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a sprinkling of private residences, with country farms. een Then we come to the turnpike-road, towards Halifax "The and Birstall, with Farnley Wood lying between them. abit- South of Leeds lies Holbeck, now so closely connected r to with the town, that there is no visible division between tary them, except that furnished by the river Aire. Beyond aries Holbeck, in the same direction, lieg Beeston; and in mits and around the intervening district are many private med residences and pleasant fields. Beginning now to bend ugh. to the south-east of Leeds, and crossing the North nges Midland Railway, we come first to Hunslet

, almost as may much incorporated with the great town as Holbeck.

It But here we notice a remarkable feature, which has the been before adverted to, and which will again come oley, under our observation further on, that eastward of


ing. Leeds scarcely a trace of a clothing village can be seen : ding the roads to Wakefield, to Pontefract, to Selby, all hare rest, farm-houses and private residences in their vicinity

, -in / but not such a knot of busy little suburbs as those

hitherto named. Crossing the Leeds and Selby Railcted way, and approaching the division north-east of Leeds, om- we find Sheepscar, Gledhow Wood and Quarry, and a

the number of farms near the road to York and Tadcaster. and Lastly, on the north, following the line of road to eds Harrogate and its vicinity, we find Woodhouse, Potter ave Newton, and Chapel Allerton, interspersed, like the se others, with mansions, parks, and farms. Cew

It must be admitted that there are very few fine

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ing prospects to be obtained among this belt of townships

it, and villages ; the hills are neither numerous enough ey, nor picturesque enough to form a good background to ds, the scene. But where the man of commerce is basy, bad / the man of landscapes must not be disappointed if the est materials at his disposal are somewhat scanty. There the / can be no mistake as to the character of Leeds as a igh / town, in whatever direction it may be approached : the there is a dark and sooty tell-tale hovering over it,

which speaks of factories and steam-engines and chia

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pey neys among the mass of houses beneath. Whatever een we may say of its environs, most certain it is that Leeds ge, cannot lay claim to the character of a picturesque tome. pen Situated on the banks of the river Aire, it presents ods, / two different aspects, according to the point of vier. ttle / On the one side of the river it lies on a slope of conighsiderable acclivity, underlaid by a series of col. hal, measures; while on the other side, constituting the ous districts or townships of Hunslet and Holbeck, is un 5 of / extensive flat, traversed by the Hunslet and Holberi cek / brooks. The river Aire and its wharfs furnish us with in

the scene given in Cut, No. 2.

The general arrangement of the streets and allers i
me the older parts of the town is pretty much the same as
ich / in all old towns : narrowness and crookedness are po
che / vailing features. The main artery from north to south




ey, however, called the Briggate, is of considerable width: es arising, as it is said, from the old custom of harin: he gardens in front of the houses in this street

, the remoru in / of which gardens has had the effect of giving a respect

able amplitude to the Briggate. The streets anarz
cently formed have the modern property of being i


66 mad

i no

somewhat wider and straighter than their older neigh- appearance in the front of the street; there are to be no bours; perhaps, also, more plain and monotonous and cellar-dwellings or kitchens without sunken areas before spiritless. The eastern division of the town is inter- them; the level of the ground-floor of every new house sected by a small stream, called the Addle Beck, which is to be at least six inches above the level of the road“ hardly knows itself,” so much is it encumbered by way; no room in any new house is to be less than weirs, bridges of limited openings, and buildings hem- eight feet high, or seven feet and a half if it be at the ming it in on both sides ; dye-houses and manufacto- top of the house ; there is to be only one story in the ries are arranged along its margin in great number; roof; all chimneys above six feet high are to be and the unwelcome contributions which it receives secured as a corporate surveyor may direct; from these and from the house-drainage, convert it dogs” and “stray animals” are provided for in the into-anything but a silvery stream, or a purling brook. customary way; all forgemen are to shut out the view It is in the immediate vicinity of this Addle Beck that of their forge-fires from the open street at half an hour a vast mass of the working population are located after sunset; all street drunkards are to be amerced in But the worst parts of the town are close squares of the well-understood “five shillings;" all street musihouses, or "yards," as they are called, which are very cians are to "move on" when requested, and if any numerous in Leeds. These airless, cheerless, dirty, “ shall sound or play upon any musical instrument, or ill-drained, neglected receptacles for human beings, are sing in any street near any house after being so required fit companions for the wynds of Glasgow and the cellar- to depart," he forth with becomes an offender against dwellings of Liverpool: they are the dark spots on the her Majesty's peace ; if any warehouseman hoist goods social pictures of our great towns-spots which it will without proper tackle, the police will tackle him require an immense amount of municipal exertion to windmill is to be built or worked within eighty yards wash clean.

