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figures. Why? The same argument Canada is able to progress without regarding outside capital is applicable undue dependence
upon the outer to these minor subscriptions; they as- world. The Dominion has capital and sist development, while the invest- capitalists; unfortunately, many who ment, without jeopardizing the individ- possess wealth close their purse-strings, ual contributor's fortune, concentrates imagine they have done enough in their his attention upon enterprises of local time, and call on the younger element consequence. Practical men are con- to show what is in them, by taking fident that the financial aid afforded by their chances. Age, after all, is of cheap share issues will result in im- comparative signification. The bloom portant discoveries in the near future. of youth never forsakes the man who Of course it is not presumed that men is active, vigorous, and sympathetic invest with closed eyes. If they do, towards his generation, and decrepithen the chances are they will lose tude only begins when mental and their money:
Be that as it may, one physical energies are permitted to lie thing should not be overlooked—na- dormant. A Gladstone at eighty-seven tional encouragement to those who are years of age is a standing reproach to developing the Kootenay district. Our the middle-aged individual who allows people should not be handicapped and himself to drift into reminiscent curthen asked to compete with trained rents, closes his counting-house, ties athletes. Naturally enough it reduces up his money-bags, and prepares to pluck to find foreign rivals securing depart in peace. Let some of these the cream of the business, to hear of think again, and, so thinking, emulate United States magnates meeting to the example of the race whence they discuss the advisability of erecting a sprung The Kootenay country resmelter at Northport ; to be forced to quires men of capital, men of experiship ores to Seattle and Tacoma, and ence, men of probity and energy. The to exchange the product for necessaries Dominion possesses them—if they will of life purchased from dealers across but come out of seclusion and unite in the border !
accomplishing something worthy of It is plain that the practical immi- manhood gration policy would be to prove that
C. H. Mackintosh.
With slow, unwilling feet, that longed for rest ;
Another danced along the selfsame way,
Lissie English Dyos.
GOLD IS KING.*
A GENERAL REVIEW OF CANADIAN MINING.
GOLD 'OLD is King! Such appears to be Columbia. That is a somewhat differ
the dominant idea in the minds of ent matter. Most of these companies Canadian people to-day, and through its have for their object the working of a influence we have the welcome sight of mine, generally in the neighbourhood of a people at last awakening to the know some other mine, which is well known ledge that there is a possibility of ac to be producing pay ore. quiring riches from beneath the sod, The majority of the people who infrom the miles upon miles of “bar vest believe that they are taking stock ren” rocks
common throughout in a mine, and that within a short time parts of our great country. We have they will be receiving dividends. I been too long a race of money lenders, fear in most cases, however, they are afraid to venture a cent unless another supplying money to enable the owner one is placed upon it.
of an undeveloped prospect to put a I have known a man controlling a gang of men on to prospect and see if by great financial institution such a poor chance there may be ore on the proppolitical economist as to contend that erty, also to pay for advertising largemore money is put into mines than ever ly, to cover all expenses of vendor and comes out of them ; therefore, for broker, and perhaps to give both some sooth, people should let their money cash for the property-the chief chance lie at i or 2 per cent. interest in his of profit to vendor and broker, howbank! Surely every piece of metal ever, generally lying in reserved blocks taken from the earth is that much ab of stock, and therefore depending on solute gain to the community, even something of value being haply struck. though it should send twice its value Sometimes the vendor will supply a into circulation to obtain it.
report by a Mining Engineer, but for ample, the yield of gold in Nova Sco this class of property an engineer who tia is some $400,000 a year, and this will not make a good report is not includes about 6 per cent. profit on the wanted, and is left severely alone. A average; therefore some $370,000 are very little colouring, or elementary put into circulation, and a creation of arithmetic, will make all the difference. $400,000 takes place each year from In the Old World, or in the United gold which, so far as the uses of man States, where mining has been carried kind are concerned, never existed be on for years, no syndicate or company fore.
will dream of acquiring property and Gold is not the only mineral in Ca- asking the public to invest money in it, nada, though some people appear to without a confirmatory report made in think so just now. Many persons their interest. would be surprised to know that dur The point we come to after this diing the past decade there is, perhaps, gression is that the majority of people no mineral in the country which has who are now investing in undeveloped yielded similar profits to the asbestos locations, acquired by mining companof the Eastern Townships.
ies with a small amount of working The tone of my article up to this capital, on the representations made by point might be taken to mean that I the vendor, or an engineer procured by hail with delight the formation of the him, will, in nearly all cases, lose their thousand and one mining companies to money. That will make them very work gold mines in Ontario and British sad, if not very angry.
In the unrea* The illustrations are from photographs by the writer.
the whole district received a black eye. My friend observed that old firms with experience were rarely caught in this way. As a case in point, Mr. John Taylor, firm of John Taylor & Sons of London, of world-wide reputation, always insisted on sufficient working capital being provided on the start. He had done a good deal of work for the firm in different parts of the world, and in one case where he had been making an examination for them, Mr. Taylor asked him how much they should put down to open and equip the mine. My
friend replied: "I supA PIONEER STAMP MILL, LAKE OF THE WOODS DISTRICT, ONTARIO. pose about £50,000.'
