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within sight of those dazzling and trailing glories of State, throngs of illustrious prisoners have been marched along to dungeon, to suffering, and to shameful, cruel death. Again and again, royalty and grandeur have passed beneath those ominous portals to exchange the dreams of honor and glory, and the festive brilliancy of courts, for the prison, the torture-room and the fatal block and axe.

Within that space of some thirteen acres, which includes the principal and oldest tower, and eighteen smaller towers of more recent times, what sights and sounds have been seen and heard for eight hundred long years Here the Kings of England found a refuge in the stormiest times, and though this ancient pile has felt the shock of all the most violent internal convulsions which have agitated the nation, and has had to bear the horrors of war as they have raged around its lofty battlements, it has always held its own, and remains to-day like some old unbeaten warrior to tell of deeds of mighty daring, of fallen heroes, of perished splendours, furious passion and of tragic death.

What strange contrasts are crowded upon your vision as you walk around this grim fabric which has weathered so many eventful years! Here, in one room, are crowns of priceless value flashing with costliest diamonds and famous stones. Just a minute's walk and you look upon the executioner's block, the headsman's axe and mask, the thumb-screws, the collar, the bilboes and chains. Here are rooms once filled with England's beauty, pride and glory, where revelry and mirth held high carnival from age to age ; and there are cells of gloom where distinguished prisoners pined in misery, in hunger and rags, and where sufferings, too terrible to relate, were endured before the hour of doom arrived. Shouts of pleasure, in her wild delirium of delight, rang through those spacious and splendid halls; and cries of deadliest pain and muffled moans of broken, bleeding hearts, crept slowly up from the prison cells below.

In one part of this historic Tower eyes long ago flashed until they were ablaze with some momentary victory, and faces crimsoned until they were red with some passing glory; but alas! other eyes beneath the same roof were filled with scalding tears, and other faces, which had basked in the sunshine of royal favour, now grew pale at the swift approach of a cruel and tragic end! The space at our disposal will only permit of the briefest recital of the renowned prisoners who, from time to time, were confined within the walls of this far-famed Tower. The lists which have been preserved of those who have been inmates of the dungeons and cells of this State prison for thrice four hundred years astonish us with the multitudes who have suffered arrest, and for a longer or shorter period found a place of bitterest trial, if not of keenest anguish, in this old fortress and prison.

During the Norman and early Plantagenet period history has recorded but a few names of captives of note. One of the most remarkable was the first State prisoner known to have been incarcerated in the Tower, Flambard, Bishop of Durham. Henry I. imprisoned him on his accession (1100), to please the people whom he had offended by carrying out an oppressive system of taxation for William Rufus. The wily bishop, however, escaped and fled to Normandy. Hugh de Burgh was another captive statesman of this period. This great man and faithful minister was guardian of the kingdom during Henry III.'s minority. He was cruelly confined for some time within the Tower dungeon, but was subsequently released. During the fourteenth century the fortress was filled with captive kings and heroes. The names of many Welsh chiefs are chronicled as prisoners during this period: Morgan David, Llewellyn Bren, Madoc Vaghan and many others, some of whom died in captivity. Many a mighty spirit from Scotland chafed within the dismal cells of the royal fortress during the same century, some of whom were the noble Wallace, the

sures.

Earls of Ross, of Athole, and of Mon- nent statesman, Thomas Wentworth, teith, and King David Bruce (1346). Earl of Strafford, who was sacrificed

Six hundred Jews were imprisoned in the endeavour to stem the torrent of in these dungeons during the reign of public opinion which was rushing toEdward III. for adulterating the coin wards revolution. Also Archbishop of the realm. This monarch, whose Laud, who was charged with aiding prejudice against them was strong, Charles in his unconstitutional meafinally banished all of that nation from

The aged prelate died on the England, compelling them to leave be- scaffold in 1644. During the Protechind them their immense wealth, and torate of Cromwell, the Tower was their libraries, which were taken pos- crowded with persons suspected of session of by the monasteries. It is favouring the cause of Charles II., and said that Roger Bacon owed much of after his restoration many who had his extraordinary knowledge to the been concerned in the death of Charles Jews' libraries, especially to the gigan- I. suffered imprisonment and death. tic volumes of the Babylonish Talmud. In James II.'s reign the Duke of

The fifteenth century shrouded the Monmouth was captured and brought Tower with deeds of darkness and to the Tower and two weeks after he cruel wrong. Large numbers of the was beheaded on Tower Hill. Seven royal blood and of persons eminent in bishops were imprisoned during this the walks of life were marched to the reign in the Tower for opposing James dungeons of London's old prison, and II.'s attempts to restore popery in many scenes of terrible suffering took England. Judge Jeffries, the noplace within its dreary portals. Henry torious abettor of that King's tyranny, VIII's reign was marked by the multi- on the abdication of his master, was tudes who, for lawless passion or what brought to the Tower and ended his was regarded as heresy, were commit- life in captivity ted to the Tower. Sir Thomas More, The inscriptions carved or scratched Lord Chesterfield and the Venerable by the doomed prisoners on the walls Bishop Fisher were imprisoned because of their gloomy cells, “rudely written, they opposed Henry's claim to be the but each letter full of hope and yet of head of the Church. The victims of heartbreak,” still remain to tell a story Henry both of Church and State were of pathetic tenderness and of a sorrow many; the names of the most distin

too deep for words. guished who suffered under him are But the spot in all this space, where too well known to be repeated in this pomp and tragedy have so often met, sketch.

