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it was opened to the public, and presented in great tude sang the 'Fine Old English Gentleman before form to the corporation of the town, as trustees on the the house of the generous donor. On the next day part of the inhabitants. The record of the proceedings the artizans generally, to the number of six or eight of the day is very interesting. It was a general holiday thousand, celebrated the gift; while the third day was in the town, and the corporate officers met in council. a 'juvenile' day, when all the little folks of the town Mr. Strutt addressed the council at some length; and were permitted to have their share in the pleasant spoke of the increase in the trade and population of doings. Pleasant doings, indeed, they must have the town--its position as a central railway town-the been — the offspring of right hearty feeling, rightly spread of information and intelligence among the people applied. -and the deficiency of healthy play-grounds and walks The Arboretum thus presented to the townsmen of around the town; he stated that he had purchased Derby cost Mr. Strutt upwards of £10,000. The eleven acres of land on the south side of the town, trustees have lately purchased several more acres of which he had caused to be laid out with paths and land, and added to its size. It lies on the Osmaston walks, and planted with trees and shrubs, for the use road, southward of the town. At the entrance is a of the inhabitants; he explained the manner in which neat lodge, with gates, and in the lodge is a room he proposed the corporation should manage the Arbo- for the temporary reception of visitors, where a 'sugretum, in respect to hours of admission, guardianship, gestion-book,' or visitors' remark-book,' is kept: the &c. ; and detailed the nature of his arrangements for idea is a liberal one; but a glance through the book supplying and stocking the grounds. He then made shows that the visitors' 'suggestions,' or remarks,' the following graceful and well-timed observations :- are very seldom of much value. Immediately within " It has often been made a reproach to our country, that, the gates is a fine broad straight gravelled path, five in England, collections of works of art, and exhibitions or six hundred feet in length; and from this smaller for instruction and amusement, cannot, without danger | winding paths branch out to the right and left. Mr. of injury, be thrown open to the public. If any ground Loudon, having an eye to the picturesque diversity for such a reproach still remains, I am convinced that of landscape-gardening, did not allow the ground to it can be removed only by greater liberality in admit- | maintain its former level untouched, but formed pleating the people to such establishments ; by thus teach- sant hillocks or mounds, around which the smaller ing them that they are themselves the parties most paths bend. Grassy plots occupy for the most part deeply interested in their preservation, and that it must the spaces between the paths; but there are numerous be the interest of the public to protect that which is circular and oval beds, planted with shrubs. The intended for the public advantage. If we wish to gravelled walks exceed, in the whole, a mile in length ; obtain the affection of others, we must manifest kind- and at intervals, where favourable spots occur, seats ness and regard towards them; if we seek to wean or benches, and little arbours or summer-houses, are them from debasing pursuits and brutalizing pleasures, placed. In order that the arrangement of the grounds we can only hope to do so by opening to them new
be at once instructive and pleasurable, Mr. Loudon sources of rational enjoyment. It is under this con- caused small tablets to be prepared and fixed near viction that I dedicate these gardens to the public; each tree or botanical specimen ; each tablet consists and I will only add, that as the sun has shone brightly of a brick support, in which is imbedded a small porceon me through life, it would be ungrateful in me not lain slab, containing an inscription; this inscription, to employ a portion of the fortune which I possess in in most cases, gives the number of the tree (as referred promoting the welfare of those among whom I live, to in a catalogue), the Latin or scientific name, the and by whose industry I have been aided in its acqui- English name, the country in which it principally grows, sition."
the date of its introduction into England, the height The indoor ceremonies of the day terminated by the when full-grown, and other particulars. At various presentation by Mr. Strutt to the corporation of the parts of the grounds boards are placed, on which are deeds of settlement and other documents relating to inscriptions indicative of the same kindly spirit and the Arboretum. Then commenced the outdoor holiday: good taste observable in all the other arrangements of the whole assemblage, official and non-official, rich and the grounds : “ This Arboretum has been given to the poor, proceeded to the Arboretum, --some as component public for their advantage and enjoyment, and is placed parts of a procession, and the rest as joyous spectators. under their special care and protection. It is hoped, The procession walked through the grounds-volleys therefore, that the public will assist in protecting the of such kind of salutes as gunpowder can give were
trees and shrubs and seats from injury, and in preheard in plenty-cheers, and so forth, formed a much serving the property which is devoted to their use." better kind of volley - and the official personages Long may the donors of such boons live to receive retired. Then began a merry afternoon for the non- the thanks of those benefited thereby ! These traits officials. Tents were erected in the grounds, under of kindness and consideration, between the favourites which dancing-parties assembled; then tea-drinking of fortune and those who occupy a less favoured posisucceeded ; then a printing-press within the grounds tion, are of infinite social service. They ruh off the was employed in printing off copies of Mr. Strutt's asperities of class and party and coterie, and bring Presentation Address; and, lastly, the retiring multi- man and man together in heartiness and friendliness.
to Jedediah Strutt, a prime-mover to fortune ; and the The MANUFACTURING ENVIRONS OF Derby.
