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ructures each end. The footpaths are on the outside of the two
djoining The cast-iron transverse beams which support the road.
This was the second bridge of the kind; the first
, th: I tavern, Hunslet Bridge is much the larger. The Monk Brida
uted in has a suspension arch over the river, two land-arches
yards, building in various parts of the kingdom.
which is more particularly associated with the history
4. The a chapel on the bridge, where mass was said. Afte
turies; it was converted into a warehouse in 178
the widening of the bridge. The traffic on this bride
is said to be scarcely exceeded by that on any bria
Before Leeds became a centre of railway operations
This last expression, however, reminds us that ther's
on rods. / is rich unconsumed carbon, ready to pour out its beste Sfty feet and light if properly managed, has been long beer
Inne at / and has been frequently elucidated by Dr. Ara...
his own incomparable manner. If smoke be such a as a natural effect, to obtain perfect combustion of treasure, why is it not made available ? Because (say smoke. Imperfect combustion of the fuel, by which I the philosophers) the fuel and the draught are not mean ultimate production of smoke, must in all cases, rightly proportioned to each other in quantity, nor I presume, depend upon the convenience or the brought to bear on each other in the proper way.- ignorance of the user—the manufacturer. In large fires, "How then can this be remedied ?" ask the uninitiated like those of steam-engines, and other large manufacpublic. “By a better arrangement of furnaces and tories where coal is used, it depends more, I think, chimneys," is the reply. Dr. Arnott, in his ' Essay upon his ignorance than his convenience; inasmuch on Warming and Ventilating,' shows that we lose as if he were obliged to burn his smoke, he would in a seven-eighths of the heat of the coal employed in our very short time be able to do so, by the ingenuity and common open fireplaces, on account of their ill-judged philosophy which is now in activity, without any loss construction. We must not, it is true, pay the furnace- to himself in a pecuniary point of view.” fires the bad compliment of placing them on a level We must apologise to the reader for thus plunging with open parlour fires, in respect to improvident com- him, with or without his consent, among factory chimbustion ; yet it is admitted that there must be “ neys and their exhalations; but, in good truth, these thing wrong,” else we should not have the black floating chimneys, and their significant mode of “emancipating masses above us-wasting the coal-store, vexing the the blacks,” in such a town as Leeds, will make themtidy housewife, rendering the “unwashed” artizan selves noticed ; we cannot avoid them without avoiding almost unwashable, and mixing with our oxygen and the town altogether; and we may as well, therefore, nitrogen a larger dose of carbon than nature intended treat them as part and parcel of the town's notabilities. for the use of the lungs.
Among the arrangements which either contribute to To find out what was this "something," and to devise or result from the manufactures of Leeds, a word must a probable method of cure, were two objects of an
be said for the Bramley stone quarries. They are Association formed at Leeds a few years ago. The situated at Bramley Fell, about three miles from Leeds, Association called before it, by advertisement, such on the line of the Leeds and Liverpool Canal. They scientific and practical men as seemed fitted to offer occupy a slanting spot of ground, covered with stunted valuable opinions on the matter : a day was fixed, an trees. The excavations are numerous rather than examination took place, and a report of the proceedings large or deep. If we remember rightly, the balustrades was published. Although it was found that no one of of New London-bridge are formed of stone taken from the proposed amendments was decidedly efficacious as this quarry ; the stone is of excellent quality, and is a cure, many of them certainly introduced improvements. quarried with remarkable facility.
