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Then comes a tale of Italian poisoning, which claims nearly reach this number) all belonged to the original a place in novels, if not in history. The Italians building, it must indeed have been a wonder for the undoubtedly felt that much of their trade was gone from days of George I. them; and they could not but feel somewhat sore at the The old mill has its long ranges of rooms and gallemanner in which this result had been brought about. ries, and these ranges are filled with apparatus requisite The King of Sardinia adopted such steps as he could for spinning, and otherwise working silk. Boys and to prevent the shipment of raw silk from Italy to girls are more numerous than men and women in most England ; because it was to the interest of the Italians silk-mills, as the tending of the machines is for the that the throwing, or spinning, should be done in their most part easy work. It is curious to look back own country rather than in England. But William through a period of such lengthened activity and invenHutton gives us a more serious account of the matter : tion, and to think that William Hutton worked in this “Alas ! he (Lombe) had not pursued this lucrative very mill nearly a hundred and twenty years ago. He commerce more than three or four years, when the tells us in his autobiography, that when, in 1730, his Italians, who felt the effects from their want of trade, parents thought he ought to begin to work for himself, determined his destruction, and hoped that of his works “the silk-mill was proposed. One of the clerks would follow, An artful woman came over in the remarked to the person that took me there that the character of a friend, associated with the parties, offer was needless, I was too young. However, the (Lombe had two Italian throwsters in his employ), offer was made; and as hands were wanted in the and assisted in the business. She attempted to gain infant state of this art, I was accepted. It was found, both the Italians, and succeeded with one. By these upon trial, that nature had not given me length suffitwo slow poison was supposed, and perhaps justly, to cient to reach the engine ; for out of three hundred have been administered to John Lombe, who lingered persons employed at the mill, I was by far the least two or three years in agony, and departed. The Italian and the youngest. It is happy for man that his ran away to his own country; and Madam was inter- invention supplies the place of want. The superinrogated, but nothing transpired, except what strength- tendent wisely thought if they lengthened one end it ened suspicion."
would effect both. A pair of high pattens were thereWhether John Lombe was really poisoned in this fore fabricated and tied fast about my feet, to make them mysterious way has often been doubted; but after his steady companions. They were clumsy companions, death, it is known that his brother William carried on which I dragged about one year, and with pleasure the affairs of the mill; and that after him a cousin, delivered up.” Thomas, who lived to be Sir Thomas Lombe, became The silk, at such mills as this, is spun into a state the possessor. In 1732, Sir Thomas petitioned Par- fitted for the purposes of the silk weaver; and it is liament for a renewal of the patent; this was refused : also wrought up into countless little articles of an but a reward of £14,000 was given to him, as an ac- ornamental kind : such as braid, laces, cording, gymp, knowledgment of the national importance of the inven- &c. Ribbons, for some reason or other, have run away tion. One condition of the grant was, that he should from Derby and Manchester and Spitalfields, and make an exact model of his machinery, to be deposited located themselves at Coventry. But there is one parin the Tower of London, where it might be open to ticular application of silk which belongs almost wholly the inspection of all who wished to embark in that to Derbyshire ; viz., silk hosiery. The days of silk department of enterprize. This occurred a hundred stockings are, in some measure, passed away; and silk and seventeen years ago ; and throughout this long gloves are by no means a prevalent article of wear ; period, we believe, the old mill at Derby has been but still there is enough of this kind of work done to uninterruptedly at work; not as a inonopoly, but taking employ a few thousand frames, and these frames are its fair place among the establishments which have almost wholly in and around Derby. It is a superior sprung up from time to time-some of which are much kind of work, both in skill and in rate of payment, to larger and more complete than the original. It has worsted and cotton hosiery. changed hands more than once, but it has never changed its main features; and it is only a few years ago that it Here we finish our tour in the hosiery district: a changed its waterwheel, the original wheel put up by district (as the reader will admit) not wholly without John Lombe. If the five hundred windows (for they remarkable features.
DUBLIN AND ITS ENVIRONS.
