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out the day there are volleys of blasts down our own coke at half that price. in the mines. Every issue of the local By the time we get the Crow's Nest paper contains bona-fide reports of new Pass Ry., it does not seem too much to strikes upon developing properties or hope that our smelting men will have of sales to men whose names are well thoroughly mastered the difficulties of known in financial circles, and lucklily smelting our peculiar form of ore to the for us a spirit is awake in our press best advantage, and may have establishwhich is exceedingly intolerant of the ed smelters and refineries at the best Wild Cat and the Boomer.

points within our own boundaries. Kootenay, after a long period of British Columbia has a good many past waiting, is now rapidly becoming pos extravagances to pay for, Government sessed of most of those things which buildings "to anchor the Capital" and she needs. The Coast at last is awake such like, and she wants to make for to the fact that the mainland of British herself every dollar which she can out Columbia is actually a part of that Pro of her own industries; but if she ever vince ; more than that, that it is a part gets her own coke and a cheap process of the Province of exactly the same im for treating her low grade sulphide portance to the Province as his purse she can pay her outstanding is to a man. These facts, too, have accounts with the profits of Trail, and been established: that the sun does not have another spree on the silver of rise and set exclusively within the do Slocan. mains of the E. and W. Ry., and that As to this question of smelters, in Canada has no intention of abandoning reply to a question of mine, my friend this fraction of her Dominion to any Mr. Leslie Hill writes: “To be sucmonopolists.

cessful, a smelter must be run on a The result of these great discoveries large scale and must be able to draw is a rapid improvement in tone here. supplies of ore from a large district. Men are hopeful again everywhere. A smelter should refine as well as smelt, The “boys ” of Kootenay and Cariboo and to do this successfully it must be have sent a man of their own choosing run on a large scale and must be able to Ottawa of whom some of them re to run 365 days in the year. cently told the writer that they didn't “A smelter also requires a large go a whole heap on his politics and he variety of ores so that it may be able was no account at all at whiskey, but to make the best smelting, and both they guessed he was pretty these conditions can only be fulfilled straight for a politician! That is what when the smelter obtains ores from a Kootenay wants. We are not politi large district.

As you know, at precians here ; we are miners, and the sent most of the B.C. ores are smelted man who will honestly push our mining in the States, and this important ininterests, whether Liberal or Conserva dustry is lost to Canada,” (as is most tive, is the man for Kootenay. From of the trade which goes to Spokane.) outside, men with money have come to “The supply of fuel and fluxes also us to develop our mines, a broad guage enters largely into the question of sucrailway has run into Rossland this cessful smelting. Now it is claimed Autumn, and possibly we may yet have that good coking coal exists in large our great need satisfied by the building quantities in the Crow's Nest Pass of the Crow's Nest Pass Ry. We have coal-field. If this is so, and the Crow's the mines and the men and the money. Nest Railway is built, it would seem What we still want are smelters with that some point on the Kootenay Lake, refineries in the right places, and fuel of probably near the outlet, would best our own at a cheap rate to feed the fulfil the conditions necessary for an same. At present it is alleged that we ideal smelting point." pay over $17 per ton for imported This is one man's view. American coke, whilst if we had the Other persons point to Vancouver Crow's Nest Pass Ry. we could lay as the proper place for a smelter, and

it is alleged that two exceedingly the island at Alberni, on Phillip's Arm strong financial combinations are com at Texada, and elsewhere, fresh depeting for the establishment of smelters posits of mineral are being opened up. and refineries at that point. In favour These would help materially to increase of Vancouver, its friends allege that (the that volume and variety of ore (gatherCrow's Nest Pass Railway apart) it can ed, say, at Vancouver) which seems to bring down cheaper coke than can be be an essential to success in smelting laid down at other points, coke, that is, operations. from Cardiff or Australia, at $9.00 per Perhaps the best that could happen ton, and that possibly even cheaper to British Columbia would be, not the coke will be available in the future establishment of a lot of small smelters from Comox ; that it is a competitive all over the place, but of one great point on the railway systems having company with smelters and refineries command of the C. P. Ry., the North at Vancouver, with that direct railway ern Pacific Railway, and the Great to Kootenay of which men are beginNorthern ; that wages are lower on the ning to talk, and which is absolutely Coast than in the interior; that less fuel needed to bind mainland and coast into is used in treating ore on the sea level one prosperous whole, and to make the than at a greater elevation.

most of our really magnificent resources There is this to be added of which for British Columbia, for Canada, and little has so far been said in this brief for that great Empire of which Canada sketch. All along our coast and on

is a part.

