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tor of that city, investigated the pheno- cesses. Braid accomplished hypnosis by mena, and decided that they were not due having the subject concentrate his attento animal magnetism, but were subjective. tion on an arbitrary point. Instead of an He found that by fixing the eyes upon any object, the operator may use his finger or object a state of sleep was induced, and his eye. Just the same effect inay be this he called Hypnotism, being the first produced by hearing, e.g., the ticking of a to use that word in its present form. He watch. Charcot used the loud noise of a used hypnotism to perform painless surgi- gong or other sudden, strong stimuli. The cal operations. Mesmerism had also teen same effect can also be produced through used for this purpose, and Braid at first the sense of touch, e.g., by a gentle strokthought the states were similar, but after- ing of the skin. wards changed his opinion.
The old mesmerists believed in willA few years later, Grimes studied the power on the part of the operator. The question in the United States, much as hypnot'sts acknowledge the operator's Braid had done in England, and the states power, but assert that the subject must he produced were designated as electro. be willing to obey suggestions made, as a biological
prerequisite to full hypnosis by either the Liebeault, who later in life lived at mental or physical processes mentioned Nancy, France, published a book in 1866, above. On this point, Dr. Parkyn, writing and became the real founder of the thera in the Hypnotic Magazine (Sept.), says: peutics of suggestion. He endeavoured to “It is absolutely necessary that the patient refute the doctrine of animal magnetism. shall co-operate with the hypnotist to Charles Richet came forward in Paris in achieve a beneficial result. ... The fun1875, and tried to popularize hypnotism, damental principle of the whole system of which he called “Somnambulisme Provo- mental therapeutics is, that if there is no qué.” In 1878 Charcot began his public obedience to the suggestion, there can be classes, and in 1881 Paul Richer pub- no relief for the patient. It is a beautilished his book on "La Grande Hystérie." fully simple law, but it works without any
After 1884 there were two schools of exception. The power that heals investigators in France, the followers of your body is a part of yourself; I merely Charcot and the Nancy School. Liebe- guide and assist, I do not create it.” ault, to whom reference has been made, In the same issue, Dr. Hood explains was the father of the Nancy School. Prof. tbat man has a double mind; the conscious Bernheim, of that place, who had studied mind, which, when man is in his normal with him, published, in 1884, “De la Sug- state, controls his acts, thinks his thoughts, gestion, etc” He gave in it examples of appreciates by means of his tive senses all the curative effects of hypnotism, the phe- that falls to his lot to acquire ; and the nomena of which, he states, are entirely subjective or unconscious mind that looks of a psychical nature, whereas, the follow- after the automatic functions of the body ers of Charcot leaned toward a physical that carry on life's work while we sleep. explanation. At the celebrated congress He states that the subjective mind is the in Paris, in 1889, where nearly all the seat of the emotions, and defines hypnotcivilized nations were represented, a clear- ism as a condition produced by the teming-up of opinions was attained, the views porary suspension of the objective mind of the Nancy School receiving the most or the will. The subjective or un.onscious approbation.
inind acts upon suggestion alone. “ Our Liebeault's proce: s so induce hypnotism lives are but reflections of the suggestions was to raise an image of the hypnotic about us.” state in the subject's mind by means of speech. Hypnosis may also be induced by recollection of earlier hypnoses In When a hypnotizer or hypnotist will rare cases, we have autohypnosis where use the knowledge and power which he the will allows the idea of hypnosis to be- possesses to serve ends other than the come so powerful that hypnosis is pro- benefitting of his fellow-man, dangers to duced by the subject himself. These are society and to individuals arise. These mental processes.
can be met only by watchful and intelliOpposed to these are the physical pro- gent care on the part of the public.
DANGERS OF HYPNOTISM.
Recently, there appeared in the columns newspapers of the day are cheap enough of the Toronto Globe an advertisement to be within his reach, and from them he which indicated a want for a young gov- learns the why and the wherefore of all erness. A charming young Toronto girl political movements. He may still cling wrote in answer to the advertisement and to party, still be amenable to the “ organin reply received a visit from a well-dress- izer” or “ boss”, still be influenced by the ed gentleman, who said that he expected oratory of demagogues, but he has “views" his wife and family from Chicago very more or less strong.