and which can most move and thrill The reigns of Edward VI., of Mary the soul, is the little chapel of St. and of Elizabeth, witnessed large num- Peter. The deep interest attaching to bers passing within the dark boun- this sanctuary arises not so much from daries of the old grim Tower, many of its antiquity, as from the fact that from them to go out no more.

Lord Thomas within its walls lie mouldering the reand Lord Edward Seymour, Lady Jane mains of an illustrious company who Grey, Lord Guilford, Sir Thomas Wyat, fell from positions of worldly power Cranmer, Ridley and Latimer, were and widespread fame to fates full of among the most notable who suffered ghastly suffering and cruel wrong. imprisonment and death during those Macaulay has said that “there is no eventful years.

sadder spot on earth than this little Sir Walter Raleigh claims a first cemetery. Hither have been carried place among the famous prisoners in through successive ages by the rude the reign of James I. He was behead- hands of jailers, without one mourner ed 1618. Among the victims brought following, the bleeding relics of men to the Tower by the long struggle be- who have been captains of armies, the tween Charles and his parliament, leaders of parties, the oracles of senates mention can only be made of the emi- and the ornaments of courts." The

now.

memorial tablet at the entrance con- 1740. William, Marquis of Tullibartains the names of over thirty persons

dine. of historical note who, after life's fitful, 1746. William, Earl of Kilmarnock. stormy day, were laid to rest in this 1746. Arthur, Lord Balmerino. chapel. The list will be read with in

1747. Simon, Lord Fraser of Lovat. terest and the lesson which it teaches

Nearly all of these distinguished peris evident to all.

sons perished by the headsman's axe. Distinguished persons buried in St. Time, however, has wrought wonPeter's Chapel :

ders great and strange ; the angel of 1534. lerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kil- peace has for many long years hung dare.

her banner over all those scenes of con1535. John Fisher, Bishop of Roch- flict and of blood. The noise and ester.

tumult of all that terrible strife has 1535. Sir Thomas More.

long since died away, and the wild 1536. George Boleyn, Viscount Roch- agitations which shook the nation of ford.

those distant days are only memories 1536. Queen Anne Boleyn.

This old Tower, like some huge 1540. Thomas Cromwell, Earl of whispering-gallery, echoes the stormy Essex.

chapters of that dark, tempestuous 1541. Margaret of Clarence, Coun- morning out of which the broadening tess of Salisbury.

England of to-day was yet to come. 1542. Queen Katherine Howard. The very place where stood the grim 1549. Thomas, Lord Seymour of wooden scaffold, where so many eminSudely.

ent persons were beheaded, is now a 1551. Edward Seymour, Duke of garden; and nature from year to year Somerset.

throws her flowery coverlet over the 1552. Sir Ralph Vane.

once terrible and crimson spot. 1552. Sir Thomas Arundel.

It is well to read over the earlier 1553. John Dudley, Duke of Nor- pages of English history, and to keep thumberland.

before us and the rising generation of 1554. Lord Guilford Dudley.

Britain's far extending empire, the fact 1554. Lady Jane Grey.

that the freedom which enriches our 1554. Henry Grey, Duke of Suffolk. lives to-day has not been achieved with1572. Thomas Howard, Duke of

out many a hard fought battle. The Norfolk.

past has been swept again and again 1592. Sir Thomas Perrott.

with fierce hurricanes of malignant 1595. Philip, Earl of Arundel. passions, and upon the fields of bygone 1601. Robert Devereux, Earl of years have fallen the rain of tears and Essex.

great baptisms of blood. Hallam, 1613. Sir Thomas Overbury.

speaking of London's far-famed Tower, 1614. Thomas, Lord Grey of Wilton. says:

“ The dark and gloomy fabric 1632. Sir John Eliot.

seems to stand in these modern days 1680. William, Viscount Stafford. like a captive tyrant reserved to grace 1683. Arthur, Earl of Essex.

the triumphs of a victorious republic, 1685. James, Duke of Monmouth. and should teach us to reflect in thank1689. George, Lord Jeffreys.

fulness how highly we have been ele1703. John Rotier.

vated in virtue and happiness above 1710. Edward, Lord Griffin.

our forefathers."

William Harrison.

