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SECT. V. In regard to the End in view...

CHAP. XI. Of the Cause of that Pleasure which we receive from Objects or
Representations that excite Pity and other painful Feelings
SECT. I. The different Solutions hitherto given by Philosophers, examined... 136
Part I. The first Hypothesis







Part II. The second Hypothesis

Part III. The third Hypothesis..

Part IV. The fourth Hypothesis..

SECT. II. The Author's Hypothesis on this Subject


Canon the Sixth..
Canon the Seventh

Canon the Eighth
Canon the Ninth


CHAP. I. The Nature and Characters of the Use which gives Law to Language 162 SECT. I. Reputable Use ........


SECT. II. National Use........


SECT. III. Present Use....


CHAP. II. The Nature and Use of Verbal Criticism, with its principal Canons. 174 SECT. I. Good Use not always Uniform in her Decisions.


Canon the First.

Canon the Second

. 177 179 181

Canon the Third

Canon the Fourth


Canon the Fifth


SECT. II. Everything favoured by good Use, not on that Account worthy to be retained

CHAP. III. Of grammatical Purity..
SECT. I. The Barbarism..

Part I. By the Use of obsolete Words

Part II. By the Use of new Words ....

Part III. By the Use of good Words new modelled

SECT. II. The Solecism....

SECT. III. The Impropriety...

Part I. Impropriety in single Words...

Part II. Impropriety in Phrases.

CHAP. IV. Some grammatical Doubts in regard to English Construction stated

and examined.

CHAP. V. Of the Qualities of Style strictly Rhetorical..
CHAP. VI. Of Perspicuity.

SECT. I. The Obscure....

Part I. From Defect....

Part II. From bad Arrangement..

Part III. From using the same Word in different Senses.

Part IV. From an uncertain Reference in Pronouns and Relatives
Part V. Froin too Artificial a Structure of the Sentence


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Page 130

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ib. ib. 242 ...... 245 ....... 246 247 ib.









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Part VI. From technical Terms..

Part VII. From long Sentences SECT. II. The double Meaning..

Part I. Equivocation

Part II. Ambiguity.

SECT. III. The Unintelligible

Part I. From Confusion of Thought.
Part II. From Affectation of Excellence
Part III. From Want of Meaning...

Under this the various Kinds of Nonsense:

1. The Puerile

2. The Learned

3. The Profound..

271 272 .... 275 4. The Marvellous. 276 CHAP. VII. What is the Cause that Nonsense so often escapes being detected,

both by the Writer and by the Reader?


SECT. I. The Nature and Power of Signs, both in speaking and in thinking.. ib. SECT. II. The Application of the preceding Principles 287












CHAP I. Of Vivacity as depending on the Choice of Words......
SECT. I. Proper Terms

SECT. II. Rhetorical Tropes

CHAP. VIII. The extensive Usefulness of Perspicuity..

SECT. I. When is Obscurity apposite, if ever it be apposite, and what kind?. ib. 300 SECT. II. Objections answered

CHAP. IX. May there not be an Excess of Perspicuity?...

........... 305




Part I. Preliminary Observations concerning Tropes
Part II. The different Sorts of Tropes conducive to Vivacity
1. The Less for the more General

Part I. Tautology

Part II. Pleonasm........................................


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2. The most interesting Circumstance distinguished.....

3. Things Sensible for things Intelligible..


4. Things Animate for things Lifeless



Part III. The Use of those Tropes which are obstructive to Vivacity SECT. III. Words considered as Sounds.....


Part I. What are articulate Sounds capable of imitating, and in what Degree? 339
Part II. In what Esteem ought this Kind of Imitation to be held, and when

351 ought it to be attempted?. CHAP. II. Of Vivacity as depending on the Number of the Words............ 353 SECT. I. This Quality explained and exemplified.


SECT. II. The principal Offences against Brevity considered

... 358

ib. 360 363




Part III. Verbosity CHAP. III. Of Vivacity as depending on the Arrangement of the Words SECT. I. Of the Nature of Arrangement, and the principal Division of Senten


SECT. II. Simple Sentences..........................................................................................
SECT. III. Complex Sentences

Part I. Subdivision of these into Periods and loose Sentences
Part II. Observations on Periods, and on the Use of Antithesis in the Compo-
sition of Sentences.....



SECT. I. The Necessity of Connectives for this Purpose

SECT. II. Observations on the Manner of using the Connectives in combining Sentences.........