descendants of the two hard-working laborious inven. Derbyshire is a county rich in pictorial and histo- tors, are now, perhaps, the wealthiest families in the rical interest. The hills and the caves, the beautiful county, excepting it may be the patrician owners of valleys and rivers, the noble mansions of the Devon- Chatsworth and Haddon. Darwin, in his Botanic shires and the Rutlands, the Peak,' and the imaginary Garden, personifies the Derwent, in lines which were Peverel,' with which Scott has associated it in our quoted in page 167 of our first volume, in connection minds mare all noticed in another part of this volume. with the cotton-factories of Manchester. In the same way as in relation to the two former coun- There are three cotton-factories belonging to the ties, therefore, we shall simply touch upon those few present descendant of Sir Richard Arkwright in and features observable in the environs of Derby, bearing near Cromford, all of which are worked by the stream upon industrial development.
of the Derwent. Above this point the river leads us In the first place, with respect to hosiery, silk, and into the beautiful Matlock and Buxton regions, where cotton manufactures, we find the river Derwent by no picturesque scenery takes the place of productive means an unimportant one: it is an Irwell on a small industry. scale. After passing beyond the town of Derby itself, Lying a little way east of Cromford is another busy we find, at a distance of a couple of miles, the village district, in which coal, iron, stone, and lime, take the of Darley, where is situated a cotton-mill employing place of cotton and hosiery. This spot lies between 700 or 800 persons. Two or three miles further on is the Derwent and the Erewash rivers, and comprises Milford, one of those villages which owe almost all the rich mineral district around the Butterley Ironthey possess to the operations of one establishment.works. Here lies, or rather underlies, the Derbyshire The Messrs. Strutt have a vast factory for the spinning coal-field, interspersed with beds of iron ore; while at and manufacture of cotton, the bleaching and dyeing Crich, and other places in the vicinity, there are of the woven goods, a foundry for the manufacture abundant supplies of limestone to smelt the ore; so of the machinery used in their business, and gas that the means are at hand of making iron with great works for supplying all their buildings : these varied facility. The Butterley Works are conducted on a very operations give employment to more than 1,000 per- large scale; since they are among the very few essons; and the stream of the river Derwent supplies | tablishments in which the whole train of operations the motive-power for the whole of the machinery. are centred under one proprietorship. Not only are Aster another distance of about three miles we arrive the iron ore, the coal, and the lime found and worked at Belper, still more associated with manufactures than on the Company's ground; not only is the iron melted Milford. The Messrs. Strutt have here another vast and formed into pigs, bars, and sheets; but manuestablishment principally for spinning and weaving factures in iron are wrought there to a large extent. cotton, but combining most of the varied features At Codnor and at Riddings, near at hand, are other observable at Milford. This mill, and the surrounding large iron-works; and there are canals and railways scenery, are sketched in Cut, No. 9.
There are two not far distant, to afford an outlet for the valuable other firms which have extensive factories of cotton and goods thus prepared. At Ripley, on the road from silk hosiery and gloves; and the three establishments Ambergate to Butterley, we soon see that we are in together give employment to most of the inhabitants of the vicinity of extensive works; for the inhabitants Belper, the rest being employed in nail-making-an of that town or village are mainly dependent on employment which generally locates itself not far from the works; and the fiery furnaces are not far distant iron-mines. The Church of St. John the Baptist, from the town itself. These furnaces are elevated erected in 1824, is rather an elegant specimen of the some forty or fifty feet from the ground; and at a decorated style. Again advancing northward along the level nearly equal with their tops commences an Derwent, to a spot about as far distant from Belper as embankment, with a railway along it.
This em Belper is from Derby, we come to Cromford—one of bankment extends to the coal and iron-mines of the the most notable spots in connection with the history Company, so that the ore and coal can be thrown into of the cotton manufacture, Cromford was a place the furnaces at once from the pits. Vast ranges of coke of small importance till the time of Sir Richard Ark
ovens occupy portions of the space : the coke being wright. He purchased the manor of Cromford, and in part for the Company's own use, in part for sale erected there, in 1771, the first cotton-factory-the first to railway companies and others. The two establishfactory whose arrangements embodied the completeness ments at Butterley and Codnor-nearly three miles which distinguishes machine labour from hand labour. apart—belong to the same Company; a railway extends The Derwent was then the moving power, and after an along the Company's ground from one to the other ; interval of seve
eventy-eight years, it still continues to and iron mines and coal mines are dotted over this
Improvements have been introduced and en- large space. At the Butterley Works were made the largements made; but the spot whence Arkwright castings for Vauxhall Bridge, and for many other first astonished the world by his cotton - spinning structures of similar importance ; so that these works machinery still remains as a memento of that remark- are among the most interesting of the kind in England. able man. The Derwent was to Arkwright what it was The Company, too, have made admirable arrangements
for the welfare of their work people, in respect to dwel- here state, in illustration of the purposes of a silk-mill, lings, schools, savings banks, &c.-one among many that raw silk, as brought to England from India, Benhonourable examples of the kind.
gal, China, and other countries, consists of a continuous In a coal-pit near Alfreton, belonging to Mr. Oakes, thread, formed from about twenty of the delicate filaof Riddings, a valuable spring of a mineral oil, like ments wrought by the silkworm ; while thrown silk is naphtha, has recently made its appearance. The this continuous thread spun and twisted into a state of quantity varies, according to the fall of the roof of sufficient hardness for the purposes of the weaver. coal, from 150 to 30 gallons daily.
