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Page Sect. V. In regard to the End in view.

130 CHAP. XI. Of the Cause of that Pleasure which we receive from Objects or Representations that excite Pity and other painful Feelings

134 SECT. I. The different Solutions hitherto given by Philosophers, examined... 136 Part I. The first Hypothesis

ib. Part II. The second Hypothesis

137 Part III. The third Hypothesis.

140 Part IV. The fourth Hypothesis.

145 SECT. II. The Author's Hypothesis on this Subject

... 151


THE FOUNDATIONS AND ESSENTIAL PROPERTIES OF ELOCUTION. CHAP. I. The Nature and Characters of the Use which gives Law to Language 162 Sect. I. Reputable Use

164 SECT. II. National Use....

168 SECT. III. Present Use

170 CHAP. II. The Nature and Use of Verbal Criticism, with its principal Canons. 174 SECT. I. Good Use not always Uniform in her Decisions.

176 Canon the First

177 Canon the Second

179 Canon the Third

181 Canon the Fourth

ib. Canon the Fifth

182 Sect. II. Everything favoured by good Use, not on that Account worthy to be retained

183 Canon the Sixth..

184 Canon the Seventh

187 Canon the Eighth

18€ Canon the Ninth

18 CHAP. III. Of grammatical Purity.

192 SECT. I. The Barbarism..

ib. Part I. By the Use of obsolete Words

ib. Part II. By the Use of new Words

195 Part III. By the Use of good Words new modelled

197 SECT. II. The Solecism...

202 SECT. III. The Impropriety.

213 Part I. Impropriety in single Words..

ib. Part II. Impropriety in Phrases.

224 CHAP. IV. Some graminatical Doubts in regard to English Construction stated and examined

227 CHAP. V. Of the Qualities of Style strictly Rhetorical.

237 CHAP. VI. Of Perspicuity..

239 Sect. I. The Obscure...

ib. Part I. From Defect..


ib. Part II. From bad Arrangement..

242 Part III. Frorn using the same Word in different Senses...

245 Part IV. From an uncertain Reference in Pronouns and Relatives

246 Part V. Froin too Artificial a Structure of the Sentence

247 Part VI. From technical Terms....

ib. Part VII. From long Sentences

248 SECT. II. The double Meaning

249 Part I. Equivocation

ib. Part II. Ambiguity:

253 Sect. III. The Unintelligible .

266 Part I. From Confusion of Thought

ib. Part II. From Affectation of Excellence

268 Part III. From Want of Meaning ::

270 Under this the various kinds of Nonsense : 1. The Puerile

271 2. The Learned

272 3. The Profound...

275 4. The Marvellous

276 CHAP. VII. What is the Cause that Nonsense so often escapes being detected, both by the Writer and by the Reader ?

278 Sect. I. The Nature and Power of Signs, both in speaking and in thinking.. ib. SECT. II. The Application of the preceding Principles


Page CIIAP. VIII. The extensive Usefulness of Perspicuity..

295 SECT. I. When is Obscurity apposite, if ever it be apposite, and what kind ?. ib. SECT. II. Objectiuns answered

300 CHAP. IX. May there not be an Excess of Perspicuity ?.




.. 307

CHAP I. Of Vivacity as depending on the Choice of Words...
SECT. I. Proper Terms ...

ib. SECT. II. Rhetorical Tropes

315 Part I. Preliminary Observations concerning Tropes

ib. Part II. The different Sorts of Tropes conducive to Vivacity

321 1. The Less for the more General ..

ib. 2. The most interesting Circumstance distinguished...

322 3. Things Sensible for things Intelligible...

325 4. Things Animate for things Lifeless

327 Part III. The Use of those Tropes which are obstructive to Vivacity 331 SECT. III. Words considered as Sounds..

338 Part I. What are articulate Sounds capable of imitating, and in what Degree? 339 Part II. In what Esteem ought this kind of Imitation to be held, and when ought it to be attempted?.

351 CHAP. II. Of Vivacity as depending on the Number of the Words...... 353 SECT. I. This Quality explained and exemplified.

ib. Sect. II. The principal Offences against Brevity considered

358 Part I. Tautology.

ib. Part II. Pleonasm..........................

360 Part III. Verbosity

363 CHAP. III. Of Vivacity as depending on the Arrangement of the Words ...... 372 Sect. I. Of the Nature of Arrangement, and the principal Division of Senten

ib. SECT. II. Simple Sentences.

374 SECT. III. Complex Sentences

.............. 388 Part I. Subdivision of these into Periods and loose Sentences .

ib. Part II. Observations on Periods, and on the Use of Antithesis in the Compo

sition of Sentences .....
Part III. Observations on loose Sentences.....

