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within sight of those dazzling and trailing glories of State, throngs of illustrious prisoners have been marched along to dungeon, to suffering, and to shameful, cruel death. Again and again, royalty and grandeur have passed beneath those ominous portals to exchange the dreams of honor and glory, and the festive brilliancy of courts, for the prison, the torture-room and the fatal block and axe.
Within that space of some thirteen acres, which includes the principal and oldest tower, and eighteen smaller towers of more recent times, what sights and sounds have been seen and heard for eight hundred long years! Here the Kings of England found a refuge in the stormiest times, and though this ancient pile has felt the shock of all the most violent internal convulsions which have agitated the nation, and has had to bear the horrors of war as they have raged around its lofty battlements, it has always held its own, and remains to-day like some old unbeaten warrior to tell of deeds of mighty daring, of fallen heroes, of perished splendours, furious passion and of tragic death.
What strange contrasts are crowded upon your vision as you walk around this grim fabric which has weathered so many eventful years! Here, in one room, are crowns of priceless value flashing with costliest diamonds and famous stones. Just a minute's walk and you look upon the executioner's block, the headsman's axe and mask, the thumb-screws, the collar, the bilboes and chains. Here are rooms once filled with England's beauty, pride and glory, where revelry and mirth held high carnival from age to age; and there are cells of gloom where distinguished prisoners pined in misery, in hunger and rags, and where sufferings, too terrible to relate, were endured before the hour of doom arrived. Shouts of pleasure, in her wild delirium of delight, rang through those spacious and splendid halls; and cries of deadliest pain and muffled moans of broken, bleeding hearts, crept slowly up from the prison cells below.
In one part of this historic Tower eyes long ago flashed until they were ablaze with some momentary victory, and faces crimsoned until they were red with some passing glory; but alas! other eyes beneath the same roof were filled with scalding tears, and other faces, which had basked in the sunshine of royal favour, now grew pale at the swift approach of a cruel and tragic end! The space at our disposal will only permit of the briefest recital of the renowned prisoners who, from time to time, were confined within the walls of this far-famed Tower. The lists which have been preserved of those who have been inmates of the dungeons and cells of this State prison for thrice four hundred years astonish us with the multitudes who have suffered arrest, and for a longer or shorter period found a place of bitterest trial, if not of keenest anguish, in this old fortress and prison.
During the Norman and early Plantagenet period history has recorded but a few names of captives of note. One of the most remarkable was the first State prisoner known to have been incarcerated in the Tower, Flambard, Bishop of Durham. Henry I. imprisoned him on his accession (1100), to please the people whom he had offended by carrying out an oppressive system of taxation for William Rufus. The wily bishop, however, escaped and fled to Normandy. Hugh de Burgh was another captive statesman of this period. This great man and faithful minister was guardian of the kingdom during Henry III.'s minority. He was cruelly confined for some time within the Tower dungeon, but was subsequently released. During the fourteenth century the fortress was filled with captive kings and heroes. The names of many Welsh chiefs are chronicled as prisoners during this period: Morgan David, Llewellyn Bren, Madoc Vaghan and many others, some of whom died in captivity. Many a mighty spirit from Scotland chafed within the dismal cells of the royal fortress during the same century, some of whom were the noble Wallace, the
Earls of Ross, of Athole, and of Monteith, and King David Bruce (1346).
Six hundred Jews were imprisoned in these dungeons during the reign of Edward III. for adulterating the coin of the realm. This monarch, whose prejudice against them was strong, finally banished all of that nation from England, compelling them to leave behind them their immense wealth, and their libraries, which were taken possession of by the monasteries. It is said that Roger Bacon owed much of his extraordinary knowledge to the Jews' libraries, especially to the gigantic volumes of the Babylonish Talmud.
The fifteenth century shrouded the Tower with deeds of darkness and
cruel wrong. Large numbers of the royal blood and of persons eminent in the walks of life were marched to the dungeons of London's old prison, and many scenes of terrible suffering took place within its dreary portals. Henry VIII's reign was marked by the multitudes who, for lawless passion or what was regarded as heresy, were committed to the Tower. Sir Thomas More, Lord Chesterfield and the Venerable Bishop Fisher were imprisoned because they opposed Henry's claim to be the head of the Church. The victims of Henry both of Church and State were many; the names of the most distinguished who suffered under him are too well known to be repeated in this sketch.
The reigns of Edward VI., of Mary and of Elizabeth, witnessed large numbers passing within the dark boundaries of the old grim Tower, many of them to go out no more. Lord Thomas and Lord Edward Seymour, Lady Jane Grey, Lord Guilford, Sir Thomas Wyat, Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, were among the most notable who suffered imprisonment and death during those eventful years.