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THERE

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MINING AND SMALL INVESTORS. profitable investment. The men who

have officered joint-stock companies mines are numerous and valuable,

and received free of charge 10,000 that during the next fifty years the quan

shares out of the million which the tity of gold and silver taken from them

company has issued, and then turned will be very great, and that many men

round and sold that 10,000 at 13 cents will, because of their mining invest

a share, will be found to have made ments, become very rich. There are

profitable speculations. But the man exceedingly valuable mines in different

and the woman who have stayed at parts of British Columbia, in northern

home and read the daily papers—those and eastern Ontario and in Nova Scotia.

most unsafe of all guides—and have They have been waiting a long time

invested fifty dollars here and fifty for railroads, and capital

, and proprie- there, to them will come the cruel tors. Now these have arrived, the awakening. The shares in good comboom is on, and Canada is contribut- panies are worth ten cents apiece, but ing at an increasing rate to the sum

they are seldom offered at that. total of the world's wealth.

The politicians are busy with the But, at the same time, the usual

grinding of their own axes ; the high

browed, blue-blooded citizens are busy quota of rogues has appeared. Locations which are not mines, and never

with Society, and Titles, and Victorian will be, are being capitalized by incor

Orders, and Indian Famine Funds; the porated companies and the stock being

newspapers, the much-vaunted watchsold to the ignorant ones—the small

dogs of freedom, are in their kennels investors. The small investor is always gnawing the toothsome bones supplied with us.

by the advertisers of mining companHe goes to the races, takes a 20 to I shot and loses. He draws

ies—and who is there left to guard the his money out of the chartered bank

interests of the people? The question where he is getting three and-a-half echoes down the avenues of silence. per cent, and puts it into the private bank, or gives it to the big man of the

A LITERARY GATHERING. neighbourhood and loses it. He invests his few hundreds in mining stocks Four years ago this month the first at ten cents a share, a to to i shot, issue of the Canadian Magasine apand—he will lose them.

peared, and while it was welcomed and The men who have gone to Rossland wished good-speed, it was not expected or to Rat Portage and have seen the to live beyond a year.. Its phenomenal mines, have bought wisely and well. growth and its manifest popularity were They will, when the returns commence scarcely anticipated by even its santo come in, be found to have secured a guine founder, Mr. J. Gordon Mowat,

nor by its unselfish financial supporters. had extended over all the EnglishThat it has succeeded is due in a cer speaking world. Horatio Hale was tain measure to the magazine-adver- born in Newport, N. H., on May 3rd, tising and magazine-reading age dur 1817, and was a son of the distining which it had the good fortune to guished authoress, Mrs. Sarah J. Hale. be born. To a still greater measure its He was graduated from Harvard in success is due to a growing national 1837, and was admitted to the Chicago sentiment and a deepening national bar in 1855. A few years later he went culture.

to Clinton to reside and remained there In its four years' history there has until his death. been but one event which has here to One of his most important books is be recorded, and that is the change of “The Iroquois Book of Rites," publisheditors, which took place in September,

ed in 1883.

He contributed to the 1895

proceedings of many important socieTo commemorate the fourth anni ties and to leading periodicals in Great versary of the founding of this publica Britain, the United States and Canada. tion there was held in this city on He was on the organizing committees February 17th a literary banquet which of the Anthropological sections of both proved to be a most successful affair. the American Association for the AdAbout one hundred and ten invitations vancement of Science and the Royal were issued, and seventy-one persons sat Society of Great Britain. He was one down to the dinner. The invited guests of the vice-presidents of the American included His Excellency the Governor Association and president of its AnGeneral, the Premier and all the mem thropological section. bers of the Dominion Cabinet, the The writer has often seen him in rePresident of the Royal Society of Ca cent years in Clinton, where he was nada, and nearly all the leading writers most highly regarded as a person of of Canadian prose and Canadian poetry. more than ordinary culture. He was The toasts were: The Queen, The Do very modest and retiring in disposition, minion, Our Educational Institutions, but very much interested in all matters Canadian Art, Our Poets, and Our which related to education or to literaProse Writers. The speeches were, ture. He was small in stature, pleaviewed collectively, the best that were sant of countenance and dignified in ever delivered at any one gathering in bearing and in speech. Horatio Hale Canada, and the resulting effect on one of the few men who were Canadian art and literature should be not touched by the sordid motives most potent.

which animate the money-gatherers of This gathering, which is more fully this grasping age, preferring rather to reported elsewhere, was undoubtedly give to his fellows the results of earthe literary event of the month. The nest labours in the field of literature Toronto papers, with a liberality for and science. which they are noted, reported the The accompanying cut is from a speeches at great length, while the photograph taken some ten years ago. Canadian press generally gave it adequate notice.

It is to be hoped for the sake of our growing art and ex

AGRICULTURE AND EDUCATION. panding literature that the event will

Our recent remarks on education in be an annual occurrence.

Ontario and its relation to agriculture may be supplemented by a suggestion

which comes from Renfrew. HORATIO HALE.

In the Jan. ist issue of the Renfrew On December 28th, after a few days' Mercury appeared an editorial suggestillness, there passed away at Clinton, ing that the Board of Education of that Ont., a member of the Royal Society town should be the pioneers in the esof Canada, a man whose reputation tablishment of an agricultural depart

was

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