There are So earnestly was this matter taken up, that no fewer useful sandstone quarries, also, at Wodehouse, about a than ten patented inventions, or methods, for the pre- mile to the north of Leeds. vention of smoke, were employed by the various manu- The coals, the water, and the stone, are brought into facturers of Leeds; so that if this dusky enemy still Leeds from the vicinity; and when so brought, they hovers over the town, it is not for want of hard fightirg give employment to thousands of industrious artizans. to repel him. One of the witnesses who gave evidence The engineering establishments of Leeds, especially, on an enquiry into this subject in 1843, before a Com- are of a first-rate character--large, comprehensive, and mittee of the House of Commons, put a scrap of of wide reputation. One of the most notable at the philosophy into a very few and intelligible words, when present day is the locomotive factory of Messrs. Wilson, he said that “Englishmen are so fond of having their at Hunslet : it has grown with the startling rapidity of own way.” True : Englishmen do love to stir their the locomotive itself: and on the occasion of the openfires, and to heap coals on them, and to kindle a blaze ing of a new" erecting shop” (said to be the largest in -in “ their own way ;” and there are some manu- the kingdom) in 1847, the partners entertained no less facturers who love to have a fine voluminous cloud of than two thousand guests to dinner in this monstersooty particles pouring forth from their factory shafts,
It is not the least pleasant part of the affair, as a sort of advertisement of the amount of business that the whole of the work people employed by the doing below. They go through a sort of logical process, firm, amounting to six or seven hundred, were present as thus :—when the smoke rises, it shows that the -together with a right pleasant sprinkling of wives, furnace-fires are burning; when the fires are burning, sisters, daughters, and sweethearts-eating, drinking, there is work doing; when there is work doing, the speechifying, returning “thanks for the honour,” &c., firm maintains its status among the townsmen ; conse- music, laughing, talking, dancing: they“made a night quently when no smoke rises, the chain of inductions o't,” which seems to live in the memory of those who leads to a result of an anti-commercial character. As took part in the festivities of the occasion. to the philosophy of the matter, Professor Faraday has In all such establishments as this, or of the Messrs. said :-“ The principles upon which smoke, that is Fairbairn, or others among our great machine-makers, the visible part, proceeding from the combustion of the operations are in the highest degree interesting. coal, may be entirely burned, is very plain and clear ; The beautiful order and system observable, both in the it can be done by completing to the end that combus- machinery and in the manufacture of machinery, furtion which has been began. There can be no difficulty, nished Sir George Head with one of his quaint obser
vations:-"With reference to the extreme facility / greatest of the Yorkshire manufactures—the staple of whereby the powers of an engine are brought into the place—we must speak of a solitary remnant of early action, and accumulated forces expended in some par- days, near Leeds,ticular moment of contact, without affording to the
KIRKSTALL ABBEY. observer any sensible indication of the resistance that has been overcome--it would seem, that the greater There are not many of our great manufacturing the deed to be done, the less the noise and disturbance; towns which have monastic ruins so near to them as and this, as it were, in analogy and contrast with the the ruins of Kirkstall Abbey are to Leeds. It is pleastruggle to conquer of a determined heart, and the sant to have such a spot to ramble in, as a memento squabbling warfare of more grovelling minds. The of the past in the vicinity of the present; but it is not above reflection occurred to me on witnessing, within pleasant to have fire and smoke almost under the walls a celebrated manufactory of machinery, the attempt, of this venerable ruin ; the Kirkstall Forge' is much while the more important operations within the chamber too near a neighbour to the fine old crumbling arches were performing in glibness and comparative silence, of the Abbey. to reduce an old misshapen grindstone to its pristine Kirkstall Abbey has the reputation of having excircular form. As it revolved under an overpowering hibited unity of design and execution to an unusual force, notwithstanding the softness of the material, the degree. It was all planned by one man, and by him remonstrance of this daas avaions, this radical grind carried out to completion. Dr. Whitaker says of this stone,' was absolutely deafening. Although grown majestic ruin : "Not only the arrangement, proportion, ancient in the cause of the levelling system, and pro- and relation of the different apartments are rigidly tuberant in the exercise of grinding down its betters, conformed to that peculiar principle, which prevailed yet the moment the experiment was retorted upon in the construction of religious houses erected for, itself, it emitted cries as if an hundred hogs were under rather than at the expense of, the monks; but every discipline.”
