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ecclesiastics. The religious, in Catholic ed plan. The Revue was edited till the countries, are styled reverend fathers, and close of 1831 by Jullien (q. v.), and is the abbesses, prioresses, &c., reverend vow conducted by M. Hippolyte Carnot. mothers. In England, bishops are right The Bulletin universel (q. v.), conductreverend, archbishops most reverend, and ed by baron Ferussac, has appeared the lower clergy reverend.
since 1824, and contains, as its name REVERSION; the residue of an estate imports, information on every subject in left in the grantor, to coinmence in pos- literature, science, and the arts. The Resession after the determination of the par- vue Française was established in 1828, and ticular estate granted. The estate returns has been conducted with great ability in to the grantor or his heirs after the grant the hands of Guizot (q. v.) and the duke is over.
de Broglie. The Revue Britannique (1825), Reviews. The French were the first Revue Germanique (1829), and Revue Euto establish critical journals. The Biblio- ropéenne (1831), are monthly journals, degraphia Parisina of Jacob (1645) was voted, as their titles indicate, to foreign litmerely a yearly catalogue of new books, erature. In most of the French journals, without remarks of any kind; but it is the names of the authors are attached to said to have suggested the idea of the each article.—The freedom of the press in Journal des Savans, a weekly journal, in- Holland led to the establishment, in that stituted in 1665, by M. de Sallo, which country, by learned foreigners, of some of contained analyses and critical judgments the most valuable critical journals, which of new works. It was afterwards edited have appeared any where. Acute critiby the abbés Gallois and De la Roque, and cism, extensive erudition, and charm of president Cousin. From 1715 to 1792, it style, are united in a remarkable degree was conducted by a society of scholars, in the Nouvelles de la République des Letand appeared in monthly numbers. In tres, edited from 1684 to 1681 by Bayle, 1792, it was discontinued, and revived, in and continued by other hands; the His1816, under the patronage of the crown. toire des Ouvrages des Savans, by Basnage The collaborators since its revival have (1687—1709); and the several journals been De Sacy, Langlès, Raynouard, Raoul- conducted by Leclerc (Bibliothèque uniRochette, Rémusat, Dacier, Quatremère verselle, 1686-93, 23 vols.; Bibliothèque de Quincy, Letronne, Biot, Cuvier, &c. Choisie, 1703—13, 27 vols.; and BiblioThe collection from 1665 to 1792 forms thèque ancienne et moderne, 1714–27, 28 111 vols., 4to., reprinted Amsterdam (1684 vols.). Besides these are distinguished the seq.), 381 vols., 12mo. The Mercure de Journal littéraire (1713_37), Bibliothèque France, begun in 1672, under the title of raisonnée (1728—51), and" Bibliothèque Mercure Galant, and still continued, was nouvelle (1738—44). "Among the Dutch originally designed for the amusement of literary journals, conducted by native the court, and men of the world, and was scholars, the principal are De Boekzaal van very miscellaneous in its contents. The Europe (from 1692, under different titles); editorship, which was bestowed as an act Het Republyk de Geleerden (1710—48); of court favor, was sometimes in good Allgemeene Konst-en Letter-Bode (since hands, as, for example, Marmontel's. The 1788, which is most bighly esteemed in Année littéraire (1754–76) acquired ce- Holland); De Recensent ook der Recensenlebrity under the management of Fréron. ten ; the Vaderlandsche Bibliothek (1790), (q. v.) The Journal étranger (1754–62) &c.—The Italian journals of criticism are and the Journal encyclopédique (1756—91) characterized by the completeness of their contained dissertations and papers of vari- analyses of works: the principal are the ous kinds, as well as reviews. The Revue Giornale de' Letterati d'Italia (Venice, (originally Décade) philosophique, littéraire 1710—33), edited at first by Apostolo Zeet politique (1794–1807), was for a time no, and rich in materials of literary histoedited by Ginguené, and was distinguished ry; the Biblioteca Italiana (Milan, 1816 for consistency of principle during a suc- seq.)
