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Physical Contrasts presented by the Neighbourhood of The Eagle's Nest

299

Killarney

291 Ross Castle

299

The Journey from Dublin to Killarney

291 Sir Henry Christall's Narrative

300

The Rock of Dunamase

291 Sir John Harrington's Mention of Hugh Tyrone 301

Coach-ride from Mallow to Killarney

292 Inglis's Account of the Killarney Lakes

302

Colonel Clarke's Account of the Beggars of Killarney 292 Christopher North on the Lakes of Killarney

302

Killarney in the Twilight .

292 The Village of Killarney

302

Irish Beggary

293 The Killarney Union

302

The Church of Aghadoe

293 Miss Edgeworth's Description of a Village of Irish Hovels 303

View of the Lower Lake from Aghadoe

294 The Signs of an Eviction

303

The Killarney Boatmen

294 The Question of Transforming the Irish Cottiers into

Innisfallen

294 Labourers, at Wages

304

O'Sullivan's Cascade

294 Opinion of the Society of Friends on the Polato Blight' 304

Indications of the Ravages of Famine

295 Count Strzelecki's Account of an Irishman in Australia 304

The ‘Annals of Innisfallen'

295 John Mill on the Irish Landlords

. 304

O'Donaghue

295 Mucruss Abbey

305

The Antiquities of Ireland

295 | The Mountain Girls

305

Glena.

296 The Spirit of Emigration among the Irish Women 305

The Passage round Dinis Island into the Torc Lake . 296 View of the Atlantic

305

The Ferns of Dinis

296 View from Mangerton

305

The Torc Lake

297 The Devil's Punch Bowl'

307

The Popular Ballads

297 The Flower of Brown-hair'à Maidens:

307

Lover's Lines

on the Climate of Ireland

297 A Night with Gansey ·

308

Difference of Opinion expressed by Tourists of the Gap

The Black Valley by Moonlight

308

of Dunloe

298 | The Lower Lake by Moonlight

308

Lines from Shelley's Translation of • Faust'

293 The New Road to Killarney

308

Gerald Griffin's Description of the Gap of Dunloe . 298 Otway's Description of Glengariff

309

View of the · Black Valley'

298 Otway's Description of the Pass of Camineagh . 309

The Upper Lake of Killarney

299 The Rockites in the Pass of Camineagh

309

The Echoes of the 'Eagle's Nest"

299 Procession of Carts with Indian Meal

309

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Richness of Wales in Ancient Memories

. 319 Royal Tenants of Denbigh Castle

333

Fuller's Description of Chester .

319 The City of St. Asaph .

333

Tradition concerning the Origin of Chester

320 The Foundation of the See of St. Asaph

333

Chester a Roman Station.

320 | The Present Cathedral of St. Asaph

334

The History of Chester subsequent to the Romans 320 Agreeable Walks in the Neighbourhood of St. Asaph 334

William of Malmesbury's Account of King Edgar's Rhyddlan Castle .

334

Visit to Chester

320 The Parliament of Rhyddlan

334

Ormerod’s Description of the Walls of Chester 321 Morva Rhyddlan

337

The Water Tower and Phænix Tower

321 Dyserth Castle

337

Chester by Moonlight :

321 Originality of Conway.

337

Peculiar Character of the Streets of Chester

321 | Situation and External Appearance of Conway

337

The Rows and their Origin .

322 General Character of Conway, its Castle, and History 337

Chester Cathedral

325 Present Appearance of Conway Castle .

338

The Chapter-house

325 The Plas Mawr

338

325 The Suspension Bridge

338

The New Bridge.

325 The Railway Bridge at Cunway

338

The Roo-dee

325 Orme's Head

339

Eaton Hall .

326 Llandudno

339

Hawarden, Ewloe Castle, and Mold.

326 View of the Vale of Llangollen from the Railway 339

The Battle of Maes Garmon

326 The Town of Wrexham

339

The Monument on Moel Famau

327 | The Vale of Llangollen

339

The Decline and Fall of Flint

327 Characteristics of the Vales of Clwyd and Llangollen 340

Flint Castle the Meeting place of Richard and Buling- The Village of Llangollen

340

broke

327 Mr. Bingley's Description of the Welsh Harp

340

Flint Castle at the Present Time

327 Castell Dinas Bran

341

The Town of Flint at Present

328 The Eagle's Crag.

341

The Abbey of Basingwerk

328 Chirk Village and Castle

341

Legend concerning the Origin of Basingwerk Castle 328 The Valley of the Ceiriog

341

The Well of St. Winefred.