He then proceeded to ask a few The same independence of thought is questions, and she found that she was seen in relation to economic, social, religibeing hypnotized by his strange, light, ous and scientific theories, policies and compelling eyes With an effort, she re- beliefs. It may not be an age of revolusisted the strange influence he seemed to tion, but it is certainly an age of rapid exercise over her, and said :
evolution. “ You don't want a governess.”
To this independence of thought must The man made a hurried exit, baffled. be ascribed the present power of the PopuThe police were informed, but, according list Party in the United States ; a party to The Globe, no action was taken, nor which, at the general elections in 1894, was anything further heard concerning cast close to a million and a half of votes. the criminal.
Between 1892 and 1894 it showed a reWhile this is an example of the possible markable growth. In California there dangers of hypnotic suggestion, there is was a gain of 25,000; in Illinois, 27,000 ; another danger which must be considered. in Iowa, 12,000; in Michigan, 16,000; in A subject who is once hypnotized is very Minnesota, 46,000; in North Carolina, easily brought under the influence again. 35,000; in Ohio, 38,000 ; in Montana, After a dozen submissions, the subject is 8,000; and in Nebraska, 14,000. likely to be very tractable to any strong Since the death of Leonidas L. Polk, personal influence brought to bear upon the strategic head of this party has been him or her. His own individuality is Senator Marion Butler, of North Carolina.' likely to be weakened to such a degree He claims that his party has a more enthat he may not be able to occupy, with ergetic, earnest and effective organization his former success, the important and re. than either of the other two parties. Every sponsible position in life to which he has man who has joined the Populist Party been called. No person should submit has had a reason for doing so, “and a reahimself to hypnotic suggestion unless son strong enough to make him brave the some valuable result, which is extremely odium and distrust which always attaches •desirable, may be best obtained in that to a bolter.” The Populists may never
become the strongest party in the United States, but they are certainly the embodi
ment in t at country of the new indepenIt may safely be asserted that at no dence which marks the thought of the period in the world's history was there present day. They represent this indepensuch an independence of thought exhib. dence politically, though perhaps imperited, as is to be found among all classes fectly. of the present day. The wage-earner, It will be exceedingly interesting to especially in America, is learning to think note their influence in the election which and act for himself. He is now less bound will take place in a day or two. They by the opinions of his employer, and less have “fused ” with the Free Silver Demoinfluenced by the position which he occu- crats, and this fusion party will sa eep pies. The trade-unions have, by their in- the West. In California, Colorada, Idaho, fluence, their debates and their trade pub- Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Missouri, lications, taught him to examine the vital Montana, Nebraska, North Carolina, Ore. questions of the day from the standpoint gon, Utah and Wisconsin, the “fusion of reason.
ticket should win, as in these States the The voter of the present day is learning Democrats and Populists have arranged to mark his ballot according to his own matters so that each party will assist the convictions - not thi se of another. The other. For example, in California nine
THE POPULIST PARTY.
electors are to be chosen, and the Demo- he wrote his own epitaph : “Jules Simon, crats have arranged to elect five and the 1814-1896. Dieu, Patrie, Liberté.” These Populists four, each party voting for the three words summed up the motives other's candidates. There are certain which had ruled his life, for he is one of other States in which fusion has been ar the few men of whom it may be said that ranged, but in. which success is more the world was made better by his having doubtful. These are Connecticut, Illinois, spent a few years upon it. As the Em Iowa, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New press of Germany said to him in 1890: Jersey, North Dakota, Ohio, Pennsylva- i Eh bien, Monsieur Jules Simon, voici le nia, South Dakota, Washington, West monde qui a mis sa signature au bas de Virginia, and Wyoming.
L'ouvrière.”-(The world has counterThe total number of States in which signed your book, L'ouvrière). fusion has been arranged is twenty-seven
When a man has spent many years in at least. In Illinois, Iowa, Nebraska, an active public life, he is apt to view the Kentucky and Louisiana, the Gold-Demo- world in a pessimistic way. Not long ago, cratic ticket (Palmer and Buckner) will talking with a learned and cultured Britprobably draw off enough support to pre isher who had seen much of the world's vent the success of the fusion ticket. The movements during the past sixty years, I centre of the Presidential election thus was struck with the pessimistic view he lies in the States of the middle west. took of human progress. He declared If the Democrat Bryan can hold Illinios that the world in which he was born was and win Indiana, his success would be much more picturesque, much more noble almost certain.
than the one in which he was then living. The result of the election which will be It was not thus that Browning viewed most important-for whichever party wins the world when he wrote: free trade and free silver are impossi My own hope is, a sun will pierce bilities — will be the ascertaining of the The thickest cloud earth every stretched : influence of the independent element at
That, after Last, returns the First, present represented by the Populist Party.