....... 401 Part IV. Review of what has been deduced above in regard to Arrangement 403 CHAP. IV. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Parts of a Sentence 404 SECT. I. Of Conjunctions

405 SECT. II. Of other Connectives....

411 Sect. III. Modern Languages compared with Greek and Latin, particularly in regard to the Composition of Sentences..

419 CHAP. V. Of the Connectives employed in combining the Sentences in a Dis. course

423 SECT. I. The Necessity of Connectives for this Purpose

ib. SECT. II. Observations on the Manner of using the Connectives in combining Sentences ......




... 292

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All art is founded in science, and the science is of little value which does not serve as a foundation to some benefi. cial art. On the most sublime of all sciences, theology and ethics, is built the most important of all arts, the art of living. The abstract mathematical sciences serve as a groundwork to the arts of the land-measurer and the accountant; and in conjunction with natural philosophy, including geography and astronomy, to those of the architect, the navigator, the dialist, and many others. Of what consequence anatomy is to surgery, and that part of physiology which teaches the laws of gravitation and of motion, is to the artificer, is a matter too obvious to need illustration. The general remark might, if necessary, be exemplified throughout the whole circle of arts, both useful and elegant. Valuable knowledge, therefore, always leads to some practical skill, and is perfected in it. On the other hand, the practical skill loses much of its beauty and extensive utility which does not originate in knowledge. There is, by consequence, a natural relation between the sciences and the arts, like that which subsists between the parent and the offspring.

I acknowledge, indeed, that these are sometimes unnaturally separated; and that by the mere influence of example on the one hand, and imitation on the other, some progress may be made in an art, without the knowledge of the principles from which it sprang. By the help of a few rules, which men are taught to use mechanically, a good practical arithmetician may be formed, who neither knows the reasons on which the rules he works by were first established, nor ever thinks it of any moment to inquire into them. In like manner, we frequently meet with expert artisans, who are ignorant of the six mechanical powers, which, though in the exercise of their profession they daily employ, they do not understand the principles whereby, in any instance, the result of their application is ascertained. The propagation of the arts may therefore be compared more justly to that variety which takes place in the vegetable kingdom, than to the uniformity which obtains universally in the animal world ;

for, as to the anomalous race of zoophytes, I do not comprehend them in the number. It is not always necessary that the plant spring from the seed, a slip from another plant will often answer the purpose. There is, however, a very considerable difference in the


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expectations that may justly be raised from the different methods followed in the acquisition of the art. Improvements, unless in extraordinary instances of genius and sagacity, are not to be expected from those who have acquired all their dexterity from imitation and habit. One who has had an education no better than that of an ordinary mechanic, may prove an excellent manual operator; but it is only in the well-instructed mechanician that you would expect to find a good machinist. The analogy to vegetation above suggested holds here also. The offset is commonly no more than a mere copy of the parent plant. It is from the seed only you can expect, with the aid of proper culture, to produce new varieties, and even to make improvements on the species. “Expert men,” says Lord Bacon,“ can execute and judge of particulars, one by one ; but the general councils, and the plots and marshalling of affairs, come best from those that are learned."

Indeed, in almost every art, even as used by mere practitioners, there are certain rules, as hath been already hinted, which must carefully be followed, and which serve the artist instead of principles. An acquaintance with these is one step, and but one step, towards science. Thus, in the common books of arithmetic, intended solely for practice, the rules laid down for the ordinary operations, as for numeration, or numerical notation, addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and a few others, which are sufficient for all the purposes of the accountant, serve instead of principles ; and, to a superficial observer, may be thought to supersede the study of anything farther. But their utility reaches a very little way, compared with that which results from the knowledge of the foundations of the art, and of what has been, not unfitly, styled arithmetic universal. It may be justly said that, without some portion of this knowledge, the practical rules had never been invented. Besides, if by these the particular questions which come exactly within the description of the rule may be solved, by the other such general rules themselves, as serve for the solution of endless particulars, may be discovered.

The case, I own, is somewhat different with those arts which are entirely founded on experiment and observation, and are not derived, like pure mathematics, from abstract and universal axioms. But even in these, when we rise from the individual to the species, from the species to the genus, and thence to the most extensive orders and classes, we arrive, though in a different way, at the knowledge of general truths, which, in a certain sense, are also scientific, and answer a similar purpose. Our acquaintance with nature and its laws is so much extended, that we shall be enabled, in numberless cases, not only to apply to the most profitable purposes the

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