328 Nant-y-Belan

341

Legend concerning the Origin of St. 'Winefred's wei . 328 View from Belan Tower

342
Great Resort of Bathers to St. Winefred's Well 329 Wynnstay

342
Holywell Church
330 | The Cysylltau Aqueduct

342

l'he Town of Holywell

331 Viaduct of the Chester and Shrewsbury Railway 342

Mostyn Hall

331 Vale of Crucis, Valle Crucis Abbey, and the Pillar of Eliseg 343

Downing and Caerwys

33)

The Road from Llangollen to Corwen

344

The Ancient and Modern Eisteddvodau

331 | The Valley of the Dee

314

332 Memorials of Owen Glyndwr in the Valley of the Dee 344

Ruthin and its Castle

332 Corwen and the Geirw.

344

Denbigh and its Castle

333 Cerig-y-Druidon

344

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The Vale of Clwyd

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View of the Snowdon Mountains .

345 | The Ancient Forest of Snowdon

365

The Valley and Falls of the Conway.

345 Charms of Mountain Scenery to the Lover of Nature 366

The Falls of the Machino

345 Capel Curig

366

Bettws-y-Coed

345 Moel Siabod

366

Gwydyr

346 Dolwyddelan

366

Llanrwst, and the Vale of Llanrwst

346 The Llugwy

367

Carnedd Llewellyn and Carnedd Davyd

349 Rhaiadr-y-Wennol

Trefriew

349 The Vale of Llugwy

367

Rhaiadr Porthlwyd

349 The Falls of Benglog

368

Caer Rhun

349 The Nant-Francon

368

Dr. Johnson's Entry concerning the Dangers of Penmaen Llyn Ogwen

368

Mawr

349 Llyn Idwal

368

Bangor and its Cathedral

350 Wordsworth's Description of the Mountain Tarns 369

Penrhyn Castle

350 Road from Capel Curig to Beddgelert

369

The Slate Quarries of Cae Braich-y-Cefa

350 Dinas Emrys and the Legend connected witli it 369 $123

The Menai Bridge

353 The First View of Beddgelert

369

Difficulties attending the Erection of the Britannia Bridge 353 Story of the Origin of Beddgelert

370

Extracts from Mr. Latimer Clark's 'General Descrip- Road from Beddgelert to Nantle Pools

370

of the Britannia and Conway Tubular Bridges'

354 | The Nantle Pools

370

General Form of the Bridge

354 | Carnarvon Bay

370

Dimensions of the Piers, and the Tubes

354 The Pass of Aberglaslyan

372

The 'Lifting' Proceedings of the Britannia Bridge 355 Pont Aberglaslyn

372

Appearance of the Carnarvon Shore during the Construc- Former Appearance of Traeth Mawr

372

tion of the Britannia Bridge

355 Tremadoc

372

Sail from Bangor to Beaumaris

356 The Vale of Ffestiniog

372

Beaumaris, and Beaumaris Castle

356 The Village of Ffestiniog

372

Baron Hill

356 The Falls of Cynfael

372

Plas Newydd

356 Hugh Lloyd's Pulpit

373

The Anglesea Column

356 The Neighbourhood of Rhaiadr-Cynfaei

373

Holyhead Harbour and Market

357 Road from Ffestiniog to Bala

373

The Town of Holyhead

357 Tradition concerning Llyn-y-Morwynion

. 373

View from Holyhead Mountain

357 Bala, and Bala Lake

373

The South Stack and its Lighthouse

357 Residence of Lywarch Hen at Bala

374

The Skerries

358 Pistyll Rhaiadr

375

Amlwch.

358 Dolgelley

375

The Parys Mine.

358 Beauty of Merionethshire

375

Aberffraw

358 Nannau

375

Carnarvon

358 Waterfalls in the Neighbourhood of Dolgelley

375

The History of Carnarvon Castle

361 Road from Dolgelley to Harlech

. 375

Dr. Johnson's Visit to Carnarvon Castle

361 Road between Barmouth and Dolgelley

376

Present Appearance of Carnarvon Castle

301 Barmouth

. 376

The Eagle Tower

361 The Road from Barmouth to Harlech

376

The King's and Queen's Gates

362 Harlech Castle

. 376

The Site of Segontium

362 The Town of Harlech

377

Road from Carnarvon to Llanberris

362 Road from Harlech to Maentwrog

. 377

The Vale of Llanberris

362 Cader Idris

377

The Village of Llanberris

362 Tal-y-Llyn Village and Lake

• 377

The Neighbourhood of Llanberris

. 363 Mallwyd.