Though a wide compass round be fetched.
That what began best, can't end worst, Each of the three older parties is so dom- Nor what God blessed once, prove accurst.” inated and permeated with “boss” and
Apparent Failure.” "machine" rule, that democracy rule by the From what Baron de Coubertin says of people, of the people and for the people, Jules Simon in the October Review of has became a farce. The average Demo- Reviews, he, like the great Australian crat or the average Republican has practi- leader, Sir Henry Parks, never failed to cally no voice in the moulding of his understand that the world continues to be party's policy nor in the selection of his as interestig to day as it was yesterday. party's leaders. This power rests in the “He never gave up fighting for what he hands of the professional politicians. Hear considered good and true. Truth was his the cry of a writer in The Conservator, goddess, and he should not have deemed Philadelphia : “A thousand politicians life worth living had he not been led to and professors have elected themselves hope that men might finally induce her over me, over you, over the democracy, as to tix her residence among them” guardians. Those whom they cannot con Jules Simon was Minister of Public Invince, they threaten. I thank them for structions from 1870 to 1876, and then their solicitude. I despise their threats. became Prime Minister under President Welcome, Oh, redeeming Heresy !" Marshal de MacMahon, but was dismissed
because he believed that Church and State
should be separate. The rest of his life As Jules Simon, the famous French he devoted to aiding and directing social author, scholar and statesman, lay dying, reform, and French workmen owe much and after be had lost the power of speech, to his indefatigable efforts in their behalf.
BOOKS AND AUTHORS
THOSE who love dainty little volumes again for consideration ; yet only about
will be pleased with the Prismatic one-tenth of what is printed is preserved Library. * Last month one of this series, this is a consolation. “Soap Bubbles," by Max Nordau, was noticed. Among previous issues “ Trumpeter Fred” by Capt. Charles Charles G. D. Roberts' new book, King, and “Father Stafford” by Anthony “ Around the Camp-Fire,” is better than Hope. This month there are two addi- the average book of fiction which comes tions, Bijou's Courtships,” translated from a Canadian pen.* Mr. Roberts from the French of “Gyp,” author of writes pure English in a most gracefulway. “Chiffon's Marriage," "Those Good Nor- His style is simple and straightforward, mans,” etc., and “A Conspiracy of the yet has sufficient daintiness about it Carbonari,” translated from the German to be pleasing. He excels in descripof Louise Mühlbach, author of “Frede- tion, especially of the scenery and the rick the Great, and His Family.” This · life of Eastern Canada, the locality in “Conspiracy” is a most interesting tale of which he has spent his life. He is proan atteinpt to assassinate Napoleon, just vincial, however, in that he seldom after his first defeat, which was inflicted compares. Further, he is photographic by the Archduke Charles of Austria at in both his prose and his poetry, and one Aspeon, and about the time of Wagram. seldom, while following his guiding, feels The story is founded on historical facts. the touch of the philosopher's hand. and is thus all the more interesting on A party of canoeists, according to this that account. The translation is fairly tale, takes hol days in the northern part of well done by Mary J. Safford.
New Brunswick - an ideal locality in
which to hunt and to fish. Its experiWhen anyone in Canada mentions an ences, which are not numerous, are here nexation to the United States as a possible chronicled. The remainder of the book is future of Canada, he is immediately de- taken up with the stories told “around nominated " traitor.” The United States the camp-fire.” These little tales are good, itself seems to have its “traitors,” judging most of them are Canadian, and nearly from a poem just issued by R. S. Walter. all are entertaining. They show that It is entitled “A Ride for Life at Gettys- Prof Roberts is a close student of nature burg,” † and is a combination of senti- -of nature's landscapes, nature's (lecorament and ryhming historical narrative. tions and nature's animal life. As a book In one of the explanatory notes the author for boys and youths, this volume may be declares that the South is now “envying very highly commended for its brightness the British Dominions generally-espe- and its wholesomeness. Perhaps this is cially Canada, wise Canada."
all that the author aimed at. It is not a novel of adventure, with a complicated
As The Canadian from Halifax. The poems - sunburned skins, alarming appetites, Two litt'e pamphlets of poetry come to plot and a tragic and single climax.
a glimpse of life where men may get are by S. J. MacKnight, and when one has read them, the thought of how much and renovated digestions,” it is splendid. harm the printing press has done rises The illustrations are numer us and better
than I have ever before seen in a Cana* New York: F. Tennyson Neely. Toronto : The To. ronto News Co.