, edited until 1826 by Acerbi, and cession of most agitated periods. Millin's since hy Gironi, Carlini, and Fumagalli Annales (originally Magazin) encyclopé- and distinguished for acuteness of critidiques (1795–1818), together with critical cism and freedom of judgment; the Noreviews, contains a valuable mass of ori- velle Letterarie (Florence, 1740), conducted ginal essays, and a great variety of inter- for some time by the learned" Lami; the esting intelligence relating to all countries. Antologia di Firenze, which contains also It has been succeeded by the Revue en- original essays; the Effemeridi Letterarie, cyclopédique, which still appears in month- and the Giornale Arcadico (1819 seq.), ly numbers, on a siinilar but more extend- both at Rome, and the Giornale enciclope
dico (Naples, 1806), chiefly a selection the lapse of a century, under the editorfrom other journals. The Giornale de' ship of Sylvanus Urban (the original UrLetterati (Pisa, 1771 seq.) was for a time ban was, as is well known, the bookseller edited by the celebrated biographer Fab- Cave), and has acquired celebrity by the broni, and is one of the best Italian period- early connexion of Dr. Johnson with its icals.—The principal literary journals of publisher. There is an index extending Spain are the Diario de los Literatos de from 1731 to 1786, and a second from 1787 España (1737—43, 4 vols.), and the Me- to 1818 (2 vols., 1829), with a historical morial litterario de Madrid (1784-1807), preface by Nichols. The Monthly Review which contain little more than an account (1749) was the first critical journal estabof the contents of books. In 1831, a jour- lished in England; it was followed by the. nal in Spanish was undertaken at Ha- Critical Review (1756). The British Critic vana, under the title of Revista Bimestre (1793) has appeared since 1827 in quarCubana, by Mariano Cubi i Soler.-Ger- terly numbers, under the title of the Themany has been most fruitful in critical jour- ological Review, and is the organ of the nals, which are more severely literary and church party. A new era of periodical learned than the English productions of the criticism, in Great Britain, began with the same kind. The earliest critical periodical Edinburgh Review (q. v.), which took a is the well-known Acta Eruditorum (Leip- wider range and a loftier tone, both in sic, 1682—1776), established by Oito politics and literature, than bad been asMencke, and containing, besides reviews, sumed by any of its predecessors. The original treatises. Thomasius's Monats- London Quarterly Review was estabgespräche (1688—90), and Tenzel's Monat- lished, under the management of Gifford, liche Unterredungen (1689, continued un- in 1809, and has supported tory and high der the title Curieuse Bibliothek), are church principles. In 1825, it passed into among the earlier German journals of the hands of H. N. Coleridge, and is at criticism, The Neuen Zeitungen von present edited by Mr. Lockhart. The gelchrten Sachen (Leipsic, under different principal contributors to this journal have titles, 1715—97) gives an abstract of all been Gifford, Southey, Scott, Croker, &c. native and foreign journals up to 1740. These two Reviews are republished in The Göttinger gelehrten Anzeigen (Gőt- the U. States; and there have recently been tingen, 1739, under different titles) was announced, as preparing for publication, edited by Haller and Heyne, and contains Selections from the Edinburgh Review, contributions from Michaelis, Eichhorn, with a Preliminary Dissertation and Notes Blumenbach, Hugo, Spittler, Heeren, &c. by Maurice Cross, and Essays, moral, poThe Briefe, die neueste Literatur betreffend litical and literary, selected from the (Berlin, 1759–65), by Lessing, Mendels- Quarterly Review, with an Introduction sohn, Nicolai, &c., and the Allgemeine by Mr. Lockhart. The Westminster ReDeutsche Bibliothek (Berlin, 1766—96, 118 view (established in 1824) is the advocate vols., Neue Allg. Deutsche Bib. 1793 of radical reform in church, state and le1806, 107 vols.), form a new period in gislation, and was established by the disciGerman literature. The Allgemeine Lit- ples of Jeremy Bentham (q. v.), whose eraturzeitung (Jena, 1785, transferred to principles in law and morals it supports. Halle in 1804, edited by Schütz and Huf- The Foreign Quarterly Review (estabeland) took a yet wider range and a high- lished in 1827) is devoted to foreign literer tone. On its removal to Halle, Eichhorn atures. Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine undertook the Neue Jenaische Allgem. Lit- (1817, edited by Wilson), though but eraturzeitung (Jena, 1804). The Leipziger partially occupied with critical matter, Literaturzeitung (since 1800, under several contains many able criticisms. Its polititles), and the Erlanger Literaturzeitung tics are high tory. Tait's Edinburgh (1746–1810), are of inferior value. The Magazine has recently been started (April
