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being situated on a high hill, descending rapidly at all points. What a scene this for the fancy and pen of a poet! while I have neither leisure nor talents to exhibit it in simple prose.
The Cumberland mountain leaves you on the bank of Clinch River, a beautiful smooth-flowing stream, about 250 yards wide, navigable its whole length, which is a little less than 200 miles. While crossing Clinch (which you do in a boat) you witness another display of the rich and beautiful scenery which abounds in this country. Kingston lies before youthe majestic Tennessec shows itself below, having just joined Clinch river, while Campbell's Fort appears at the same time looking down upon the junction of these noble streams, from its lofty eminence to the right, decorated with fruit trees and shrubberics, like the guardian genius of the place.
Kingston, the seat of justice for Rowan county, E. Tennessee, is built on that point of land formed by the junction of Holston and Clinch rivers. It is a handsome little town, of about forty houses; a postoffice and a fine spring are all the objects of notice within it. Having travelled forty-four hours without sleep, we arrived at an inn a few miles west of Knoxville, at 10 o'clock at night, where, more dead than alive, I threw myself on a bed, without undressing, to await the hour of starting. We arrived at Knoxville to breakfast, and my friend of Abington and myself resolved to stop till the next stage, to refresh ourselves with sleep, for the want of which we were al most exhausted. I must not forget to mention that we passed Campbell's station a few miles below Knoxville, and the pleasure I had in seeing and talking with Col. Campbell, who gives name to it and to the Fort mentioned before. I had a message to him from his daughter, Mrs. Col. Wright, of Alabama. The good old man came out to meet me with a smiling countenance. He appeared to be between sixty and seventy, hale and active, tall and straight as an Indian.Happy should I have been to have spent some time
with him, but the stage drove on, and we parted. 1 ought to have mentioned too, that we set down our Tennessean in the road, the preceding night, being near his home.
Knoxville.-Here our fellow travellers, of Nashville, parted from us, the one who belonged to Knoxville having arrived at the end of his journey-Mr. Major and his friend pursuing their's to the north.—I never shall forget the former, particularly an expression of his, on a dispute which took place between the passengers: "Let us have peace." He spoke with such persuasive sweetness that harmony was soon restored. I never was more struck by so few words, and from so young a man.
Knoxville is the largest town we have seen since we left Huntsville. It is situated on the Holston river, below its junction with French broad. It contains four churches, for as many denominations, a courthouse, offices, a prison, two printing offices, a bank, a college, an academy, and several schools. It has twelve stores and 300 houses, several of which are of brick, besides barracks for 500 men. They have a watch, but the town is not lighted. The college is handsomely endowed by Congress, and is in a fourishing condition. The manners of the citizens are very pleasing, and much more refined than those of Huntsville, though with not half their eclat. The ladies are easy and artless, very much so,—and what is highly honorable to the citizens, and what I never met with before, the different sects of christians unite in worship! These must be christians indeed! The land near the town is very poor pine land, though I am told that large bodies of good land lie on the river.
We put up at Boyd's-a man who in every respect deserves the patronage of the public. He keeps a table spread with plenty and variety, and what was our bill? 50 cents per day, including extra charges.
