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tor of that city, investigated the phenomena, and decided that they were not due to animal magnetism, but were subjective. He found that by fixing the eyes upon any object a state of sleep was induced, and this he called Hypnotism, being the first to use that word in its present form. He used hypnotism to perform painless surgical operations. Mesmerism had also teen used for this purpose, and Braid at first thought the states were similar, but afterwards changed his opinion.
A few years later, Grimes studied the question in the United States, much as Braid had done in England, and the states he produced were designated as electrobiological.
Liébeault, who later in life lived at Nancy, France, published a book in 1866, and became the real founder of the thera
peutics of suggestion. He endeavoured to refute the doctrine of animal magnetism. Charles Richet came forward in Paris in 1875, and tried to popularize hypnotism, which he called "Somnambulisme Provoqué." In 1878 Charcot began his public classes, and in 1881 Paul Richer published his book on "La Grande Hystérie." After 1884 there were two schools of investigators in France, the followers of Charcot and the Nancy School. Liébeault, to whom reference has been made, was the father of the Nancy School. Prof. Bernheim, of that place, who had studied with him, published, in 1884, "De la Suggestion, etc" He gave in it examples of the curative effects of hypnotism, the phenomena of which, he states, are entirely of a psychical nature, whereas, the followers of Charcot leaned toward a physical explanation. At the celebrated congress in Paris, in 1889, where nearly all the civilized nations were represented, a clearing-up of opinions was attained, the views of the Nancy School receiving the most approbation.
Liébeault's process so induce hypnotism was to raise an image of the hypnotic state in the subject's mind by means of speech. Hypnosis may also be induced by recollection of earlier hypnoses In rare cases, we have autohypnosis where the will allows the idea of hypnosis to become so powerful that hypnosis is produced by the subject himself. These are mental processes.
cesses. Braid accomplished hypnosis by having the subject concentrate his attention on an arbitrary point. Instead of an object, the operator may use his finger or his eye. Just the same effect inay be produced by hearing, e.g., the ticking of a watch. Charcot used the loud noise of a gong or other sudden, strong stimuli. The same effect can also be produced through the sense of touch, e.g., by a gentle stroking of the skin.
The old mesmerists believed in willpower on the part of the operator. The hypnotists acknowledge the operator's power, but assert that the subject must be willing to obey suggestions made, as a prerequisite to full hypnosis by either the mental or physical processes mentioned above. On this point, Dr. Parkyn, writing in the Hypnotic Magazine (Sept.), says: "It is absolutely necessary that the patient shall co-operate with the hypnotist to achieve a beneficial result. . . . The fundamental principle of the whole system of mental therapeutics is, that if there is no obedience to the suggestion, there can be no relief for the patient. It is a beautifully simple law, but it works without any exception. The power that heals your body is a part of yourself; I merely guide and assist, I do not create it."
In the same issue, Dr. Hood explains that man has a double mind; the conscious mind, which, when man is in his normal state, controls his acts, thinks his thoughts, appreciates by means of his five senses all that falls to his lot to acquire; and the subjective or unconscious mind that looks after the automatic functions of the body that carry on life's work while we sleep. He states that the subjective mind is the seat of the emotions, and defines hypnotism as a condition produced by the temporary suspension of the objective mind or the will. The subjective or unconscious mind acts upon suggestion alone lives are but reflections of the suggestions about us.”
DANGERS OF HYPNOTISM.
When a hypnotizer or hypnotist will use the knowledge and power which he possesses to serve ends other than the benefitting of his fellow-man, dangers to society and to individuals arise. These can be met only by watchful and intelliOpposed to these are the physical pro- gent care on the part of the public.
Recently, there appeared in the columns of the Toronto Globe an advertisement which indicated a want for a young governess. A charming young Toronto girl wrote in answer to the advertisement and in reply received a visit from a well-dressed gentleman, who said that he expected his wife and family from Chicago very soon. He then proceeded to ask a few questions, and she found that she was being hypnotized by his strange, light, compelling eyes With an effort, she resisted the strange influence he seemed to exercise over her, and said:
"You don't want a governess."
The man made a hurried exit, baffled. The police were informed, but, according to The Globe, no action was taken, nor was anything further heard concerning the criminal.