of an inhabited street; no animals are to be sold, or Leeds, like most other great towns, has striven within dogs allowed to fight, or drivers to ride on the shafts the last few years to cleanse, and enlighten, and im- of vehicles, or timbers to be drawn without wheels, or prove itself in various ways. Sanitarian ideas have furniture or goods to be left on the footpath, or goods travelled thither as well as elsewhere. In 1842, an to be hung out from the fronts of houses, in the streets ; Act for the improvement of the town was passed; and no horns are to be blown, or fireworks discharged, or among the provisions of the Act was one for widening bells or knockers wantonly appealed to, or kites to be Leeds Bridge and the approaches thereto. Bishopgate flown, or hoops to be trundled, or tubs to be washed, bridge, also, over the King's Mills Goit, is to be or wood to be sawn, or lime to be sifted, or carpets to widened as well as the streets leading to it. Arrange- be shaken ("except door-mats, before the hour of eight ments were sanctioned by the Act, having for their in the morning”), or rubbish to be “shot”-in the open object the abolition of all tolls over the bridges at streets; neither are the inhabitants to be allowed to Leeds. Then follows a string of clauses so numerous place flower-pots unprotected on window-sills, to "stick and multifarious that one is prone to speculate whether bills" on houses or fences, to leave area and cellartoo much may not hare been attempted. Certain it is, doors insufficiently fastened, to have pig-styes visible that if all the provisions of the Act were carried out, from the street, or to burn anything offensive to the Leeds ought to become a most cleanly, orderly, decorous, olfactory organs of the Queen's loyal subjects ; no and well-behaved town-a pattern of brightness and cookshop is to have internal communication with a goodness to all its neighbours. The reader shall judge public-honse; all unlicensed theatres and all gamingfor himself:-The streets are to be better lighted than houses are amenable to forcible police-entry; the they have yet been; they are to be paved and flagged, " fighting or baiting of lions, bears, badgers, cocks, levelled and straightened, sewered and drained ; no new dogs, or other animals,” is a fineable offence; the house is to be built until the site is drained; every Town Council are empowered to build a town-hall and existing ill-drained house is to be properly drained ; corporate buildings, to improve places of public resort, the lower floor of rebuilt houses is to be raised for the and to provide premises for the drying of washed convenience of draining beneath ; no new streets are to clothes; all furnaces are to consume their own smoke; be formed of less than a certain width ; all the streets the town is to provide “humane apparatus” for appaare to be named, and all the houses numbered ; all pro- rently drowned persons, public clocks for the streets jecting sign-posts and boards—those pleasant old relics of and buildings, fire-engines and firemen; gas-works street-architecture in past times-are to be removed in must not contaminate running streams; new marketthese our genteel days; all doors, gates, and bars shall places are to be provided with public weights, meabe made to open inwards (a significant indication of sures, and weighing-houses ; and hackney-coaches are what had previously been a frequent custom); ruinous to be licensed. or dangerous houses are to be pulled down by the cor- Now, if the reader has had patience to follow out poration, if the owners are tardy in so doing; no roofs this enumeration, he will probably opine that the Town are to be covered with wood or thatch ; all projecting Council has cut out sufficient work for itself, if it houses, when rebuilt, are to be thrown back to the intend to put in force such a multifarious code of local general level of the line of houses, and all back-lying laws as those here grouped together. Nobody is to do or recessed houses are to be encouraged to make their anything, until somebody else permits. Leeds ought to

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be a nice and dainty town, polished off in all its fea- | Ichthyopolium (a very learned name for a fish-market),
tures; and if it does not become so, it is not for want which, notwithstanding its great distance from the sea,
of plenty of words in the three hundred and ninety- is weekly twice or thrice, if not oftener, plentifully
two clauses of this Act. However, unless the Act be furnished with great variety of fish-though short, I
an empty sound (which we are not in any way entitled confess, of Preston in Amounderness, where the fish-
to suppose), every year ought to see some improvement toll, at one penny a horse-load, and fourpence a cart,
in the general condition of the town.

has sometimes amounted to six shillings a day, as I
am informed by a neighbouring justice of the peace.