, Heidelberger Jahrbücher der Literatur 1832), professedly. to defend opposite (1808), and the Wiener Jahrbücher der Lit. principles in politics, and to assume a eratur (1818), have enjoyed considerable higher tone in literature than has been usureputation. The Hermes (Leipsic, 1819, ally adopted by these smaller periodicals. discontinued 1831, 35 vols.) was distin- The other English magazines are chiefly guished for its elevated tone, and depth filled with matter of local or temporary and variety of erudition.-In England, the importance. We must not, however, forGentleman's Magazine (1731), which at get to mention the Retrospective Review first consisted merely of selections from (14 vols., ending in 1827), devoted to nonewspapers, curious intelligence, &c., is tices of old works, and the celebrated venerable for its age; it still appears, after Anti-Jacobin Review (chiefly political, 1798-1801). - In the U. States, the prin- None, for instance, would have denied cipal journals of this kind are the North the Arabs in Egypt, or the Berbers in American Review, and the American Barbary, the right to rise against what Quarterly Review. The former was es- was called their government-a band of tablished at Boston, in 1815, by William cruel and rapacious robbers. But at what Tudor, and at first consisted of essays, se- point does this right of insurrection belections, poetical effusions, &c., with but gin? This point it is impossible to fix in little criticism. It was afterwards under the abstract." A treatise not confined to the editorship of Mr. Channing, now pro- narrow limits, like this article, might make fessor of rhetoric in Harvard college, and a full statement of cases imaginary or assumed more the character of a critical real, and point out what was demanded journal. In 1820, it passed into the hands in each; might hold up to view the evils of Mr. Edward Everett, and in 1825 into of a bad government on one side, and of those of Mr. Jared Sparks, from whom it civil war on the other, and endeavor to was transferred, in 1830, to the present edi- show under what circumstances it was tor, Mr. Alexander H. Everett
. A general better to endure the one or to hazard the index of the twenty-five first volumes was other; but it could not lay down any genpublished in 1830. The work contains a eral rule but the vague one already given. mass of valuable information in regard to The character of insurrections, which, American politics, law, history, &c. The while they present some of the brightest American Quarterly Review (Philadel- and some of the foulest spots in history, phia, 1827) is edited by Mr. Robert always derange the frame-work of sociWalsh. The Southern Review (Charles- ety, is such, that they will not, generally ton, 1828), which was very ably con- speaking, be lightly entered into. Fanatducted by the late Mr. Elliott (9. v.) and ics may sometimes take up arms from Mr. Legare, was discontinued with the slight causes ; but, generally speaking, that close of the eighth volume (1832). principle in human nature wbich leads
Revise, among printers; a second or men to endure the evils of established third proof of a sheet to be printed; taken systems as long as they are endurable, off in order to be compared with the last will be a sufficient security against the proof, to see whether all the mistakes abuse of the indefinite rule which we marked in it are actually corrected. have stated. But while we maintain the
Revolution, and INSURRECTION. We right of insurrection, under certain cirshall not here go into the question of the cumstances, from the inalienable rights of great chauges wrought in the condition mankind, we also admit that it can never of society by political revolutions, which be lawful in the technical sense of the seem necessary to its progress, but shall word, because it is a violation of all rules confine ourselves to a few remarks on of positive law. All the rights which a the right of insurrection against estab- citizen, as such, enjoys, emanate from the lished governments. There has been idea of the state; and the object of an inmuch speculation on the subject whether surrection is the destruction, at least for citizens, under any circumstances, are al- the time, of that order which lies at the lowed to take up arms against estab- basis of the state, by the substitution of lished authorities, and, if so, under what force for law. The right of a citizen, as circumstances, &c. Without being able such, to rebel, is a contradiction in terms, to enter here into all the arguments on as it implies that the state authorizes its this subject, the question may be briefly own destruction. An insurrection beconsidered thus : If governments are comes