Sir Walter Raleigh claims a first place among the famous prisoners in the reign of James I. He was beheaded 1618. Among the victims brought to the Tower by the long struggle between Charles and his parliament, mention can only be made of the emi
nent statesman, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford, who was sacrificed in the endeavour to stem the torrent of public opinion which was rushing towards revolution. Also Archbishop Laud, who was charged with aiding Charles in his unconstitutional measures. The aged prelate died on the scaffold in 1644. During the Protectorate of Cromwell, the Tower was crowded with persons suspected of favouring the cause of Charles II., and after his restoration many who had been concerned in the death of Charles I. suffered imprisonment and death.
In James II.'s reign the Duke of Monmouth was captured and brought to the Tower and two weeks after he was beheaded on Tower Hill. Seven bishops were imprisoned during this reign in the Tower for opposing James II.'s attempts to restore popery in England. Judge Jeffries, the notorious abettor of that King's tyranny, on the abdication of his master, was brought to the Tower and ended his life in captivity..
The inscriptions carved or scratched by the doomed prisoners on the walls of their gloomy cells, "rudely written, but each letter full of hope and yet of heartbreak," still remain to tell a story of pathetic tenderness and of a sorrow too deep for words.
But the spot in all this space, where pomp and tragedy have so often met, and which can most move and thrill the soul, is the little chapel of St. Peter. The deep interest attaching to this sanctuary arises not so much from its antiquity, as from the fact that from within its walls lie mouldering the remains of an illustrious company who fell from positions of worldly power and widespread fame to fates full of ghastly suffering and cruel wrong. Macaulay has said that "there is no sadder spot on earth than this little cemetery. Hither have been carried through successive ages by the rude hands of jailers, without one mourner following, the bleeding relics of men who have been captains of armies, the leaders of parties, the oracles of senates and the ornaments of courts." The
memorial tablet at the entrance contains the names of over thirty persons of historical note who, after life's fitful, stormy day, were laid to rest in this chapel. The list will be read with interest and the lesson which it teaches is evident to all.
Distinguished persons buried in St.
1534. Ierald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kil-
1746. William, Earl of Kilmarnock. 1746. Arthur, Lord Balmerino. 1747. Simon, Lord Fraser of Lovat. Nearly all of these distinguished persons perished by the headsman's axe.
Time, however, has wrought wonders great and strange; the angel of peace has for many long years hung her banner over all those scenes of conflict and of blood. The noise and tumult of all that terrible strife has long since died away, and the wild
1535. Sir Thomas More.
1536. George Boleyn, Viscount Roch- agitations which shook the nation of ford. those distant days are only memories now. This old Tower, like some huge whispering-gallery, echoes the stormy chapters of that dark, tempestuous morning out of which the broadening England of to-day was yet to come. The very place where stood the grim wooden scaffold, where so many eminent persons were beheaded, is now a
1551. Edward Seymour, Duke of garden; and nature from year to year Somerset. throws her flowery coverlet over the once terrible and crimson spot.
1552. Sir Ralph Vane.
1552. Sir Thomas Arundel.
1553. John Dudley, Duke of Northumberland.
It is well to read over the earlier pages of English history, and to keep before us and the rising generation of Britain's far extending empire, the fact that the freedom which enriches our lives to-day has not been achieved without many a hard fought battle. The past has been swept again and again with fierce hurricanes of malignant passions, and upon the fields of bygone years have fallen the rain of tears and great baptisms of blood. Hallam, speaking of London's far-famed Tower, says: "The dark and gloomy fabric seems to stand in these modern days like a captive tyrant reserved to grace the triumphs of a victorious republic, and should teach us to reflect in thankfulness how highly we have been elevated in virtue and happiness above our forefathers."
1536. Queen Anne Boleyn.
1541. Margaret of Clarence, Countess of Salisbury.
1542. Queen Katherine Howard. 1549. Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudely.
1554. Lord Guilford Dudley.
1554. Lady Jane Grey.
1554. Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk.
1592. Sir Thomas Perrott.
1746. William, Marquis of Tullibardine.
1613. Sir Thomas Overbury.
1680. William, Viscount Stafford.
1710. Edward, Lord Griffin.
MINING AND SMALL INVESTORS.