292 401

Part III. Observations on loose Sentences..

Part IV. Review of what has been deduced above in regard to Arrangement 403 CHAP. IV. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Parts of a Sentence 404 SECT. I. Of Conjunctions SECT. II. Of other Connectives.

405 411

SECT. III. Modern Languages compared with Greek and Latin, particularly in regard to the Composition of Sentences..


CHAP. V. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Sentences in a Dis

ib. 374 388 ib.





ALL art is founded in science, and the science is of little value which does not serve as a foundation to some beneficial art. On the most sublime of all sciences, theology and ethics, is built the most important of all arts, the art of living. The abstract mathematical sciences serve as a groundwork to the arts of the land-measurer and the accountant; and in conjunction with natural philosophy, including geography and astronomy, to those of the architect, the navigator, the dialist, and many others. Of what consequence anatomy is to surgery, and that part of physiology which teaches the laws of gravitation and of motion, is to the artificer, is a matter too obvious to need illustration. The general remark might, if necessary, be exemplified throughout the whole circle of arts, both useful and elegant. Valuable knowledge, therefore, always leads to some practical skill, and is perfected. in it. On the other hand, the practical skill loses much of its beauty and extensive utility which does not originate in knowledge. There is, by consequence, a natural relation between the sciences and the arts, like that which subsists between the parent and the offspring.

I acknowledge, indeed, that these are sometimes unnaturally separated; and that by the mere influence of example on the one hand, and imitation on the other, some progress may be made in an art, without the knowledge of the principles from which it sprang. By the help of a few rules, which men are taught to use mechanically, a good practical arithmetician may be formed, who neither knows the reasons on which the rules he works by were first established, nor ever thinks it of any moment to inquire into them. In like manner, we frequently meet with expert artisans, who are ignorant of the six mechanical powers, which, though in the exercise of their profession they daily employ, they do not understand the principles whereby, in any instance, the result of their application is ascertained. The propagation of the arts may therefore be compared more justly to that variety which takes place in the vegetable kingdom, than to the uniformity which obtains universally in the animal world; for, as to the anomalous race of zoophytes, I do not comprehend them in the number. It is not always necessary that the plant spring from the seed, a slip from another plant will often answer the purpose.

There is, however, a very considerable difference in the


expectations that may justly be raised from the different
methods followed in the acquisition of the art. Improve-
ments, unless in extraordinary instances of genius and sa-
gacity, are not to be expected from those who have acquired
all their dexterity from imitation and habit. One who has
had an education no better than that of an ordinary mechan-
ic, may prove an excellent manual operator; but it is only
in the well-instructed mechanician that you would expect to
find a good machinist. The analogy to vegetation above
suggested holds here also. The offset is commonly no
more than a mere copy of the parent plant. It is from the
seed only you can expect, with the aid of proper culture, to
produce new varieties, and even to make improvements on
the species.
Expert men," says Lord Bacon," can execute
and judge of particulars, one by one; but the general coun-
cils, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from
those that are learned."


Indeed, in almost every art, even as used by mere practitioners, there are certain rules, as hath been already hinted, which must carefully be followed, and which serve the artist instead of principles. An acquaintance with these is one step, and but one step, towards science. Thus, in the common books of arithmetic, intended solely for practice, the rules laid down for the ordinary operations, as for numeration, or numerical notation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and a few others, which are sufficient for all the purposes of the accountant, serve instead of principles; and, to a superficial observer, may be thought to supersede the study of anything farther. But their utility reaches a very little way, compared with that which results from the knowledge of the foundations of the art, and of what has been, not unfitly, styled arithmetic universal. It may be justly said that, without some portion of this knowledge, the practical rules had never been invented. Besides, if by these the particular questions which come exactly within the description of the rule may be solved, by the other such general rules themselves, as serve for the solution of endless particulars, may be discovered.

The case, I own, is somewhat different with those arts which are entirely founded on experiment and observation, and are not derived, like pure mathematics, from abstract and universal axioms. But even in these, when we rise from the individual to the species, from the species to the genus, and thence to the most extensive orders and classes, we arrive, though in a different way, at the knowledge of general truths, which, in a certain sense, are also scientific, and answer a similar purpose. Our acquaintance with nature and its laws is so much extended, that we shall be enabled, in numberless cases, not only to apply to the most profitable purposes the

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