lawful, in the technical sense of instituted merely for the benefit of the the word, only when it has become a revpeople, it is clear that, if they have failed olution, and has established a new order to answer their end, and will not sub- in the place of the old. We speak, of mit to such changes as the people con- course, of insurrections against established sider necessary, the people have the governments. An insurrection to overright, nay, are even under obligation, to throw an usurpation is of a totally differoverturn the existing system by force, ent character, as its object is the restoraon the general principle that all rights tion of the established order, which has may be maintained by force when other been arbitrarily interrupted. While, theremeans fail. The principle is so evident fore, the right of insurrection is inherent that it would never have been disputed, man, it can never be rationally admithad it not been for monarchs and their ted as a principle of any constitution of supporters, who dreaded its application. government; and it was equally unphiloIn extreme cases, it is admitted by all. sophical and inexpedient for one of the early French constitutions to give the friends and patrons. Among the latter right of opposing by force the exercise of was captain (afterwards lord) Keppel, uulawful power; but, from the constitu- whom he accompanied on a crúise in the tion of human society, it hardly seems pos- Mediterranean. He then proceeded to sible to avoid the occurrence of forcible Rome, in which capital and other parts of changes in political systems. Nothing in Italy he spent three years. On his return this world can last forever; institutions to London, he painted a full-length portrait established centuries ago, to answer the of captain Keppel, which was very much demands of a state of things which has admired, and at once placed bim at the long ceased to exist, frequently become head of the English portrait-painters. Reextremely oppressive, from their incon- jecting the stiff, unvaried and unme
meaning sistency with the new tendencies wbich attitudes of former artists, he gave to his have sprung up in society. Sometimes figures air and action adapted to their the evil may be remedied without blood- characters, and thereby displayed someshed ; sometimes happy accidents facili- thing of the dignity and invention of histate a change; at other times, however, tory. Although he never attained to perthe old order of things assumes a tone of fect correctness in the naked figure, he has decided hostility to the new tendencies; seldom been excelled in the ease and eleand this is what must be expected in á gance of his faces, and the beauty and large proportion of cases. Then it is that adaptation of his fancy draperies. His revolutions break out, and eventually es- coloring may be said to be at once his extablish a new order, from which new
cellence and his defect. Combining, in a rights and laws emanate. While, there- high degree, the qualities of richness, brilfore, the philosopher and historian ac- liancy and freshness, he was often led to knowledge the necessity, and even obliga- try modes which, probably from want of tion, of insurrections, they will, neverthe- a due knowledge in chemistry and the less, not fail to utter a solemn admonition mechanism of colors, frequently failed, against resorting rashly to this extreme and left his pictures, after a while, in a remedy for violated right. There is a faded state. He rapidly acquired opusolidity, an authority, a completeness, in a lence; and, being universally regarded as political system which has acquired ma
at the head of his profession, he kept a turity by slow degrees and long struggles, splendid table, which was frequented by that can never belong to any new system the best company in the kingdom, in resuddenly substituted in its stead. There spect to talents, learning and distinction. cau be no security for permanent liberty On the institution of the royal academy, till the civic eleinent has become devel. in 1769, he was unanimously elected presoped, and men have become attached to a
on which occasion the king confergiven system of social connexions. The red upon him the honor of knighthood. common principle, therefore, of weighing Although it was no prescribed part of his the evil to be risked against the good to duty to read lectures, yet his zeal for the be gained, by a political revolution, needs advancement of the fine arts induced him to be strongly impressed upon every peo- before the academy on the principles and
to deliver annual or biennial discourses ple in a state of political excitement. REVOLUTIONARY TRIBUNAL. (See Ter- nounced fifteen, from 1769 to 1790, which
practice of painting. Of these he prororism.)
were published in two sets, and form a REYNARD THE Fox. (See Renard.)