Clive Phillipps-Wolley.

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GRIN
'RIM Sorrow looked upon a maid one day,

Quoth he,“ Thou art most wondrous fair of face;
But I will change thy golden hair to grey,
And many lines across thy dimples trace ;
Thine eyes shall dim with mourning and with tears ;
And mirth, from those red lips, shall rarely flow."
But Hope stepped forth and whispered, “Cease thy fears,
I will defend thee, maid, 'gainst yonder foe.”

So, side by side, they toiled, day after day,
Upon that fair, sweet face, nor stopped to rest ;
But Hope's warm kiss brushed tears and lines away,
And Hope's soft whisperings soothed her troubled breast.
Sorrow, discouraged, cast his tools aside,
And paused a moment ere he turned to flee,
“ Though I have worked with tireless zeal,” he cried,
"Thou, Hope, hast truly conquered-even me.

Lissie E. Dyas.

BRITISH AMERICA'S GOLDEN GATEWAY TO THE ORIENT.

ROSSLAND AND THE KOOTENAY MINING CENTRES.

BY THE HONOURABLE C. H. MACKINTOSH, LIEUT.-GOV. OF THE NORTH

WEST TERRITORIES.

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by congratulat- Atlantic. The spirit of the United ing Louis XV. Empire Loyalists, unswerving devotion upon being hap and attachment to the mother country, pily rid of a few maintained her supremacy on the norhundred leagues thern portion of the continent, despite of snow and ice, Oregon capitulations and Maine Treaty may have been surrenders. Hence, above all others, impelled by a de the Dominion of Canada is entitled to sire to minister the distinction of being a self-made and to a monarch's self-sustaining colonial Empire. vanity, please Like other sections, the western Pompadour, and country took care of itself through an calm the patri- extremely eventful period; for, had cian sensitive- ready-made diplomats been vouchsafed ness of the French the permanent privilege of playing bat court ; whatever tledore and shuttlecock with interests his motive, the under their control, scarce an acre illustrious sav would have remained vested in the ant's estimate Crown. To-day, British tourists may was sadly astray. be heard intermingling eulogies upon Great Britain ab Canada with criticisms upon the idiocy sorbed a splen- of Louis the Fifteenth's belief that the did heritage, “cession " represented a mere flimsy while France lost bagatelle.

bagatelle. These, apparently, overgame well look the fact that, in days not far reworth winning. mote, diplomatic negotiations affecting But, why spe colonial affairs too often savoured of

culate ? Mon- pomposity, with a transparent veneer arch and Voltaire and Pompadour, of Downing Street polish. Happily, the fripperies and furbelows of Ver in those primitive times, there were sailles, the tinselled votaries at royal- glorious exceptions, although, generty's shrine, long ago crossed the Great ally speaking, Imperial representatives, Divide, and places that knew them baptised, as it were, in batches, sallied once shall know them no more, for forth—in a species of hand-me-down ever. Still, candour compels the ad wardrobe, labelled Genuine, but unmismission that even Britain was virtually takable—Misfits ; all convinced that it coerced into keeping possessions in North America; her magnificent domain to the south went by the board, conșe

“Something like fulfilling the prophecies,

“When all the best families had the best offiquent upon the stubborn temperament

ces.” and crass stupidity of a reigning Sovereign, apparently misled by the fallacy that These wrote Latin correctly, were apt British blood, British pluck and British at Homeric quotations, their secretaries prowess underwent some extraordinary prepared profound State papers, they

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drew the salaries and the colonists knowing, move with confidence in the drew the suffering.