377

Dolbadern Castle

363 Picturesque Places in the Neighbourhood of Mallwyd . 378

Connant Mawr

363 The Country between Mallwyd and Shrewsbury 378

The Pass of Llanberris

363 Shrewsbury

The Ascent to Snowdon from Dolbadern

364 Peculiar Character of the People of Wales

379

View from Yr Wyddfa

364 Sir Thomas Phillips's Observations on the Welsh Lan-

Clawdd Coch

. 364

guage

380

The Meaning of the Term Snowdonia

364 Disadvantages arising from the Prevalence of the Welsh

Speed's Mention of Snowdonia

365 Language in Wales

380

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HEVER Castle. “Our writings,” says old Burton, are so many dishes, our readers the guests :" wherefore, as he very reason- Kent is a beautiful county, and one full of all kinds ably lucubrates, it is only becoming that we should of interest. Few counties can display so ample a endeavour to have them in some measure suitable to variety of pleasing scenery, and few possess more the time and the occasion. For this winter season, a objects that will repay the examination of the curious culling from the old Baronial mansions of England, tourist. In old baronial and manorial residences it is seems a not unseasonable dish to set before our friendly especially rich ; and they, with the fine parks that guests, the readers of “The Land We Live in.' generally appertain to them, contribute in no small Those stately halls are beyond almost every object measure to the beauty and interest of the county. From provocative of recollections of that large and hearty them we select a few that have more than the ordinary Christmas hospitality which was so eminently charac- amount of historical or other value, and that may teristic of England in the olden time. The very shadow serve at the same time as examples of the several kinds of it has filed away long since ; but even to recal to our of structures that are characteristic of ancient baronial memory that such things were, is neither without profit domestic architecture. nor pleasure.

We may begin with the rudest-looking and oldest. Yet in truth it needs no apology of the season for in- Hever Castle is a tolerably perfect example of a casteltroducing such a subject in our work. We should have lated mansion of the earliest date. Though called a a very incomplete series of sketches of our noble land, castle, that is an improper designation : it retains in either pictorial or literary, if we had none of those old part the form and character of a castle, but it was mansions which form so noticeable a feature in it. Nor erected in an age when comfort as well as security was is the subject merely an ornamental one: a history of sought after ; when, though it was deemed needful to our chief country mansions would form a theme of rich build so as to be secure from a sudden attack, defence and various interest. Even to trace the history of some was no longer the first thing thought of and provided one at sufficient length, and in a genial spirit, would for. During the sway of the Norman monarchs, castles afford abundant information as well as amusement : were raised all over the land. It is affirmed that above the weather-beaten walls, and the dusty family records, eleven hundred were erected in England, in the reign would alike furnish matter which the wand of fancy of Stephen. In the strong language of the "Saxon might transform into vivid and speaking realities. The Chronicle,' “Every rich man built his castles and dedifferent parts of the building would recal and illustrate fended them, and they filled the land full of castles. the varying phases of public and domestic life: the And they greatly oppressed the wretched people, by embattled towers would tell of those ruder times when making them work at these castles ; and when the the feudal chief might have to call around him his re- castles were finished, they filled them with devils and tainers and tenants, and prepare against the approach evil men.” Henry II., however, put a stop to the of some hostile band; the huge halls and capacious mischief by making it unlawful to erect a castle without kitchens of ancient state and hospitality; the graceful the Royal licence—which he but seldom granted. bay-windows of the growth of elegance and security ; The Norman castle was a large and enormously strong while all would display the progress of architectural building. The walls, which were of immense thickness, skill and taste. How distinctly, too, would the apart. were surmounted with battlements, and usually further ments and their garniture record the shifting habits of fortified by small projecting towers or bastions. Where social life-changing slowly and almost imperceptibly the nature of the ground did not render the approach from year to year, but showing so vast a difference nearly inaccessible, a moat encompassed the walls, and between the present time and that when the foundations across it was thrown a drawbridge. The entrance of the house were laid, it may be some four or five cen- gateway was flanked by towers : there were several thick turies ago! And then in the fortunes of its owners, doors ; and portcullises were fitted into grooves, so as to often the mighty, the famous, the unhappy-how im- be easily dropped in case of surprisal, and to prevent the pressive a story might be read! To most who visit danger which might arise from the application of fire. these ancient halls some such thoughts occur; and some There was also near the centre of the castle a great keep, such history of them might, without extraordinary to which the garrison might retreat if the castle itself labour, be written. Of course that cannot be attempted should be forced. No more efficient stronghold than here. We are to look lightly over two or three of these the Norman castle could well have been contrived for old buildings which lie at a few miles distance from withstanding the assaults of an army in the then state each other, and in one county: and whilst strolling of warfare: but it made at best but a gloomy and unthrough the rooms we shall, without much regard to comfortable abode, - every external aperture was of order, speak of such matters as we meet with, or as the the smallest size, the rooms were confined and inconobjects we see may recal to the memory.

venient, the whole wore a stern and forbidding air. It XVII.-Vol. III.