There are just now many circumstances combining to or softening the suspicion and distrust with which the direct the English tourist to Ireland rather than to those inhabitants of the two countries unhappily regard each localities whither he has heretofore more commonly other. Only good can arise from more familiar acturned. The continent is no longer the pleasant land quaintance. Happy shall we be if we are able in some it lately was : Rome, Venice, Baden, and like places measure to promote so desirable an end—if we can -almost the second homes of English fashionables-- induce more of our summer and autumn ramblers to are closed against them; and everywhere, nearly, is visit the sister island, or, still better, if we can lead heard the harsh voice of war or tumult warning away some thither who travel with other and nobler purposes elegance and gaiety. Touring, it may be expected, than the mere gratification of curiosity, or the search will be for a brief while on native soil; and Ireland after change of scene and personal enjoyment. will have its full share of popularity. The tourists Our intention in the present part of the 'LAND WE who are lovers of natural scenery will probably be Live in' is, to notice briefly the Irish metropolis, and tempted by the splendid mountains and lakes of then to guide the reader to the more picturesque or Wicklow and Killarney, by Glengariff and the Giants' celebrated parts of Wicklow: in a following part we Causeway; but many besides the ordinary tourists will shall continue the tour to Killarney and the south. wend thitherward also. The visit of her Majesty, and we shall, of course, we have always done the unusual facilities offered by the Railway Companies, carefully abstain from political and religious, or, at will doubtless attract numerous strangers to Ireland ; least, from party and sectarian, allusions ; but before while the hopeful calm which has succeeded the long concluding we shall glance freely at the condition dreary tempestuous season there, will induce not a few of the people and of the country: a sketch made at to acquaint themselves, by personal observation, with the present moment of any part of Ireland would the scenes and circumstances which have engaged so be imperfect indeed in which that were omitted. The long and so anxiously the public attention. Well will reader must not expect from us specimens of Irish it be if it happen so. Assuredly the most serviceable wit or Irish brogue. Of the wit, we met with but and instructive, if not altogether the most pleasant, very little : it seems, in truth, if a stranger may ventour that English men and women can make just now, ture to say so, pretty well exhausted-starved out, it is the tour of Ireland. It is, indeed, almost a duty, may be, as some native apologists affirm; or smothered for those who have any weight or influence in the by political passions, as others suggest. As for the country, to go there : and it is most desirable that brogue, that, though well enough to listen to from every one who can go should do so. Notwithstanding Patrick himself—especially when expressing some of all that he may have read and heard about Ireland, it those quaintnesses which only Patrick can utter-is is only when he has seen it for himself that an English- hard to endure in print even from an Irish writer, and man comes to comprehend distinctly its condition and is utterly unbearable from an English or Scotch one. its character. A short tour may not teach him much, We therefore shall not make any assaults in this way but it will teach him something--and something of on the reader's patience, and we shall leave Irish value, too, if he guard against hasty impressions and legends to Irish pens. In a word, not to bestow too mere impulses. Ireland offers to one who visits it for much of our tediousness at the outset, all we propose the first time a field of observation as new and curious is, to endeavour, in a few rough sketches, to convey as almost any European country, and infinitely more the general impression derived from visits, unhappily interesting and suggestive. He must indeed travel to far too hurried, to the spots we are to illustrate. small purpose who gains nought by a journey there. And there are no lions in the path. Often, even
DUBLIN. now, do you hear a journey in Ireland spoken of as a hazardous thing: it is certainly otherwise. Travelling, The first glimpse of the Green Island is well cal. there, is as easy and safe, and almost as pleasant, as culated to put the visitor into good humour with it. in England or Scotland—while it is very much cheaper. He will sail from the fine harbour of Holyhead in one We say
almost as pleasant, because there is the draw- of the admirable packet steamers. At first, the rugged back of beholding the poverty, the wretchedness, and South Stack rock and lighthouse, with the amazing the mendicancy of the peasantry-the signs, in short, flocks of gulls and divers that are in constant motion of general social disorganization : but the very visiting about them, engage his attention. Then the noble may do something, and ought to do much, towards range of the Snowdon mountains comes into view. alleviating this state of things. Kindlier feelings must These presently disappear; but long before the eye grow with increasing intercourse ; and with mutual becomes tired of the unbroken expanse of ocean, the knowledge something will be done towards removing mountains of Wicklow rise on the westward horizon.