* " Around the Camp Fire.” by Chas. G. D. Roberts “ A Ride for Life at Gettysburg," by R. S. Walter.
Toronto: William Briggs. Cloth, illug. New York: De La Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co. Paper.
trated, 319 pp.
dian book The publishers are to be con- early life. He grew up in this country, gratulated on its tout ensemble.
and while here he made his first literary
He taught school in this country Another book for boys is “Walter for a time, and while head-master of one of Gibbs, The Young Boss, and Other our large institutions of education he spent Stories,” by Edward William Thomson, a summer vacation in making a trip around author of “Old Man Savarin." There Lake Erie in a row-boat eighteen feet
seven interesting, well-illustrated long. His amusing adventures were pubstories in this valuable volume, and every lished, under the heading “A Dangerous boy that reads them – yes, the large boys, Journey,” in the Detroit Free Press. His too - wiil be interested and benefited, -- success was made and he became a regular the two most important results which are
contributor to that paper, and in 1881 to be looked for from boys' books. Walter went to England to publish the weekly Gibbs is a model young boss — capable, Detroit Free Press in London. Since then energetic, upright. He entered upon the he has written “A Woman Intervenes,' heavy task of carrying out a contract of “In the Midst of Alarms,"
" " The Face engineering which his father hail under- and the Mask,” “ From Whose Bourne," taken and had been prevented by an acci- and the two stories which appear in the dent from performing. The troubles in volume now under consideration. managing seventy navvies in a back “One Day's Courtship" is an amusing woods spot in Canada were numerous and tale of two artists, male and female, who trying, but Walter's clear young head and went in the same canoe to visit Shawenhis honest heart led him safely through.
egan Falls, in the Province of Quebec. By these stories Mr. Thomson evi- The great English artist Trenton was dently intends to teach his boy readers afraid of ladies, and Miss Eva Sommerton, honesty and righteousness. This teach- not knowing who her companion was, de ing is well concealed, however, under con
sired to view the Falls without interferduct which is idealized for its own sake ence, friendly or otherwise. Hence these in that it follows honest lines of policy. two persons went up in their mutual While the characters are “goody.goody,” friend's canoe, unintroduced and not dethis quality is concealed by their nat- sirous of a mutual acquaintanceship This uralness, their every dayness, their hu is the beginning of a really humourous and manness.
dramatic little story, told with force and The stories are Canadian and depict grace certain phases of our national life with a clearness and an accuracy for which this Local histories and special histories author has already acquired a valuable are the side-lights on the national life of reputation. His characters are those who the period to which they are referable, may be met with any day, but are en and as such are exceedingly valuable and dowed by the author's treatment with a decidedly interesting. It is upon
this halo of romance which delights the heart basis we must estimate the value of Mr. of the lover of adventure, of exploit and Champion's “ History of the Royal Grenaof the unusual—and wbat youth is there diers,"* just published in Toronto. who does not enjoy an adventure of any On March 14th, 1862, just after “the kind ? Mr. Thompson is pre-eminently a Trent affair," seven Volunteer Militia story teller, perhaps the best Canada has Rifle Companies were gazetted into a batever produced-certainly one of the best. talion to be known as * The 10th Bat
talion Volunteer Rifles, Canada.” The Another book by a Canadian is also to first
Lieutenant-Colonel was Frederic be considered. This is not a boy's book, William Cumberland, who had previously but a first-class glimpse of the life which been captain in the 3rd Battalion, and men and women live. † Robert Barr was
who had been instrumental in the formanot born in Canada, but he came here in tion of this new body of volunteers. On
July 6th, 1863, the battalion paraded for Toronto : William Briggs. Cloth, illustrate 1, 361 pp. + “One Day's Courtship and the Heralls of Fame," by ** History of the 10th Royals and of the Royal Grena.
diere," by Thomas Edward Champion. Toronto : ronto: The Bain Book and Stationery Co.
Hunter, Rose Co.
Robert Barr. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Co