moulding and ornament appears to have been wrought The same writer, in another page of his ‘Home from models previously studied, and adapted to the Tour,' makes a few valuable observations on the arti- general plan. Deviating by one step from the pure zans employed in such establishments valuable, Norman style, the columns of the church are massy because they come from one who knows much both of as the cylinders of the former age, but channelled rather our manufacturing and agricultural districts. “There than clustered; the capitals are Norman ; the intercan be no spectacle,” he says, more grateful to the columniations, though narrow, yet nearly one-third heart of an Englishnian than, viewing the interior of wider than those of the most massy Saxon; the arches a manufactory of machinery, to observe the features which surmount them are grooved and moulded with of each hard-working mechanic blackened by smoke, an evident relation to the columns. One feature of yet radiant with the light of intelligence ; to contrast the pure Norman is wanting in this, though a building with his humble station the lines of fervid thought that of much higher dignity than those churches in which mark his countenance and direct his sinewy arm, and it is often found. Even on the great west-door of the to reflect that, to such combination of the powers of church there are no basso-relievos or other enrichments mind and body, England owes her present state of of sculpture ; but though the entrance is deep and commercial greatness. It is no less pleasing to con- complex, and has had detached single shafts beneath sider, that although particular classes of men have each of its members, there appears to have been a suffered by the substitution of machinery for manual studied abstinence from everything gaudy and ornalabour, such evils arise from the mutability of human mental.” affairs -- are such as the most zealous philanthropist The rise of Kirkstall Abbey has a legend attached to cannot avert-and, lastly, are of themselves insignifi- it; which, like legends generally, will form part and cant compared with the general demand for labour parcel of its history as long as the crumbling stones throughout the country, which has not only kept pace remain. The legend runs thus :-During the reign of with the increase of machinery, but no doubt might Henry I., in the early part of the eleventh century, the be shown even to have exceeded it. Nay, it might be Virgin Mary appeared in a dream to Seleth, a poor made manifest, that not only is the grand total of shepherd residing in the south of England. She said, operatives employed throughout the manufacturing “ Arise, Seleth, and go into the province of York, and districts augmented, but additional employment afforded seek diligently, in the valley of Airedale, for a place in like proportion for mechanics, to supply the wear called Kirkstall; for there shalt thou prepare a future and tear of machinery and buildings dependent there- habitation for brethren serving my Son." And Seleth upon, as well as for workmen upon all works to be trembled in his sleep, and was fearfully troubled: but traced to a similar cause-such as railroads, bridges, the vision continued : “ Fear not, Seleth! I am Mary, viaducts, aqueducts, &c." These words were written the mother of Jesus of Nazareth, the Saviour of the at a time when it was the fashion to cry down manu- world !” Upon which he arose and betook himself to facturing labour as a wretched and demoralizing system. travel, in search of Kirkstall : living upon charity and
the spontaneous productions of the earth. When, after Before we turn our gossip in the direction of the having escaped great dangers and fatigues, he arrived at the entrance of a shady valley, which some herdsman | at the present day, can afford to remain in ignorance of informed him was the place he was in search of; he 'Marshall's flax-mill:' it is one of the lions of the fixed his solitary abode there, paying his devotions. place. Without, within, over it, under it-all is vast, Long was his humble cell revered by the neighbouring strange, and wonderful. Situated at a short distance villagers, and visited by the curious or the pious ; in south of the River Aire, and bounded mostly by poor times of distress the intercessions of Seleth were re. dwellings, it must be sought for before it will be sorted to; and the hermitage of Kirkstall became famous found ; and when found, there is one portion of the throughout the country. The reports of his piety and establishment, the old mill, which is too much like self-denial reaching the ears of some young devotees, other mills to call for observation ; but the new mill is Seleth was persuaded by them to accept the office of a marked feature. Superior. Their united body was formed into a small Egypt seems to have been in the thoughts of the community, which built for themselves cells beside the architect when he planned this building; for the chimRiver Aire.