While this is an example of the possible dangers of hypnotic suggestion, there is another danger which must be considered. A subject who is once hypnotized is very easily brought under the influence again. After a dozen submissions, the subject is likely to be very tractable to any strong personal influence brought to bear upon him or her. His own individuality is likely to be weakened to such a degree that he may not be able to occupy, with his former success, the important and responsible position in life to which he has been called. No person should submit himself to hypnotic suggestion unless some valuable result, which is extremely desirable, may be best obtained in that
THE POPULIST PARTY.
It may safely be asserted that at no period in the world's history was there such an independence of thought exhibited, as is to be found among all classes of the present day. The wage-earner, especially in America, is learning to think and act for himself. He is now less bound by the opinions of his employer, and less influenced by the position which he occupies. The trade-unions have, by their influence, their debates and their trade publications, taught him to examine the vital questions of the day from the standpoint of reason.
The voter of the present day is learning to mark his ballot according to his own convictions-not those of another. The
newspapers of the day are cheap enough to be within his reach, and from them he learns the why and the wherefore of all
political movements. He may still cling to party, still be amenable to the organizer" or "boss", still be influenced by the oratory of demagogues, but he has "views" more or less strong.
The same independence of thought is seen in relation to economic, social, religious and scientific theories, policies and beliefs. It may not be an age of revolution, but it is certainly an age of rapid evolution.
To this independence of thought must be ascribed the present power of the Populist Party in the United States; a party which, at the general elections in 1894, cast close to a million and a half of votes. Between 1892 and 1894 it showed a remarkable growth. In California there was a gain of 25,000; in Illinois, 27,000; in Iowa, 12,000; in Michigan, 16,000; in Minnesota, 46,000; in North Carolina, 35,000; in Ohio, 38,000; in Montana, 8,000; and in Nebraska, 14,000.
Since the death of Leonidas L. Polk, the strategic head of this party has been Senator Marion Butler, of North Carolina.` He claims that his party has a more energetic, earnest and effective organization than either of the other two parties. Every man who has joined the Populist Party has had a reason for doing so," and a reason strong enough to make him brave the odium and distrust which always attaches to a bolter." The Populists may never become the strongest party in the United States, but they are certainly the embodiment in t at country of the new independence which marks the thought of the present day. They represent this independence politically, though perhaps imperfectly.
It will be exceedingly interesting to note their influence in the election which will take place in a day or two. They have "fused" with the Free Silver Democrats, and this fusion party will sweep the West. In California, Colorada, Idaho, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Oregon, Utah and Wisconsin, the "fusion " ticket should win, as in these States the Democrats and Populists have arranged matters so that each party will assist the other. For example, in California nine
electors are to be chosen, and the Democrats have arranged to elect five and the Populists four, each party voting for the other's candidates. There are certain other States in which fusion has been arranged, but in. which success is more doubtful. These are Connecticut, Illinois, Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming.
The total number of States in which fusion has been arranged is twenty-seven at least. In Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, Kentucky and Louisiana, the Gold-Democratic ticket (Palmer and Buckner) will probably draw off enough support to pre vent the success of the fusion ticket. The centre of the Presidential election thus lies in the States of the middle west. If the Democrat Bryan can hold Illinios and win Indiana, his success would be almost certain.
The result of the election which will be most important-for whichever party wins free trade and free silver are impossibilities-will be the ascertaining of the influence of the independent element at present represented by the Populist Party. Each of the three older parties is so dominated and permeated with "boss "machine" rule, that democracy rule by the people, of the people and for the people, has became a farce. The average Democrat or the average Republican has practically no voice in the moulding of his party's policy nor in the selection of his party's leaders. This power rests in the hands of the professional politicians. Hear the cry of a writer in The Conservator, Philadelphia: "A thousand politicians and professors have elected themselves over me, over you, over the democracy, as guardians. Those whom they cannot convince, they threaten. I thank them for their solicitude. I despise their threats. Welcome, Oh, redeeming Heresy !"
