the Sunday rest necessity and mercy should be per- cause is making rapid progress. In mitted. No requirement beyond that connection with the World's Fair at limitation should be made. The rights Paris, in 1889, an International Conof labour to Sunday rest can be secur- gress of Weekly Rest was held under ed only by the united action of those the authorization of the French Govinterested in securing that right. If ernment, September 21st to 27th. the holiday-seeking labourer requires This Congress passed resolutions rethe services of the excursion train- commending the securing of Sunday men, or of the street-car conductor, rest for labourers by legislative enactmotor-men and power-house staff, he ment. In 1890 the International has surrendered the principle of Sun- Labour Congress was convened by the day rest requirements, and has aided Emperor William II. at Berlin, March to set in motion the influences that 15th to 30th. This Congress also will sooner or later, perhaps, end in passed resolutions in favour of Sunday the loss of his own liberties.

rest, and of legislative action for The agitation for street railway securing the same. In each of these service on Sunday, if successful, will cases the action taken was entirely inlead to calamitous results. The quiet dependent of religious considerations, of the Sabbath will be surrendered, and Sunday rest was treated by both continuous labour will be forced upon of these bodies as a question pertainunwilling men. Excursions and jun- ing entirely to civil jurisdiction. ketings will shock the sense of pro- Legislative enactments in the line of priety of the religious, and will draw these resolutions have been made by into the vortex of temptation, and nearly all the States of Continental scorn of religious and moral restraint, Europe. the class over whom it is most im- Whatever influences are in the portant that such restraints should be future to elevate humanity, whatever placed. The attendance upon Church forces are to work in the direction of and Sunday school will be diminish- producing a purer and nobler civilizaed, and a long stride will have been tion, must not only reach the masses, made towards the complete seculariza- but must act specially and powerfully tion of the day. The Sabbath quiet upon them. The environment, the of Toronto, of Ottawa, and of most privileges and the purposes of the other Canadian cities, reminds us of powerful, and the rich, is a matter of the Sabbath of our fathers. In most minor importance. The masses now of the cities of the United States no possess intelligence and constantly insuch object lesson is furnished. It is creasing educational advantages. No said that American tourists sneer at longer is it true that their opinions our puritanical regard for the rest- and their desires are of small importday, and that American hotel patron- ance. The days of serfdom and vasage is repelled because facilities are salage are past. The artisan and the not furnished for Sunday jaunts and toiler now have votes, and each one as pleasure-seeking. If such is the case, a factor in the affairs of the State is let those who are lovers of pleasure equal in political consequence to the and Sabbath desecration rather than man of higher social position. The lovers of God, moral order, and salut- future of civilization depends in a ary regulations, betake themselves to large measure upon the great class the land of Sunday newspapers and who must fight the battles of the Sunday street cars.

nation in time of war, and develop Europe has tried Sunday labour and its resources in time of peace; who must till its fields, gather its harvests, heathen civilization, will become nervedig its minerals, run its spindles and less and atrophied. forges, build its shops, and create its The enjoyment of Sunday rest, then, wealth. In working out the problem I assert, is a civil right the possession of the world's future, if a satisfactory of which is pregnant with social, moral, solution is reached, Sunday rest with material, and intellectual consequences its attendant blessings must bear a that cominend it to the State as a conspicuous part. Without it the most necessary and proper subject for the elevating mental and moral influences exercise of legislative functions ; and will be lost to the masses. Without it to the citizen as a privilege of pricethe forces of Christianity, which have less importance which the mandate of given modern civilization every char- the civil law should secure to all. acteristic of the superiority it possesses over the brutal and polluted forms

John Churlton.

“WHEN THE GOLDEN BOWL BE BROKEN."
THE
HE Angel of Life leaned over the verge,

Where the seven golden bars
Round the lonely rampart of heaven ran,

Like a glimmering chain of stars.

The plumes of her folded wings were soft

As the breast of a brooding dove;
Yet the sky-like depths of her dreaming eyes

Were softer still with love.

And like a husbandman, who lends

His grain to the humid loam,
She flung a million souls from heaven,

And brought a million home.

Strange charioteer, she held the reins

Of the worlds within her hand;
While the hour-glass, at her girdle hung,

Ran centuries for sand.

But, one by one, each one of her worlds

Sank down to a wavering spark;
And rein by rein she let them loose;

And they vanished down the dark.

She leaned far out from the golden bar;

And the sand in the glass ran low;
And the asphodel from her bosom fell;
And she let the last world

go.

And she, like a sorrowing harvester,

Who has garnered all his grain,
On the lonely rampart of heaven turned
From the twilight, home again.

ARTHUR J. STRINGER.

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troversy is to be settled should pro- into. A moment's reflection ought to voke a stirring pæan of applause in convince anyone that there is every the United States is quite natural; ground for the United States to inthat they should be received in Eng- dulge in the coaxation and frog-galliland with placid acquiescence is not ards to which we shall now be treated surprising to anybody who contem- by our neighbours to the south. One plates the habitual ignorance and in- would think, to hear some of the sighs difference which Englishmen generally of relief which reach us from Engdisplay in dealing with the American land, that if we have not made a very section of the Empire ; but that these advantageous bargain, at least we terms should fail to arouse the indig- have done our best in very, difficult nation of and compel a protest from circumstances. But that is absolutely every Canadian

incredible. at variance with the facts. We have in our international dealings The British Empire and the Repubwith the United States taken many lic of Venezuela are neighbours in blows, and received many injuries, South America, and had what we chiefly through a culpable and as- would call in this country a "linetounding lack of address and atten- fence" dispute. Venezuela for many tion to our interests upon the part of years vainly endeavoured to induce the Home Government. Most of us her antagonist to submit this dispute had hoped that this state of affairs to arbitration, which the latter as had passed away forever, and thought persistently declined to do. Then we discovered in the association of the United States intervened in what Canadian statesmen with English is called “a friendly way,” and endiplomats in our international tribu- deavoured to secure for Venezuela what nals, and in various other circumstan- she had failed to secure for herself ; ces, signs and omens of a brighter day. but again Great Britain refused to arBut I venture to think that the suin bitrate, except with certain limitations, total of all our misfortunes can scar to which Venezuela declined to agree. cely equal the injury done to us by the Up to this point, therefore, the worst Venezuelan settlement, and that, too, phase of the situation for England whether one regards it from a materi- was, that she should arbitrate about a al or sentimental standpoint.

piece of disputed territory with

a

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