ney has the form and proportions of the world-renowned At the point where the legendary passes into the Cleopatra's Needle ;' while the chief entrance exhibits historical, we find that Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln, a front nearly analogous in character to that of an who had estates at or near Leeds, while suffering under Egyptian temple. The building, unlike almost all a violent disease, engaged himself by a solemn vow to other large factories, is only one story in height. It erect a monastery if ever he should recover his health. exhibits on the eastern façade a long range of windows He acquainted the abbot of Fountain's Abbey with his of large dimensions, a range of massive pillars or vow; and this abbot, having just before heard of the pilasters between the windows, and a bold cornice runpious recluses at Kirkstall, impressed upon him the ring along the top. The whole front being formed of benefits which would accrue from the erection of a stone, and minute detail being avoided, there is a sort religious house at that spot. Arrangements were soon of massive grandeur in this long low façade. The made by all the parties interested, Kirkstall Abbey was other façades are remarkable only for their great built, and an abbot and monks took up their abode length. there in 1152, during the reign of Stephen. The abbots Those who have the good fortune to get a peep into had at first many contentions respecting a disputed title the interior, will not soon forget the sight which meets to the estate ; but the abbey ultimately rose to great the eye. One room comprises the whole: but such a prosperity.
room! If we call it the largest in the world, we cannot The ruins of Kirkstall extend over a considerable be far in error. About four hundred feet long, by more area. Their length from north to south is about 340 than two hundred broad, it covers nearly two acres of feet, and from east to west 445 feet. They enclose a ground. Birmingham is justly proud of its Town Hall, quadrangle of 143 feet by 115. At a sinall distance but this wonderful factory-room is nine times as large ; north-west of the principal mass stands what was once Exeter Hall is one of the largest rooms in London, but the chief gate of the abbey. The church is in the form it would require seven such to equal the area of this of a cross; over the intersection of which is a square room ; the London club-houses present façades of great tower, of Tudor architecture. The roof between the length, but it would require four of the largest to equal tower and the east end was adorned with fret-work and the length of this room. The room is about twenty feet intersecting arches; but the weather now plays its havoc high, and the roof is supported by about fifty pillars. where the roof once stood. At the east end are the The spaces between the pillars allow the roof to be broken remains of the high altar. South of the church, partitioned off into a series of flattish domes, or groined and on the east part of the ruins, are several vaulted arches, sixty or seventy in number; and in the centre chambers, supported by strong columns, and most of each dome is a lofty conical skylight, of such large gloomy in appearance. The pencil--the moonlight, or size that the whole series together contain ten thousand rather moonlit pencil, as we will in this instance term square feet of glass. The view through the room is it-of Mr. Harvey, (see Cut, No. 6), will show that quite without a parallel. Vista after vista meets the these ruins still present some lovely artistic bits. eye, formed by the ranges of columns; whether we
stand at the side, the end, the corner, the centre-still
these long-stretching, well-lighted, busily-occupied aveThe Flax FACTORIES of Leeds.
nues carry the eye in beautiful perspective to far distant Leeds--as was explained in a former page-stands points. There are, we believe, upwards of a thousand at the north-east corner of the clothing district of the persons in this room alone, mostly females; and the West Riding. It is the chief town of the district, in large and complicated machines are very numerous : respect both to the flax and the woollen manufactures. yet there is a kind of airiness and roominess felt, unusual None of the other towns, excepting, perhaps, Barnsley, in factories. Here, in one part of the room, are the partake in any notable degree in the former of these “flax-drawing” operations going on; in another part two manufactures; but at Leeds it has led to the con- the “ roving;" in another the “spinning;” in another struction of one of the finest factories in the world, and the “twisting,”-all with such perfect harmony and to others of great inagnitude.
system, that confusion and idleness are equally out of No one who pretends to know anything about Leeds the question.