standard work. In 1781 and 1783, he REYNOLDS, sir Joshua, an eminent Eng- made tours in Holland and Flanders, and lish painter, was born at Plympton, in wrote an account of his journey, which Devonshire, in 1723, being the tenth child consists only of short notes of the pictures of the master of the grammar-school of which he saw, with an elaborate characthat town. He early discovered a predi- ter of Rubens. He was a member of the lection for the art of drawing, which in- celebrated club which contained the names duced his father to place him, at the age of Johnson, Garrick, Burke, and others of seventeen, with Hudson, the most fa- of the first rank of literary eminence, and mous portrait-painter in London, with seems to have been universally beloved whom he remained three years, and then, and respected by his associates. He is the upon some disagreement, returned into favorite character in Goldsmith's poem of Devonshire. He passed some time with- Retaliation ; and Johnson characterized out any determinate plan, and, from 1746 him as one whom he should find the most to 1749, pursued his profession in Devon- difficulty how to abuse. In 1784, he sucshire and London, and acquired numerous ceeded Ramsay as portrait-painter to the
king, and continued to follow his profes- of the body, often so great as to affect the. sion, of which he was enthusiastically thermometer, take place in certain perfond, until he lost the sight of one of his sons when they are in the vicinity of subeyes. He, however, retained his equable terranean bodies of water or ore, &c.; alspirits until threatened, in 1791, with the so peculiar sensations of taste, spasmodic loss of his other eye, the apprehension of contractions of particular parts, convulwhich, added to his habitual deafness, ex- sions often equal to electric shocks, giddiceedingly depressed him. He died in ness, sickness, disquietude, solicitude, &c. 1792, in his sixtieth year, unmarried, and Rhabdomancy was known even to the anwas interred in St. Paul's cathedral. Sir cients. “From the most remote periods," Joshua Reynolds, although there was says Kieser, in his System of Tellurism scarcely a year in which his pencil did not in German, first volume), “ indications are produce some work of the historical kind, found of an art of discovering veins of ore ranks chiefly in the class of portrait- and water concealed in the bowels of the painters. His Ugolino, and his Death of earth, by a direct perception of their exCardinal Beaufort, are, however, deemed, istence.” The story of Lynceus is connectin grandeur of composition and force of ed with this notion. Snorro Sturleson expression, among the first performances (Heimskringla, eller Snorro Sturleson's of the English school. But, on the whole, Nordlänske Konunga Sagor, Stockholm, his powers of invention were inadequate 1697, folio, p. 1, c. vii) relates that Odin to the higher flights of historic painting, knew where gold, silver and ore lay hidalthough inexhaustible in portrait, to den under the surface of the earth. Del which he gave the most delightful varie- Rio (Martin del Rio, Disquisitionum Magity. His character as a colorist has been carum Libri sex- -Six Books of Magical already mentioned ; and, though not a Disquisitions—Cologne, 1633, quarto,) rethorough master in drawing, he gave lates that there were some Spaniards, much grace to the turn of his figures, and called Zahuris, who saw things concealed dignity to the airs of his heads. As a under the surface of the earth, such as writer, he obtained reputation by his Dis- veins of water and ores, and also dead courses, which are elegant and agreeable bodies, &c. The instruments of rhabdocompositions, although sometimes vague mancy are known under the names of the and inconsistent. He also added notes to sidereal pendulum, the bipolar cylinder, and Dufresnoy's Art of Painting, and gave the divining rod. The magnetic penduthree papers on painting to the Idler. The lum consists of a small ball, of almost any Literary Works of Sir Joshua Reynolds substance (for example, metal, sulphur, were edited by Mr. Malone, in two vol- wood, sealing-wax, glass, &c.), which is umes quarto, in 1797, with a life of the au- suspended from an untwisted string, such thor. Farington and Northcote have writ- as the human hair, unspun silk, &c. In ten Memoirs of his life.
using this, the string of the pendulum is RHABDOMANCY is the power considered held fast between two fingers, and remains by some as existing in particular individu- suspended over the sidereal substance (as, als, partly natural and partly acquired, of for example, a plate of metal, or a cup discovering things bid in the bowels of the filled with water and salt), without motion. earth, especially metals, ores, and bodies If, now (say the advocates of rhabdomanof water, by a change in their perceptions; cy), the person who holds the pendulum and likewise the art of aiding the discová possesses, in any degree, the magnetic ery of these substances by the use of cer- susceptibility (the rhabdomantic quality), tain instruments, for example, the divining the pendulum will move in a circular rod. That rhabdomancy, generally speak- orbit, with some differences, according to ing, is little more than self-delusion, or in- circumstances. These circumstances are tentional deception, is now the opinion of the substance of the pendulum and of most natural philosophers and physiolo- the objects under it
, the distance of the gists; still it has some champions. Ac- pendulum froin these objects, and the nacording to Ritter and Amoretti's accounts ture of the person who holds the pendu(see Physical and Historical Inquiries into lum, and of those who come in contact : Rhabdomancy, &c., in German, by Car- with him, &c. The principal difference lo Amoretti
, from the Italian, with Sup- of the motion of the pendulum is, that it plementary Treatises by Ritter, Berlín, moves, in some cases, from left to right, '1809, and Amoretti's Elementi di Elettro- that is, with the sun ; in others, from right metria Animale, Milan, 1816), an accelera- to left, or against the sun. That the metion or retardation of the pulse, and a chanical motion of the fingers does not sensation of cold or heat in different parts produce the vibration of the pendulum, at