While we remained in Knoxville (which was three days) I had an opportunity of indulging an inclination
I had long entertained of contemplating human nature in a new guise. At the house where we put up, was a lady eighty years of age. This was the first opportunity in my life I had had of judging for myself respecting a subject of which I had often heard and read, viz. that persons of her age were measurably dead to those vivid affections and feelings of the heart, which are common to the species of junior years; that the powers of the mind become relaxed and enfeebled by long exercise. She was a stout hale woman, could see to sew with a needle, and read without glasses, though she told me (reluctantly I thought) that she had used spectacles for thirty-five years. One afternoon as she and I were sitting together in a pleasant portico, I drew her into conversation with a view to ascertain what were her ideas on moral and divine truths, her opinion with respect to a future state, and what were her views of christian duties, faith, charity, &c. She was much averse to this conversation, though she was fond of talking on other subjects. After some time she answered to the several questions, but with much incoherence, and only replied by monosyllables. Before I was done with her she appeared to have a mental view of the duties of a christian, but it was long before I could draw it from her, in doing which, I had to advance several texts of scripture again and again. But of the practice of a christian, she was either entirely ignorant or averse! I had a fair opportunity of deciding on this point; though I had, as I thought, aroused her attention to this particular the evening before. I stepped into the kitchen one morning, to send one of the servants for something I wanted, and this old lady happened to be present. She drew near to me, and looking earnestly in my face, exclaimed," he can't go, he's got his work to do." This negative of her's proved to me nothing more than her selfish, uncharitable disposition, as there were half a dozen servants then idle in the kitchen. Upon our return to the parlour, I seized the opportunity this circumstance afforded, to prove
to her her want of christian charity. I found it easy to convince her, but the impression was momentary. The result proved what I had often heard," that old people are callous to the duties of a christian."
During our stay at Knoxville, a beautiful female from the Northern States, accompanied by her husband and two beautiful children, passed through the town. Her husband has an interest in the salt works, already mentioned, near Sparta, he is a man of some wealth, and although a Yankee, had purchased several slaves as he came through Maryland, with a view of making his fortune at the salt works. Poor simpleton! he will lose his children, and very probably his wife, the first year, and the next he will break; the place being generally fatal to foreigners. This day's stage (I mean the fourth) brings one passenger, and with him we pursue our journey.
Our new fellow traveller was by far the best company we had had yet; he was all frolic, fun, life and spirits, that never flagged. He was different from our Irishman in this, he never drank a drop of spirits. He was not long in our company, before he imparted to us three of his maxims, one was "that he never drank," the second," that he never played cards," and the third," that he never gave or took paper money." All this was well. He, I soon discovered, would keep me from the hypo, so long as we remained together. He had been accustomed to travelling, and that too in a stage: he had never learned to ride on horseback. He was a Yankee, he said, but I do not believe him hardly yet; neither his conversation nor manners had any appearance of the Yankee. If he really was a Yankee, he was the most gentlemanly of the country I had ever seen. I hinted this to him. "I hope," said he, "you would'nt judge us all by the d-n little Yankee pedlars, that go through the country." He was about twenty-three years of age, well made, his complexion dark, his features handsome, and countenance all expression. He had what is called a "laughing" black eye. He was a merchant from
Demopolis, going on to New-York, to purchase goods. Demopolis is a town in Alabama, in that part of it that was ceded conditionally to the French. I was glad to hear this; I had heard much of those emigrants, and now I had an opportunity (so far as I chose to rely) of hearing the truth: well, here we have the story of the Frenchmen.
"When they first began to clear their vineyard," he said, "they sent five men three miles for a rope, and having previously provided axes, about twentyfive or thirty of them in a body proceed to business. In the first place one ascends the tree which is to be fallen, and ties the rope hard and fast to the top; he then descends, and ten or a dozen of them take the end of the rope, whilst the others commence cutting, and perform a portion of the task in rotation. They cut all round, up and down, crossways, aud lengthways, the tree; meantime the rope division kept pulling. At length down came the tree, killed two and crippled several. From that day to the present, no entreaty, or persuasion, can prevail on them to resume the business of clearing, or any attempt at falling timber. They have gone so far as to cultivate some little patches," he said, "for vegetables, but cutting with an axe, with them, is out of the question. When they are obliged to have a tree felled for firewood or other purposes, they hire the Americans to do it for them. They were, he continued, the most indolent, contemptible, and intractable people, to be found in any country: That Lefever, after doing all that a man of his patience and ability could do, left them in despair, with a broken heart! They were not only ignorant but given to all manner of vice; apply themselves to no manner of business for a livelihood, except strolling about with a few strings of beads or buttons, and such trifles, to sell, covered with rags and dirt." I inquired where they came from, and how Lefever could think of making any thing out of such abandoned people: He replied that some were immediately from France,