As Jules Simon, the famous French author, scholar and statesman, lay dying, and after be had lost the power of speech,
he wrote his own epitaph: "Jules Simon, 1814-1896. Dieu, Patrie, Liberté." These three words summed up the motives which had ruled his life, for he is one of the few men of whom it may be said that the world was made better by his having spent a few years upon it. As the Em press of Germany said to him in 1890: "Eh bien, Monsieur Jules Simon, voici le monde qui a mis sa signature au bas de L'ouvrière."- (The world has countersigned your book, L'ouvrière).
When a man has spent many years in an active public life, he is apt to view the world in a pessimistic way. Not long ago, talking with a learned and cultured Britisher who had seen much of the world's movements during the past sixty years, I was struck with the pessimistic view he took of human progress. He declared that the world in which he was born was much more picturesque, much more noble than the one in which he was then living.
It was not thus that Browning viewed the world when he wrote:
My own hope is, a sun will pierce The thickest cloud earth every stretched : That, after Last, returns the First, Though a wide compass round be fetched. That what began best, can't end worst, Nor what God blessed once, prove accurst." Apparent Failure." From what Baron de Coubertin says of Jules Simon in the October Review of Reviews, he, like the great Australian leader, Sir Henry Parks, never failed to understand that the world continues to be as interesting to day as it was yesterday. "He never gave up fighting for what he considered good and true. Truth was his goddess, and he should not have deemed life worth living had he not been led to hope that men might finally induce her to fix her residence among them "
Jules Simon was Minister of Public Instructions from 1870 to 1876, and then became Prime Minister under President Marshal de MacMahon, but was dismissed because he believed that Church and State should be separate. The rest of his life he devoted to aiding and directing social reform, and French workmen owe much to his indefatigable efforts in their behalf.
BOOKS AND AUTHORS
HOSE who love dainty little volumes again for consideration; yet only about
pleased Prismatic of is printed is preserved
Library.* Last month one of this series, this is a consolation.
"Soap Bubbles," by Max Nordau, was noticed. Among previous issues were "Trumpeter Fred" by Capt. Charles King, and "Father Stafford" by Anthony Hope. This month there are two additions, "Bijou's Courtships," translated from the French of "Gyp," author of "Chiffon's Marriage," "Those Good Normans," etc., and "A Conspiracy of the Carbonari," translated from the German of Louise Mühlbach, author of "Frederick the Great, and His Family." This "Conspiracy" is a most interesting tale of an attempt to assassinate Napoleon, just after his first defeat, which was inflicted by the Archduke Charles of Austria at Aspeon, and about the time of Wagram. The story is founded on historical facts. and is thus all the more interesting on that account. The translation is fairly well done by Mary J. Safford.
When anyone in Canada mentions annexation to the United States as a possible future of Canada, he is immediately denominated "traitor." The United States itself seems to have its "traitors," judging from a poem just issued by R. S. Walter. It is entitled "A Ride for Life at Gettysburg," and is a combination of sentiment and ryhming historical narrative. In one of the explanatory notes the author declares that the South is now "envying the British Dominions generally-especially Canada, wise Canada."
Two little pamphlets of poetry come to THE CANADIAN from Halifax. The poems are by S. J. MacKnight, and when one has read them, the thought of how much harm the printing press has done rises
*New York: F. Tennyson Neely. Toronto: The Toronto News Co.
"A Ride for Life at Gettysburg," by R. S. Walter. New York: De La Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co. Paper.
Charles G. D. Roberts' new book, "Around the Camp-Fire," is better than the average book of fiction which comes from a Canadian pen.* Mr. Roberts writes pure English in a most graceful way. His style is simple and straightforward, yet has sufficient daintiness about it to be pleasing. He excels in description, especially of the scenery and the life of Eastern Canada, the locality in which he has spent his life. He is provincial, however, in that he seldom compares. Further, he is photographic in both his prose and his poetry, and one seldom, while following his guiding, feels the touch of the philosopher's hand.