for commercial and industrial It is not the earlier epoch over which supremacy Canadians delight to ponder, although the sun's rays were as warm and the moon's beams as soft and mellow as Little more than twenty-five years to-day. There lived good and bad, ago, Canadians looked askance when enlightened and ignorant, men ; brave British Columbia, in consideration of colonial and chivalrous imperial officers becoming an integral part of the Doand soldiers, who, through trial and minion, demanded that the walls of temptation, rallied beneath the same adamant frowning over her eastern glorious flag ; there were, in all emer- boundaries should be pierced by a gencies, battalions of patriots, pre- railway. This somewhat startled those pared to sustain the mother land in the who prided themselves upon representhour of darkness, danger, and tribula- ing the progressive Provinces of older tion. The past, then, should be with- Canada ; consequently, there was some out regrets, because Canadians were hesitancy in assuming responsibility true to themselves ; because no great for an experiment which some imagined disaster checked their progress, and a miracle only could prevent from prebecause, in later days, statesmen guid- cipitating national disaster. New ed national destinies, and Royalty's Caledonia had been read of, in palmy vice-regents were sought for amongst days of Hudson's Bay supremacy, as a the ablest Imperial diplomats. Wis- trading post and as a Crown colony ; dom delights in gazing towards the British Columbia heard of as being an beautiful stars, instead of contemplat- isolated and somewhat exclusive coming sombre elements below. Bygone munity, a trifle insular, despite towerexperience taught our people self-reli- ing cliffs and sea-beaten coasts ; but, ance, and the closing years of the nine- as to being a country of great possiteenth century demonstrate that here, bilities, few even dreamed. upon British soil, has been established Certainly, it had been the fur-traders' one of the most prosperous, one of the Mecca ; its waters teemed with fish ; most industrious commonwealths civil- its forests produced magnificent timbization ever produced.

er; a modicum of gold had possibly Since 1867, Canadians have recog- escaped the ferret-like proclivities of nized that the component parts of a the ubiquitous prospector ; there were Federal union must work in harmony bands of Sarcees, famous for filth and if the national fabric is to be perfected; remarkable for chronic laziness ; there that even from a selfish standpoint, were groups of Chinese, possessed of being of one family, it is to their inter- immortal appetites for gambling, and est to glory over the success of each the living embodiment of almond-eyed individual member thereof. The Pro- hypocrisy. In short, grewsome pessivinces joined in a great co-operative mists found salmon in sufficiency in the undertaking, and the voice of British Metapedia and Restigouche (salmon Columbia should appeal to the people rising to a fly, too!); timber enough in of Prince Edward Island, New Bruns- Ontario, Quebec and New Brunswick ; wick or Nova Scotia, as effectively as gold enough in Nova Scotia ; and, as though borne upon the waves of the to railways, commerce was crying Atlantic, instead of the Pacific. Be- aloud for means of transport to and lieving this to be a solution of the from localities whose population had problem, how best to promote the for decades contributed taxes to the practical development of the Dominion, national treasury. Enlightened travelit is of vast importance that Canadi- lers, keen observers, were, however, ans should know their own country, abreast of the times; these fully appreits capabilities, its varied resources, its ciated the advantages accruing from marvellous reserved power; and, so ports on the Pacific, and a highway

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through British territory to the centres given to explorations elsewhere, Queen of trade in Asia. Common sense,

Charlotte Islands being known to conpatriotism, statesmanship, triumphed ; tain deposits of the precious metal. the great trans-continental road became At that time, the boundaries of New a reality, and British Columbia to-day Caledonia included the whole region exercises a significant and far-reaching from Peace River and the Rocky influence, not alone upon Canada's Mountains to the Pacific Ocean, while future, but upon Imperial destinies as the southern boundary was defined by well.

the Columbia River, from the outlet of

that river on the Pacific Ocean, followA few words, then, concerning the ing its course eastward to Fort Colhistoric past of British Columbia. ville, thence along the Kootenay and Prior to 1843, the northern portion of Flathead Rivers to the Kootenay pass Oregon territory had been a common in the Rocky Mountains. The northhunting ground for traders of all na- ern boundary was usually defined as tionalities; but, consequent upon a reaching the Russian possessions on doubt existing with reference to the the north-west. Subsequently, an Imboundary line between the United perial proclamation of the 2nd August, States and British territory, a new site 1858, constituted British Columbia a for the erection of a fort was chosen colony, and declared the boundary on by the Hudson's Bay Company, and the south to be the frontier of the where the beautiful city of Victoria now United States of America ; to the east, stands, palisaded enclosures, bastions the main chain of the Rocky Mounand offices were erected, and until tains ; to the north, Simpson River 1846 the post was known as “Camo- and the Finlay branch of Peace River ;

.” But even then gold was des- and the west, the Pacific Ocean, intined to attract the attention of the cluding Queen Charlotte Islands, but outside world to the mineral wealth of not the colony of Vancouver Island. New Caledonia. The United States In 1863, minor changes took place in “jockeyed” the Mexicans and secured the definition of the boundaries of BritCalifornia ; and when, in 1848-9, gold ish Columbia. Subsequently, (1866) was discovered there, an impetus was the union of British Columbia and

sun.

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