A little above this is the Moot Hall, in the front

of the Middle Row, on one side of which is one of The map of Leeds presents to us a town, in which, the best-furnished flesh-shambles in the north of Engafter crossing the main bridge, there is one street, the land ; on the other, the Wool Market for broad cloth, Briggate, before mentioned, of unusual width, running which is the All-in-All. From the Cross, which is nearly north and south; two or three other north and well stocked with poultry and other appurtenances, to south avenues, such as Vicar Lane, Albion Street, and the New Street, is the Corn Market, which is very Park Row; a few ancient thoroughfares running some- considerable.” Thoresby mentions one or two other what east and west, and bearing the names of Head markets, as a proof of the ample supply of necessaries Row, Kirkgate, Boar Lane, Swine Gate, and the Calls; and comforts afforded to the Leeds inhabitants; and an unaccountable number of small streets, lanes, and he then expresses an admonitory hope “that as the alleys, turning out of these in every direction; and new inhabitants have fulness of bread, they may ever beware streets, of somewhat straighter character, bounding of that pride and abundance of idleness that do frethese older ones on all sides.

quently accompany it. May the richer sort strengthen Everything indicates that Briggate (which in our steel the hand of the poor and needy; and they, in a grateplate is shown as seen from the Bridge) is the street ful return, be painful and laborious; and may the of the town—the heart and centre of the whole. The middle sort demean themselves with that sobriety and account given by Thoresby of the Briggate, at the time temperance, that there may be no more occasion to he wrote (about 1726), is curious :-" In this spacious repeat what a grave and pious divine said was the street, which from the bridge at the foot of it is called country's observation : 'that the generality of that Bridge-Gate (or, in our northern dialect, which retains sort, in a time of trade and plenty, carry it out in much of the Saxon, Briggate), stood many of the ancient such an extravagant manner, as leaves nothing against borough houses, which to this day pay certain bur- a time of dearth and scarcity, wherein they find as gage rent to the lords of the manor of Leeds. The little pity as formerly they paid respect to others.'" famous Cloth Market, the life, not only of the town, This homely sermon would not be without its value but of these parts of England, is held in this street, sub in other times than those in which Thoresby wrote. dio, twice every week, viz., upon Tuesdays and Satur- The • Middle Row,' mentioned in the above passage, days, early in the mornings. The Brig-end Shots'

excrescence such as Edinburgh once had have made as great a noise amongst the vulgar, where in her “Tolbooth,' and such as London still has in the clothier may, together with his pot of ale, have a the midst of Holborn. In that portion of Briggate

noggin o' poyrage,' and a trencher of either boyl’d or which extends from Kirkgate nearly to the Corn roast meat for twopence, as the market itself amongst | Exchange, this Middle Row stood till 1822 ; but at the more judicious, where several thousand pounds that date the inhabitants of Leeds, thinking very proworth of broad cloth are bought, and, generally speak- perly that the time had come for its removal, obtained ing, paid for (except the water-lengths, which cannot an Act of Parliament, and collected the necessary funds then be determined) in a few hours' time; and this with for the removal of Middle Row. As the pigs and so profound a silence as is surprizing to strangers, who vegetables, and cows, and pots, and pans, and fish, from the adjoining galleries, &c., can hear no more were disturbed by this arrangement, a new market, noise than the lowly murmurs of the merchant upon

the called the “Free Market,' was built for their accommoExchange of London. After the signal is given by dation, a little way to the east of the Briggate. The the bell at the old chapel by the bridge, the cloth and Cloth Market was removed from the Briggate many benches are removed; so that the street is at liberty for the market-people of other professions, -as the Mr. Kohl-whose rapid glances at English life show country linendrapers, shoe-makers, hard-ware men, and a singular compound of shrewd observation and hasty the sellers of wood vessels, wicker baskets, rushed inference - gives Leeds a character which will be chairs, flakes, &c. Fruit of all sorts are brought in so deemed by its indwellers anything but favourable. He vast quantities, that Halifax, and other considerable mar- says: “England's manufacturing towns in general are kets, are frequently supplied from hence : the mayor's by no means its most ornamental features; but among officers have number'd five hundred loads of apples them all, Leeds is the very farthest from any such only, on one day.” Carrying his attention further up pretension, being, I verily believe, the most disagreethe same wide avenue, away from the river, he con- able place in the land. Other similar towns, as Birtinues :-"Above the market for the milk cows is the mingham, Manchester, &c., have at least, among the



years before.