A party of canoeists, according to this tale, takes hol days in the northern part of New Brunswick - an ideal locality in which to hunt and to fish. Its experiences, which are not numerous, are here chronicled. The remainder of the book is taken up with the stories told "around the camp-fire." These little tales are good, most of them are Canadian, and nearly all are entertaining. They show that Prof Roberts is a close student of nature
of nature's landscapes, nature's decorations and nature's animal life. As a book for boys and youths, this volume may be very highly commended for its brightness and its wholesomeness. Perhaps this is all that the author aimed at. It is not a novel of adventure, with a complicated plot and a tragic and single climax. "sunburned skins, alarming appetites, a glimpse of life where men may get and renovated digestions," it is splendid.
The illustrations are numerous and better than I have ever before seen in a Cana
**Around the Camp-Fire." by Chas. G. D. Roberts M.A., F.RS C. Toronto William Briggs. Cloth, illus. trated, 349 pp.
dian book The publishers are to be con- early life. He grew up in this country, gratulated on its tout ensemble.
Another book for boys is "Walter Gibbs, The Young Boss, and Other Stories," by Edward William Thomson,* author of "Old Man Savarin." There seven interesting, well-illustrated stories in this valuable volume, and every boy that reads them - yes, the large boys, too—will be interested and benefited,the two most important results which are to be looked for from boys' books. Walter Gibbs is a model young boss-capable, energetic, upright. He entered upon the heavy task of carrying out a contract of engineering which his father had undertaken and had been prevented by an accident from performing. The troubles in managing seventy navvies in a backwoods spot in Canada were numerous and trying, but Walter's clear young head and his honest heart led him safely through.
By these stories Mr. Thomson evidently intends to teach his boy readers honesty and righteousness. This teaching is well concealed, however, under conduct which is idealized for its own sake in that it follows honest lines of policy. While the characters are "goody-goody," this quality is concealed by their naturalness, their every dayness, their hu
The stories are Canadian and depict certain phases of our national life with a clearness and an accuracy for which this author has already acquired a valuable reputation. His characters are those who may be met with any day, but are endowed by the author's treatment with a halo of romance which delights the heart of the lover of adventure, of exploit and of the unusual-and what youth is there who does not enjoy an adventure of any kind? Mr. Thompson is pre-eminently a story teller, perhaps the best Canada has ever produced-certainly one of the best.
Another book by a Canadian is also to be considered. This is not a boy's book, but a first-class glimpse of the life which men and women live. † Robert Barr was not born in Canada, but he came here in
Toronto: William Briggs. Cloth, illustrate 1, 361 pp. "One Day's Courtship and the Heralls of Fame," by Robert Barr. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co Toronto The Bain Book and Stationery Co.
and while here he made his first literary success. He taught school in this country for a time, and while head-master of one of our large institutions of education he spent a summer vacation in making a trip around Lake Erie in a row-boat eighteen feet His amusing adventures were publong. lished, under the heading "A Dangerous Journey," in the Detroit Free Press. His success was made and he became a regular contributor to that paper, and in 1881 went to England to publish the weekly Detroit Free Press in London. Since then he has written "A Woman Intervenes," "In the Midst of Alarms," "The Face and the Mask," "From Whose Bourne," and the two stories which appear in the
volume now under consideration.
"One Day's Courtship" is an amusing tale of two artists, male and female, who went in the same canoe to visit Shawenegan Falls, in the Province of Quebec. The great English artist Trenton was afraid of ladies, and Miss Eva Sommerton, not knowing who her companion was, desired to view the Falls without interference, friendly or otherwise. Hence these two persons went up in their mutual friend's canoe, unintroduced and not desirous of a mutual acquaintanceship This is the beginning of a really humourous and dramatic little story, told with force and grace
Local histories and special histories are the side-lights on the national life of the period to which they are referable, and as such are exceedingly valuable and decidedly interesting. It is upon this basis we must estimate the value of Mr. Champion's "History of the Royal Grenadiers," just published in Toronto.
On March 14th, 1862, just after "the Trent affair," seven Volunteer Militia Rifle Companies were gazetted into a battalion to be known as "The 10th Battalion Volunteer Rifles, Canada." The first Lieutenant-Colonel was Frederic William Cumberland, who had previously been captain in the 3rd Battalion, and who had been instrumental in the, formation of this new body of volunteers. On July 6th, 1863, the battalion paraded for
**History of the 10th Royals and of the Royal Grenadiere," by Thomas Edward Champion. Toronto: The Hunter, Rose Co.