The winding or reeling of silk, by which twenty or It is principally to the north, north-west, and north- more filaments are combined into one thread, is simply east of Derby, and within ten or a dozen miles, that we a cottage occupation, carried on by the peasantry; but are to look for towns and villages which partake of a the throwing, or spinning into yarn, requires more manufacturing character. More southward, approach- complex apparatus, and partakes more of a factory ing the confines of Leicestershire, the villages partake character. This being understood, the narrative is as partly of agricultural and partly of hosiery industry. follows: They are interspersed among gentlemen's seats ; Castle At the beginning of the last century, all the silk Embaston, the seat of the Earl of Harrington, near woven in England was imported in the state of thrown Derby, notable, among other things, for having a pair or spun silk. A Mr. Crotchett, of Derby, conceived of entrance-gates which originally belonged to the the idea, that if England could import it as raw silk, emperor Napoleon; Donnington Park, the palatial and work it up in this country, a great national benefit residence of the Marquis of Hastings; Calke Abbey, might accrue. He established a small mill in 1702, and Melbourne Hall, lying a little south-west of Dori- but speedily failed, and became insolvent. nington; Bretby Park, the seat of the Earl of Chester- Hutton's words, “ three engines were found necessary field; Ingleby Hall,—these are a few of the mansions for the whole process; he had but one. An untoward which lie within the semicircle bounding Derby on the trade is a dreadful sink for money; and an imprudent south.
tradesman is one more dreadful.” The project failed,
but the memory of it lived. John Lombe, who seems A GLANCE AT Tue Silk-WORKERS.
to have been a Derby mechanic and a good draughtsLet us not forget-Derby would deem herself in- man, went out to Italy to study the silk-throwing sulted by such forgetfulness--that Derby is the parent machinery, with a view to the adoption of similar appaof the silk manufacture of England. Whatever may be ratus in England. His venture was a perilous one: he the long existing claims of Spitalfields upon our atten- knew that he could not obtain his object by open tion; whatever Macclesfield, Leek, and Congleton may means, so he worked by stealth: he contrived to obtain present to us, as the centre of a district where the silk admission to one or more establishments, where he manufacture prevails; whatever Manchester, with her saw sufficient to sketch his ideas upon paper ; but as mighty engines and factories, can exhibit in illustration his object was soon discovered, he had to flee for his of the modern mode of conducting this branch of in- life. John Lombe, was your proceeding quite honest ? dustry; Derby is the place where the responsibility, Had you a right to steal the fruits of another man's the anxiety, the risk of originally establishing the brains in this way? What would an English manumanufacture, was felt. If the reader feels any pleasure facturer think under parallel circumstances ? in tracing the memorials of such subjects as this, and Lombe returned to Derby with his observations and if a railway journey leaves him an hour to spare at his diagrams. He agreed with the corporation of the town Derby, let him walk to the bridge which crosses the to rent a sort of small island, or swamp, in the Derwent, Derwent, near the northern extremity of the town. at a rent of £8 per annum; the plot of ground was Here, on looking down the river, he will see on the 500 feet long by 50 wide. Here he built a mill; and western bank a large, roomy, dusky, many-windowed, here the mill stands to the present day,-a hundred and chimney-topped factory, whose front overhangs the and thirty years afterwards : it is really on an island, very water itself. This, whether he hear it called for we cannot reach it without crossing a small bridge. • Lombe's Mill,' or . Taylor's Mill,' or the ‘Old Mill,' As the ground was a swamp, the mill was built wholly is the veritable spot in which the silk manufacture first upon piles, driven to a great depth into the ground, planted its foot in this country,--not merely the plot of and covered with a flooring of masonry to support the ground, but the identical building. Curious it is, and structure. Lombe was a man of very little capital ; but interesting as curious, that Cromford should still pos- he contrived to accumulate money by making silk on sess the original English cotton mill, and Derby the a small scale, in rooms which he hired at Derby : the original English silk mill, and that both lie on the silk he sold at a good profit. It seems questionable, Derwent.
however, whether he could have thus realized enough There is quite a little romance connected with the to pay for the whole building, which is said to have history of the Derby silk-mill. William Hutton, of cost no less a sum than £30,000. It was in 1717 that Birmingham, worked at this mill when a boy; and his he began to build the mill; and in 1718 he obtained * Autobiography' would render this mill interesting, even a patent for fourteen years, by which he secured the if it had nought else to interest us. We may as well advantage of his enterprize to himself.