THERE is no doubt that Canada's
mines are numerous and valuable, that during the next fifty years the quantity of gold and silver taken from them will be very great, and that many men will, because of their mining investments, become very rich. There are exceedingly valuable mines in different parts of British Columbia, in northern and eastern Ontario and in Nova Scotia. They have been waiting a long time for railroads, and capital, and proprietors. Now these have arrived, the boom is on, and Canada is contributing at an increasing rate to the sum total of the world's wealth.
But, at the same time, the usual Locaquota of rogues has appeared. tions which are not mines, and never will be, are being capitalized by incorporated companies and the stock being sold to the ignorant ones-the small investors. The small investor is always with us. He goes to the races, takes a 20 to I shot and loses. He draws his money out of the chartered bank where he is getting three and-a-half per cent, and puts it into the private bank, or gives it to the big man of the neighbourhood and loses it. He invests his few hundreds in mining stocks at ten cents a share, a 10 to 1 shot, and he will lose them.
profitable investment. The men who
The politicians are busy with the grinding of their own axes; the highbrowed, blue-blooded citizens are busy with Society, and Titles, and Victorian Orders, and Indian Famine Funds; the newspapers, the much-vaunted watchdogs of freedom, are in their kennels gnawing the toothsome bones supplied by the advertisers of mining companies-and who is there left to guard the interests of the people? The question echoes down the avenues of silence.
A LITERARY GATHERING.
Four years ago this month the first issue of the Canadian Magazine appeared, and while it was welcomed and The men who have gone to Rossland wished good-speed, it was not expected or to Rat Portage and have seen the to live beyond a year. Its phenomenal mines, have bought wisely and well. growth and its manifest popularity were They will, when the returns commence scarcely anticipated by even its santo come in, be found to have secured a guine founder, Mr. J. Gordon Mowat,
nor by its unselfish financial supporters. That it has succeeded is due in a cestain measure to the magazine-advertising and magazine-reading age during which it had the good fortune to be born. To a still greater measure its success is due to a growing national sentiment and a deepening national culture.
In its four years' history there has been but one event which has here to be recorded, and that is the change of editors, which took place in September, 1895.
To commemorate the fourth anniversary of the founding of this publication there was held in this city on February 17th a literary banquet which proved to be a most successful affair. About one hundred and ten invitations were issued, and seventy-one persons sat down to the dinner. The invited guests included His Excellency the GovernorGeneral, the Premier and all the members of the Dominion Cabinet, the President of the Royal Society of Canada, and nearly all the leading writers of Canadian prose and Canadian poetry. The toasts were: The Queen, The Dominion, Our Educational Institutions, Canadian Art, Our Poets, and Our Prose Writers. The speeches were, viewed collectively, the best that were ever delivered at any one gathering in Canada, and the resulting effect on Canadian art and literature should be most potent.
This gathering, which is more fully reported elsewhere, was undoubtedly the literary event of the month. The Toronto papers, with a liberality for which they are noted, reported the speeches at great length, while the Canadian press generally gave it adequate notice. It is to be hoped for the sake of our growing art and expanding literature that the event will be an annual occurrence.
On December 28th, after a few days' illness, there passed away at Clinton, Ont., a member of the Royal Society of Canada, a man whose reputation
had extended over all the Englishspeaking world. Horatio Hale was born in Newport, N. H., on May 3rd, 1817, and was a son of the distinguished authoress, Mrs. Sarah J. Hale. He was graduated from Harvard in 1837, and was admitted to the Chicago bar in 1855. A few years later he went to Clinton to reside and remained there until his death.
One of his most important books is "The Iroquois Book of Rites," published in 1883. He contributed to the proceedings of many important societies and to leading periodicals in Great Britain, the United tates and Canada. He was on the organizing committees of the Anthropological sections of both the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Royal Society of Great Britain. He was one of the vice-presidents of the American Association and president of its Anthropological section.
The writer has often seen him in recent years in Clinton, where he was most highly regarded as a person of more than ordinary culture. He was very modest and retiring in disposition, but very much interested in all matters which related to education or to literature. He was small in stature, pleasant of countenance and dignified in bearing and in speech. Horatio Hale was one of the few men who were not touched by the sordid motives which animate the money-gatherers of this grasping age, preferring rather to give to his fellows the results of earnest labours in the field of literature and science.
The accompanying cut is from a photograph taken some ten years ago.
AGRICULTURE AND EDUCATION.
Our recent remarks on education in Ontario and its relation to agriculture may be supplemented by a suggestion which comes from Renfrew.
In the Jan. 1st issue of the Renfrew Mercury appeared an editorial suggesting that the Board of Education of that town should be the pioneers in the establishment of an agricultural depart