“Well,” said Mr. Taysonableness of their feelings they will lor, “ that may be enough, but I like to say: "All men are liars, and particular to avoid going back to the shareholders ly those who have to do with mines,” and throwing a wet blanket on the enand they will all with one accord warn terprise, so let us say £70,000.” And their friends never to put a cent in a £70,000 it was. mine if they do not want to lose it. Every case, of course, is different, ? The way the “knowing ones” out and the above is merely an example. west “size up" the situation in Toronto It will, however, suffice to illustrate is that the shrewd Yankees of Spokane the fact that it is doubtful whether we are unloading their “wild cats” on the can yet raise money for a great many leinnocent Agriculturists of Ontario. gitimate mining enterprises on a sound
I alluded to trouble arising from too financial basis in Canada. What we can small an amount of working capital. do is to form combinations for testing A prospecting and development com not one but many prospects, and if the pany may very properly organise on a combination is well managed, and the limited capital, that is to say, in com prospects judiciously chosen, some of parison to the amount necessary to
them will turn out well enough to justiopen up and equip a mine.
fy their purchase by mining companies As an example of this fact I recall a with enough capital to develop them conversation I had with an English successfully. Private individuals have mining engineer on our way down the been doing this already. Cariboo road in British Columbia. I The best rule that can be applied in was telling him that the original opera this class of development work is to tions in the Lake of the Woods had limit the expenditure on any one propbeen for the most part killed by the erty to a fixed amount, depending on the small capitalization of the operating capitalization of the company, thereby companies. The first little difficulties a known number of properties can be met with exhausted their capital and operated on and the shareholders will
know how many chances they are run
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are ning of striking something good. As also blessed with immense deposits of in any other business, the success will exceptional gypsum, which supplies largely depend on the management and most of Canada and a large portion of the judgment exercised in the choice of the eastern part of the United States, properties, but under ordinarily good whither it is exported in the raw state. management the chances, in our unpro In the Province of Quebec the copspected and undeveloped country, are per and sulphuric acid operations are, greatly in favour of any such organiza- perhaps, the most important at the tion.
present moment, though asbestos minLet us for a few moments take a ing, also in the Eastern Townships, is somewhat general view of the condi still remunerative. tion of mining to-day in Canada and the The production of chrom-iron ore in possibilities which exist for its expan the same district promises to be imsion. Down by the “Sounding Sea,” portant. Apatite or phosphate minas politicians love to call it, at the very ing, once so flourishing, has been Land's End of Canada, splendidly con snuffed out for the time being by ducted coal mining operations are car Florida. ried on in Cape Breton Island. Beds of Mica mining is still in its infancy. bituminous coal of immense area and Iron is smelted by charcoal from bog high grade exist there, as well as in iron ore in one medium and one small land in the Pictou and Springhill areas. furnace. And gold exploration is said
The gold areas of Nova Scotia have to be going on in the once productive been worked for many years.
The alluvial workings of the Eastern Townsuccessful mining operations have been, ships. This last-mentioned district is as a rule, on rich small veins running an example of conditions which have with the formation in slate, or between produced a certain amount of rich beds of slate and quartzite, small mills placer gold, but where the country crushing the ore, and the free gold slates (Cambrian) have never yet reonly being saved. Now, however, larger lowgrade veins are receiving attention and being worked to a greater depth than has been the custom in the past, and with bigger mills. Nova Scotia has been the only province in the Dominion producing any quantity of iron, for making which she has both the coke and the iron ore near each other.
The iron and steel producing capabilities of Canada can, however, never be properly developed until we make our
own steel rails, which are at present supplied by England and the United States.
A GIANT QUARTZ-VEIN, SEINE RIVER, RAINY RIVER DISTRICT, ONTARIO.
high price of nickel, owing to expense of production, is probably the chief reason for the tardiness of the steel maker. There is an interesting similarity between the Sudbury nickel ore and the Rossland gold ore in physical character. If they were mixed, it would seem that they could not possibly be separated. Their occurrence is, however, somewhat different, though the country rock in both cases belongs to the greenstone type.
Passing west find important beds of coal in the territories
which attain the qualiA GOLD-BEARING QUARTZ-VEIN, SEINE RIVER, RAINY RIVER DISTRICT, ONTARIO.
ties of a very high
grade Lignite at the vealed a quartz vein which was high Galt mines, a bituminous coking coal at grade enough to work.
Bow River Mines, a semi-anthracite In Ontario, a quiet production of at Canmore, and a good anthracite at salt, petroleum, gypsum, and an inter the place of that name near Banff. mittent output of iron in the eastern, To the north there are great areas of and of silver in the western part of the petroleum and salt. Province, has been going on for years. In British Columbia, of recent years, Lately, the building of a well-equipped the coal output of Vancouver Island blast furnace at Hamilton has given has exceeded in value that of any other fresh hope to the iron interests. The mineral. Large areas of high grade splendid results obtained by Mr. Cald bituminous exist there at Nanaimo, well from his operations at the Sultana Wellington and Comox. Inland, the mine, and the excellent prospects being Crow's Nest and Nicola Valley areas opened up in the Lake of the Woods, both produce coking bituminous coal. Seine River, Wahnipitae and Marmora In the early sixties gold was once districts, all point to the fact that before “the king." In 1863 about Ontario is likely to be an important four millions of dollars' worth was progold-producing Province.
duced in Cariboo, that district having The Sudbury district is not turning yielded some $60,000,000 up to the out as much nickel and copper as it did present, with plenty more left there. some years ago, the Canada Copper During the past season the Cariboo Company being the only active pro- hydraulic mine has yielded some $120, ducer. Much disappointment has ooo in bullion, and several other large been experienced that steel manufac- placer schemes, on a modern basis of turers have not yet, to any extent, working will ere long add to the availed themselves of the additional general output. Gold is very widely strength given to steel by nickel, and distributed in the Province from Rosstherefore its use is still limited, but the land, Camp McKinney and Fairview,