mass of chimneys, factories, and paltry houses of the matters not now determinable. In 1089, Baron Paganel labourers, here and there a news-room, a club, an founded a Benedictine Priory at York, and among the Exchange, a bank, a railway-station, a statue in honour estates or property given to it were the “ Church of of Wellington or Nelson ; but at Leeds there is hardly St. Peter, at Leeds," and the “Chapel at Holbeck," anything of the kind. The inns, too, are worse than which Holbeck is now one of the busy suburbs of in any other town in England. In the one to which Leeds; so that we have a clear record of the history I had been recommended as the best, I found the of these places seven centuries and a half ago. The accommodation very indifferent. The coffee-room was revenues of the church were divided, one-third for the always crowded with travellers, young or old, whose vicar, and two-thirds for the priory ; " by which means business at this emporium of woollen was either to buy the church was deprived of two parts in three of its or sell wool, yarn, cloth, blankets, plain worsted goods, primitive revenues, by the avarice and sacrilege of the white cloths, mixed yarn, flushing linen, or some monks, who, in the conclusion, left the secular clergy similar matters; and who were as busy as bees, noting to feed upon the crumbs that fell from the regulars' down their pounds, yards, and hundred-weights." table, till the Bishops made a stand against the growing

A very decided judgment this, expressed in a very evil." In 1242, at the instance of one of the Bishops, few words. But we might venture in all good faith to a formal agreement was made between the Prior and ask the German traveller, how many days he remained the Vicar, respecting the partition of the revenues; but in Leeds, and what kind of weather greeted him during this did not obviate the necessity for a further arrangehis sojourn there ?—for this latter particular has a woeful ment in the next following century. effect on the colouring of the written pictures given by Thoresby was able to search out a complete list of travellers. True it is (and the more rapidly the men the Vicars of Leeds, from 1242 to 1715, with the dates of Leeds carry out their contemplated improvements, at which they assumed the clerical duties of the town; the better for the reputation of their town) that Leeds and he has something to say concerning most of them. has few beauties to gladden the eye of a stranger; but When Edward I., impoverished by his French wars, Mr. Kohl jumped to his conclusion respecting the inns made a demand for one-half of the revenues of all the with a precipitancy scarcely worthy of his credit as an clergy, and, moreover, compelled them to call it a "free intelligent traveller. He puts up at an inn; he finds gift," the Vicar of Leeds occupied a notable place by the coffee-room occupied by men busily interested in the promptness of his contribution, and the consequent the staple manufacture of the town; he experienced a favours granted by the king. In 1311, the Countess few uncomfortables which he does not explain to us ; of Lincoln gave up to the priory the advowson of the and forthwith he arrives at the startling proposition church at Leeds, which she seems to have held as a that “the inns are worse than in any other town in great landed proprietor in that neighbourhood. In England." This is on a par with the elder Mathews's | 1453, William Scot gave a site for a house and garden entry in Jonathan's note-book, that "in England, all for the Vicar's manse : this site was bounded by the waiters are called “ Tidy!'”

Kirkgate on the south, and by the street now called
Vicar's-lane on the west. William Eyre, who occupied

the vicarage in 1470, founded the charity of St. Mary OLD Sr. Peter's, AND ITS History.

Magdalen, at Leeds. In describing such buildings of the town as present The Priory of Benedictines at York, before menany notable features, we will begin with the churches, tioned, having been suppressed by Henry VIII. in on account of the long and interesting history connected 1538, the vicarage of Leeds was given to Christ Church with St. Peter's, the mother church of Leeds. The College, at Oxford, in reference (we presume) to certain history of this church is, in effect, an ecclesiastical revenues accruing from it; for the advowson was prehistory of the town; while the modern changes, in part sented to one Thomas Culpeper. This advowson passed introduced by the present vicar, Dr. Hook, have also from hand to hand, by purchase and sale, until, in the their points of interest. Among the most remarkable reign of Elizabeth, it was purchased by the parishioners. of our local historians is Ralph Thoresby, who, in the Nineteen of the Vicars of Leeds had been instituted by beginning of the last century, wrote Vicaria Leodiensis, the Priors at York; but Queen Elizabeth, designing to or 'A History of the Church at Leeds. This pur- complete the Reformation, appointed Royal Commisports to be a record of all the information which has sioners to visit all the churches, with a view to regulate been handed down, respecting the ecclesiastical history all theological matters. Leeds was among the number; of Leeds, from the first establishment of a church in and there is a curious document in existence, being an the town; together with memoirs of the successive Agreement between the Commissioners and the then vicars.

Vicar, Alexander Fassett, respecting the mode of conThoresby thinks it probable that there was a manse ducting the service. One of the injunctions was, that the and church here during the Saxon Heptarchy; but it sacramental bread should be round and plain, without is at any rate clear that the Normans found a church at any figure on it, but somewhat broader and thicker this place, when the preparatory enquiries for Domesday than the cakes formerly prepared for the Mass, to be Book were made. By whom the Church was founded, broken into two or more pieces. There is an entry in or of what description the fabric might have been, are the accounts of the parish soon afterwards, for “ Two

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