More and more grandly they continue to rise as the boys beat all the rest. The traveller does not need steamer cleaves its swift way through the waters, until to be reminded that he must exercise, too, some disthe heights of Howth and Killiney, which form the cretion about admitting the fares which carmen charge: opposite boundaries of Dublin Bay, are plainly dis- he has, no doubt, had sufficient experience already on tinguished: when the distant mountain summits are that subject. London cabmen contrive now and then hardly noticed, even as a part of the general view. to make mistakes about distance: Liverpool cabmen Dublin Bay never fails to impress the stranger with have the reputation of being (as they doubtless are) unexpected delight. It is one of the most beautiful,
It is one of the most beautiful, | the greatest cheats of the fraternity in England : but if not the most beautiful, bay in the kingdom. The both these are mere novices and bunglers compared points of the semicircle, nearly seven miles apart, form with their Dublin brethren. Dat does it with such a bold headlands, enclosing a splendid bay, six or seven grace—so coolly and civilly, as well as broadly! It miles deep, which is pretty thickly besprinkled with is hard if he does not, either by barefaced assertion ships of various sizes, with yachts, and steamers, and or blarney, get something more than his due. One fishing-boats; the fine sweep of coast being bordered we hired the other day from one of the railway-stations, with neat villages, terraces of handsome houses, and may serve as an example. After our ride, we put into scattered villas ; in the centre the estuary of the Liffey his hand the exact fare. “Sure now,” said he, looking guides the eye towards the city; while beyond are the from the coin to the giver with a comic stare, as if pointed summits of graceful mountains. It is a scene unable to contain his astonishment, sure now, your which every Irishman is, as he well may be, heartily honour'd never be for offering this to a poor man ?proud of, and of which every one who has beheld it look at the long ride yez been having now : by dad ! cherishes the memory.
it's above four hours and a half you have been driving Kingstown, where the steamer disembarks its pas- about!” Thinking we had him tight enough for once, sengers, is nearly seven miles from Dublin. Here the we said, with all the mildness we could muster, stranger, as he makes his way to the railway-station, “Haven't you made some mistake in reckoning the catches his earliest bit of Irish experience from the time ?- the train came in at eleven, and see, it is not clamorous crowd which beset him, all proffering quite twelve yet!" But Mike, without the least disservice, or exposing their wants, abusing each other composure, answered, "Why then, it's some sort of and bothering him, in a quite new dialect. By the mistake I must be making ; but this is a rare nate help of a few stray coppers (and of the policemen, who horse for going, -and, anyhow, it's a mighty long way seem in a perfect fever of anxiety to keep a clear road,) yez have bin :" and then he proceeded to enumerate he soon gains the railway that as quickly forwards the distances, which, according to his reckoning, came him to the city, and an outside-car speedily deposits to almost his four hours' work; winding up, as he put him at his hotel.
on his most persuasive face, with—"Yer honour 's a These outside-cars, by the way, are excellent things ; better scholar than I am : just put them together, and and we must give them a passing word of commenda
--give me whatever you plaze ; for bad luck to me tion. A stranger cannot desire a better means of for ever if it shall be said Mike Casey took a dirty making a rapid general survey of the city before he advantage of sich a free-spoken honourable gentleman, proceeds to examine it in detail, than that of driving anyhow-poor as he is !" on one of these conveyances through the principal The result of an Englishman's rapid examination streets. Some travellers recommend ascending to an of Dublin will probably be that it is larger, grander, elevated spot which commands a good view of a town, more modern, and less English in appearance, than he as the best means of getting the coup-d'ail; and, anticipated. At least, that was our impression of it. doubtless, it is a plan which has its advantages. You Dublin has, in form, a decided “tendency to circucome to understand readily the topography of a place larity." The diameter is about three miles; the which is thus spread, as it were, in ground-plan, at Circular Road' by which it is nearly surrounded is your feet: but you get an unfair and unfavourable somewhat under eight miles in extent. The population notion of it: the buildings appear distorted, the nearer of the city is above a quarter of a million. The river parts assume an undue prominency. In driving at a Liffey runs due east and west through the city, dividing moderate pace through the main streets of a city, the it into two nearly equal portions. Old Dublin, which relative importance of its parts is tolerably well under contains the castle and the two cathedrals (and which stood, and the chief objects are fixed in the memory Mitchell described as the stronghold of Young Ireland), as landmarks which effectually direct you in future occupies the western portion of the southern half: the explorations. For such a ride a solitary stranger will remainder of the city is comparatively modern. In find the Irish car a capital contrivance, and the carman, the old part the streets are narrow, the houses mean ; who sits with him so comfortably dos-à-dos, a very but in the inodern part—that is, in the chief partuseful and amusing commentator and guide, if he only the streets are broad and straight, the houses of fair be treated with a little sociality. Of course some care size and well built, and the public buildings, which are must be exercised in crediting what he says. Carmen numerous, generally of commanding appearance, both and guides all over Ireland are, as they say of each from their extent and architectural character. All the other, "rare boys for romancing ;" and the Dublin
ng;" and the Dublin streets are thronged with passengers ; and if there is