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Lion, seems to have caught the drift of more accurately than - for of the question. .8.) In the centre of the market-place of Brixham stands e of a monument, in which is fixed a block of stone, with
him this inscription engraven on it: "On this stone, and nsti- near this spot, William, Prince of Orange, first set foot ures, on landing in England, 5th of November, 1688." th of When William IV. visited Brixham, the inhabitants wel presented him with a small fragment of this stone and enclosed in a box of heart of oak.
As The fleet which brought William to England was not aliam the last that has lain at Torbay. In the following year ation the French fleet, after having defeated the combined
nce's English and Dutch squadron, sailed into Torbay, and Thile lay there for several days. The fleet of Earl St. Vinitary cent made Torbay a principal station. The Belleup to rophon, with Bonaparte on board of it, was anchored be of off Brixham for some time. The fallen Emperor is now, said to have gazed over the bay with undisguised -s he admiration : "What a beautiful country! how much it arnet resembles Porto Ferrajo in Elba !" was his exclamation.
AND THE CLOTHING DISTRICT.
There is no county in England which presents more on the east and north of this line, comprising more diverse features in its different parts than Yorkshire- than three-fourths of the entire West Riding, is almost the huge, wide-spreading Yorkshire. And yet these as wholly agricultural as the North and East Ridings differences have been brought about more by man's themselves. Busy then, indeed, must be the remainbusy doings, than by the physical structure of the ing one-fourth ; and busy it is. Busy, too, in modes county: or rather, certain diversities being established of industry so entirely distinct, that we must ask the by Nature in her geological developments, man has reader to follow us even to a further division. We given a more and more marked character to these must draw an imaginary line, which shall cut off the diversities by his steam-engines, his looms, bis spinning southern portion of this nook of the county; this machines, and his mining operations.
southern portion contains the coal and iron of PeniBeginning at York, and following the meanderings stone, Silkstone, Rotherham, and Sheffield, but has of the Derwent, from the vicinity of that ancient city hardly a spindle or a loom throughout its whole exto the vicinity of Scarborough, we have a line of tent; whereas the remainder, though possessing much demarcation through a portion of the county. Begin- coal and some iron, is, par excellence, the CLOTHING ning again at York, and following the Ouse until it District. empties itself into the Humber, we have a second Thus, step by step, we bring our attention to centre irregular line. Starting a third time from the same in one particular part of Yorkshire. If the reader point, and proceeding north-west to the boundary of will take his map, and trace four lines—from Barnsley Westmorland, partly along the upper valley of the to Leeds, Leeds to Skipton, Skipton to Rochdale, and Ouse, and partly along the ridge of a chain of moun- Rochdale to Barnsley — he will enclose an irregular tains, we have a third line of separation. Yorkshire quadrangle, which constitutes the clothing district : is by these lines parted off into three portions, or excluding very few of the clothing villages, and Ridings ; and these three Ridings differ considerably including very few villages which are not of that one from another. If our present concern were with character. Three or four centres of active operation the county generally, we should have to point out the are found within this quadrangle: such as Bradford, main features of difference between the East and the Halifax, Huddersfield, and Dewsbury - each having North Ridings; but it suffices for us to show that around it a group of villages, which look to it as a the West Riding differs strikingly from both. A steam- market for the sale of their manufactured produce. engine is a rarity in the East and North : in the West Whether they be hills or valleys where these villages its puffing, panting movements are familiar enough. lie, still the villages themselves are occupied mainly In the East and North the streams, if they do any by clothiers. The towns and larger villages are, howa work at all, exhibit it in the navigation of barges, and cver, all on the banks of the rivers flowing through in turning corn-mills : in the West, the streams are valleys :-thus, Skipton, Keighley, Bingley, and Leeds busy coadjutors in the making and finishing of cloth. are in the valley of the Aire ; Bradford is in a valley, In the East and North, the chief towns (excepting springing from this at right angles; Halifax is in a Hull) derive most of their commercial importance from hollow, surrounded by high ground; Huddersfield is being centres of agricultural districts : in the West, in the valley of the Colne, near the confluence of many there are a dozen towns which all but rank with the minor streams; and lastly, Dewsbury is in the valley Manchesters and Birminghams. In the East and of the Calder. North, the villages are almost wholly agricultural: in When we call this the Clothing District, it is desirathe West there is hardly a village where the spindle ble to know how that term is applied. Long before and the shuttle are not busily plied. In the East and cotton or silk formed any notable proportion of English North, the people grow the food which they eat : in dress, woollen garments were largely made in Yorkthe West they are too busy and too many to do so- shire and in the West of England; and those two they apply to their neighbours of Lincolnshire. In the portions of England became generally known as the East and North there are only four inhabitants to Clothing Districts. Various circumstances have led twenty acres: in the West there are fifteen. In the to the decline of manufactures in the West, and their East and North, there is only one house to twenty- extension in the North ; so that the latter is now more four acres : in the West there are six.
peculiarly the possessor of this appellation. Even And even this West Riding itself is anything but here, however, the trade is not distributed indiscrimiuniform in its features. If we trace a curved line from nately over the district : it groups itself around certain Rotherham, through Leeds, to Skipton, all the portion centres. Thus, the wool-dealer, the cloth-manufacturer,