B

was not, however, till the splendid victories of Edward genial billets,”) were addressed to her here, and her III, had ensured peace and safety in the land, that the answers are dated from hence; and hither that “inteEnglish nobility thought of erecting for themselves resting admirer” used often to come whilst she was dwellings of a more homely character. It was in the in patient waiting for the nuptial tie." reign of Edward III, that domestic architecture may Poor Anne! hers was indeed a hard lot. The sorbe said to have arisen in England; but even then, as row and wrong she had brought upon another were has been mentioned, although comfort and elegance with fearful interest returned into her own bosom. were sought after, security was not neglected. The Hardly is the lofty eminence she had so long panted result was the construction of that class of buildings for attained, ere clouds gather around, and she sees which has received the name of castellated mansions. darkness and danger on every hand. The "interesting

Hever Castle is of this kind, and of this date. Wil- admirer” is changed into a brutal tyrant; in place of liam de Hever, lord of the manor, obtained a license of love and hope, come alienation and misery. Then Edward III. to erect his manor house at Hever, more follows that hideous mockery of a trial, where the castelli,' with towers, battlements, and machicolations; womanly ear is outraged by every insult which the and in virtue of this grant he built the castle we are depraved imaginations of coarse old men can, at the now to examine. Hever Castle does not remain as it bidding of a reckless master, shape out of the vile tales was originally erected ; alterations, additions, and mo- of shameless attendants : and then that graceful form dernizations have been made at different times, but in is, without trace of compassion, consigned to the bloodits general form and character it is pretty much as he stained hands of the common executioner. But her left it.

husband was not her only-hardly her worst---persecutor. It is situated about three miles south-east of the Even in the grave she has not been suffered to rest at Edenbridge station of the South-Eastern Railway. peace. Her miserable doom has failed to excite a merThere is a pleasant walk to it from the village of Eden- ciful consideration of her failings. It has been her fate bridge, along by-lanes and field-paths. Little is seen to be the object of more and angrier controversy, and more of the castle till you come close upon it, owing to its bitter vituperation, than ever was any other Englishlying in so low a spot. The site was chosen, no doubt, woman,-except her daughter. Down to our own day from its proximity to the river Eden, affording so much she has been subjected to the grossest accusations which facility for surrounding the building by a moat. When even theological rancour could inspire; and only in the fairly seen the appearance of the castle is rather striking, case of her daughter, where to theological rancour as well as picturesque. (Cut No. 1.) The building is national enmity is superadded, has the persecution been quadrangular, enclosing a court-yard. The place of the as long continued and as unrelenting. original draw-bridge is supplied by a fixed wooden one; Hever Castle was purchased by William Bullen, the but the moat remains undrained. The principal front, great-grandfather of Anne. He was a wealthy silkwhich presents itself to the view on approaching the castle, mercer in London, -of which city he was, in 1459, is the fortified part. It consists of a large and lofty gate- elected lord-mayor: but the Bullens (for so they spelled house, flanked by two square towers. It is built of their name) were an ancient and honourable Norfolk stone, and is evidently of great strength, answering in family. Upon the death of the father of Anne Boleyn some measure to the keep of the Norman castle. As “ without male issue,” the manor accrued to the crown. this was the only entrance to the castle, the architect After his divorce from Anne of Cleves, Henry granted has expended upon its defences all his skill. Over the Hever Castle and manor to her for life, or as long as gateway impend bold machicolations from which missiles she should remain in England : and in Hever Castle might be poured on the heads of assailants. The wers were spent the remaining days of that most fortunate are pierced with oilets and loop-holes, through which of the tyrant's unhappy wives. She died here in 1556, arrows might be discharged, without chance of reprisal. after a quiet sojourn of sixteen years. Sbortly after Three stout gates and as many portcullises are arranged her death the estate was sold by Royal commission. It one behind the other, within the gateway. In the gate- has since passed through many hands; but nothing of house are guard-rooms: the chambers above were pro- interest has occurred in connection with it. It is now vided with furnaces for melting lead and pitch ; and all the property of a family named Medley. Hever Castle other defensive appliances were carefully provided. has become a farm-house. The strength of the castle, however, does not appear The gate-house by which you enter is the original to have been tested. It owes its celebrity to other than stronghold. It is in capital preservation, and retains warlike recollections. It has been the abode of two to a great degree its primitive appearance. The only of the many wives of Henry VIII. It was the birth- alteration of any consequence is the insertion of some place and the residence of Anne Boleyn ; and here it windows of Tudor date. On the front is some rather was that she dwelt a part of the tedious six years, elegant tracery; but as you enter the gateway, the during which, to borrow the words of Mr. Sharon bold impending machicolations and triple portcullises, Turner, she patiently listened, " to the solicitations and render it a sufficiently formidable-looking structure. aspirations of a Royal and interesting admirer.” Seve. The rooms inside this building are also in tolerable ral of this “interesting admirer's " still-existing love- preservation. The principal is the great hall, the oriletters (or as Mr. Turner prefers to call them, con- ginal state-room of the castle: this is a noble apart

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